This volume has 41 chapters written to honor the 100th birthday of Mario Bunge. It celebrates the work of this influential Argentine/Canadian physicist and philosopher. Contributions show the value of Bunge’s science-informed philosophy and his systematic approach to philosophical problems. The chapters explore the exceptionally wide spectrum of Bunge’s contributions to: metaphysics, methodology and philosophy of science, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of physics, philosophy of psychology, philosophy of social science, philosophy of biology, philosophy of technology, moral philosophy, social and political (...) philosophy, medical philosophy, and education. The contributors include scholars from 16 countries. Bunge combines ontological realism with epistemological fallibilism. He believes that science provides the best and most warranted knowledge of the natural and social world, and that such knowledge is the only sound basis for moral decision making and social and political reform. Bunge argues for the unity of knowledge. In his eyes, science and philosophy constitute a fruitful and necessary partnership. Readers will discover the wisdom of this approach and will gain insight into the utility of cross-disciplinary scholarship. This anthology will appeal to researchers, students, and teachers in philosophy of science, social science, and liberal education programmes. 1. Introduction Section I. An Academic Vocation Section II. Philosophy Section III. Physics and Philosophy of Physics Section IV. Cognitive Science and Philosophy of Mind Section V. Sociology and Social Theory Section VI. Ethics and Political Philosophy Section VII. Biology and Philosophy of Biology Section VIII. Mathematics Section IX. Education Section X. Varia Section XI. Bibliography. (shrink)
Under the banner of “data for good,” companies in the technology, finance, and retail sectors supply their proprietary datasets to development agencies, NGOs, and intergovernmental organizations to help solve an array of social problems. We focus on the activities and implications of the Data for Climate Action campaign, a set of public–private collaborations that wield user data to design innovative responses to the global climate crisis. Drawing on in-depth interviews, first-hand observations at “data for good” events, intergovernmental and international organizational (...) reports, and media publicity, we evaluate the logic driving Data for Climate Action initiatives, examining the implications of applying commercial datasets and expertise to environmental problems. Despite the increasing adoption of Data for Climate Action paradigms in government and public sector efforts to address climate change, we argue Data for Climate Action is better seen as a strategy to legitimate extractive, profit-oriented data practices by companies than a means to achieve global goals for environmental sustainability. (shrink)
We have used high-resolution geophysical data to investigate depositional and erosional bedforms in two geomorphologic provinces of the deepwater central Gulf of Mexico Basin: the Mad Dog and Atlantis areas in the Sigsbee Escarpment region and the Holstein minibasin within the salt canopy in the slope. Multibeam bathymetry indicates that the seafloor relief in the study areas is highly irregular because it is influenced by the dynamic behavior of underlying salt bodies resulting in the development of diverse bathymetric features. Side-scan (...) images reveal erosional furrows of different morphologies at the base of the Sigsbee Escarpment that are oriented subparallel to the escarpment. Wide and sinuous furrows overlie mass transport deposits, whereas, in other areas along strike, narrow rectilinear furrows are found beneath MTDs. The furrow fields in the Sigsbee Escarpment are located within a large series of erosional features that are linked to the action of westward flowing bottom currents associated with topographic Rossby waves that manage to rework sediments at water depths up to 2000 m. The interaction between the bottom current flow and the seafloor is likely influenced by the MTD’s irregular top surface relief and lateral changes in the escarpment’s morphology resulting in the development of complex sinuous furrow morphologies. North of the escarpment, subbottom profiles indicate a series of buried sediment waves found in the southern rim of the Holstein minibasin. Sediment wave morphometry indicates wavelengths ranging from 116 to 339 m and wave heights between approximately 0.8 and 2.4 m. Sediment waves were likely formed by turbidity currents as they exited the minibasin. The vertical change in topographic relief from the minibasin to the salt high led to variations in flow thickness and flow velocity of turbidity currents passing over the minibasin’s open rim. Consequently, these changes in flow regime led to the formation of sediment waves. (shrink)
What is it about relativism that justifies, or at least explains, its continued appeal in the face of relentless attacks through the history of philosophy? This paper explores a new answer to this old question, casting the response in metaphilosophical terms. § i introduces the problem. § ii argues that one part of the answer is that some of the well-known defences of relativism take it to be a philosophical stance—that is, a broad perspective or orientation with normative consequences—rather than (...) a doctrine or a thesis. § iii draws attention to an assumption, not always explicitly stated by its proponents, that the relativist stance leads to the cultivation of some key intellectual virtues. Open-mindedness, tolerance, intellectual humility, and curiosity are examples of the intellectual virtues that relativism can foster. § iv argues that the defence of relativism on the basis of the virtues that are assumed to follow from it, at best, is only partially successful. Moreover, there is a range of epistemic vices, resulting from the stance, that undercuts the virtue-based defence presented in § iii. (shrink)
Career development is a lifelong process that starts in infancy and is shaped by a number of different factors during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Even though career development is shaped through life, relatively little is known about the predictors of occupational aspirations in childhood. Therefore, in the present work we investigate how the stereotypicality of a mother’s occupation influences her young child’s communal occupational aspirations and communal orientation. We conducted two studies with young children. Study 1 included 72 mother–child dyads (...) recruited from childcare centers in Northern Norway. Study 2 included 106 mother–child dyads recruited from Norwegian elementary schools. Results from Study 1 showed that the stereotypicality of mothers’ occupation was related to their children’s communal occupational aspirations and children’s communal orientation. In contrast to our predictions and results from Study 1, the stereotypicality of mothers’ occupation was not significantly related to children’s communal occupational aspirations nor their communal orientation in Study 2. In both studies, we found no relationship between mothers’ gender attitudes or share of child care and children’s communal occupational aspirations. The results are discussed in terms of parents’ influence on children’s development of occupational aspirations. (shrink)
The current assessment of behaviors in the inventories to diagnose autism spectrum disorders (ASD) focus on observation and discrete categorizations. Behaviors require movements, yet measurements of physical movements are seldom included. Their inclusion however, could provide an objective characterization of behavior to help unveil interactions between the peripheral and the central nervous systems. Such interactions are critical for the development and maintenance of spontaneous autonomy, self-regulation and voluntary control. At present, current approaches cannot deal with the heterogeneous, dynamic and stochastic (...) nature of development. Accordingly, they leave no avenues for real-time or longitudinal assessments of change in a coping system continuously adapting and developing compensatory mechanisms. We offer a new unifying statistical framework to reveal re-afferent kinesthetic features of the individual with ASD. The new methodology is based on the non-stationary stochastic patterns of minute fluctuations (micro-movements) inherent to our natural actions. Such patterns of behavioral variability provide re-entrant sensory feedback contributing to the autonomous regulation and coordination of the motor output. From an early age, this feedback supports centrally driven volitional control and fluid, flexible transitions between intentional and spontaneous behaviors. We show that in ASD there is a disruption in the maturation of this form of proprioception. Despite this disturbance, each individual has unique adaptive compensatory capabilities that we can unveil and exploit to evoke faster and more accurate decisions. Measuring the kinesthetic re-afference in tandem with stimuli variations we can detect changes in their micro-movements indicative of a more predictive and reliable kinesthetic percept. Our methods address the heterogeneity of ASD with a personalized approach grounded in the inherent sensory-motor abilities that the individual has already developed. (shrink)
This paper examines various ways in which philosophy of science can be interdisciplinary. It aims to provide a map of relations between philosophy and sciences, some of which are interdisciplinary. Such a map should also inform discussions concerning the question “How much philosophy is there in the philosophy of science?” In Sect. 1, we distinguish between synoptic and collaborative interdisciplinarity. With respect to the latter, we furthermore distinguish between two kinds of reflective forms of collaborative interdisciplinarity. We also briefly explicate (...) how complexity triggers interdisciplinarity. In Sect. 2, we apply the distinctions of Sect. 1 to philosophy of science and analyze in which sense different styles of philosophy of science are interdisciplinary. The styles that we discuss are a synoptic-general, a reflective-general, a reflective-particular, a particular-embedded and a descriptive or normative style. (shrink)
Los pacientes con síndrome braquicefálico suponen un reto para el anestesiólogo, ya que la mayoría de ellos tienen alteraciones en el sistema respiratorio que convierten a estos animales en pacientes de riesgo.
In this paper, we discuss some problems and prospects of interdisciplinary encounters by focusing on philosophy of science as a case study. After introducing the case, we give an overview about the various ways in which philosophy of science can be interdisciplinary in Section 2. In Section 3, we name some general problems concerning the possible points of interaction between philosophy of science and the sciences studied. In Section 4 we compare the advantages and risks of interdisciplinarity for individual researchers (...) and institutions. In Section 5, we discuss interdisciplinary PhD programs, in particular concerning two main problems: increased workload and the quality of supervision. In the final Section 6, we look at interdisciplinary careers beyond the PhD. (shrink)
This article presents the criteria and measurement tools employed when assessing quality of life for children and adolescents. The notion of ‘quality of life’ is dynamic, in that quality of life changes as a function of age, stage of development, level of reflection, the undertaking of new tasks, and the adoption of new roles. How we assess the subjective quality of life of children and adolescents depends on the level of development and quality-of-life criteria specific to a given period. For (...) younger children, the fulfilment of basic needs - i.e. emotional needs, such as the need to feel safe or valued by others - is especially relevant. For older children, family and health are important, but so are peer-acceptance and school achievements. For adolescents, personal considerations such as the sense of self, autonomy, interpersonal relationships, having friends, possibilities of development and prospects for the future, are all important. It is possible to measure quality of life even in small children, but doing so requires that we pay attention to the specifics of their development, the scope of their personal experiences, and their ability to express their assessments. Hence an approach that makes use of an attractive format is to be preferred. Knowledge of the specific quality-of-life criteria involved enables researchers to construct adequate tools, and to use their results to help bring about improvements in quality of life and the promotion of healthy living. (shrink)
A new axiomatic treatment of equilibrium thermodynamics—thermostatics—is presented. The equilibrium states of a thermal system are assumed to be represented by a differentiable manifold of dimensionn + 1 (n finite). The empirical temperature is defined by the notion of thermal equilibrium. Empirical entropy is shown to exist for all systems with the property that the total work delivered along closed adiabats is zero. Absolute entropy and temperature follow from the additivity of heat and energy for two separate systems in thermal (...) equilibrium considered as a whole. The absolute temperature is defined up to a multiplicative constant. The exterior differentiable calculus of Cartan is introduced and in a subsequent paper its use for the derivation of standard results in thermostatics will be explained. (shrink)
In “Heterosexualism and the Colonial/Modern Gender System” (Lugones 2007), I proposed to read the relation between the colonizer and the colonized in terms of gender, race, and sexuality. By this I did not mean to add a gendered reading and a racial reading to the already understood colonial relations. Rather I proposed a rereading of modern capitalist colonial modernity itself. This is because the colonial imposition of gender cuts across questions of ecology, economics, government, relations with the spirit world, and (...) knowledge, as well as across everyday practices that either habituate us to take care of the world or to destroy it. I propose this framework not as an abstraction from lived experience, but as a lens that enables us to see what is hidden from our understandings of both race and gender and the relation of each to normative heterosexuality. (shrink)
Il riconoscimento che lo sviluppo della società commerciale consente un inaudito dispiegamento delle potenzialità dell'uomo nella storia, ma al tempo stesso mina la sua capacità di agire come cittadino - in altre parole la tensione tra virtù e civiltà - è un tema ricorrente nella cultura inglese e scozzese del Settecento, che è stato al centro della ricerca storiografica degli ultimi due decenni. Questa prospettiva si è rivelata fruttuosa per rileggere le controversie politiche, economiche e filosofiche di quel momento cruciale (...) nella storia dell'Europa moderna. I saggi qui raccolti ricostruiscono alcuni aspetti di quelle controversie: il rapporto tra metodo e riflessione morale; l'elaborazione di teorie politiche per la società commerciale; la storia filosofica di Hume e di Gibbon e le riflessioni metodologiche sulla storia in area tedesca; il dibattito sul debito pubblico, teorie monetarie e divisione del lavoro. Storici, filosofi ed economisti guardano da punti di vista diversi al modo in cui si intrecciano le riflessioni di Hume e di Hutcheson, di Smith e di Gibbon, di Ferguson e di Bentham. -/- Indice -/- • Premessa • Parte I - Morale e politica * Paradigmi di analisi della filosofia morale nell'Illuminismo scozzese: Eugenio Lecaldano * L'Illuminismo scozzese e il newtonianismo morale: Sergio Cremaschi * Hutcheson nel terzo libro del Trattato sulla natura umana: Luigi Turco * La solitudine del saggio. Le fonti francesi di David Hume: Nadia Boccara * Variazioni scozzesi su contratto ed opinione. Una teorica politica per non "rimescolarsi coi novatori": Dario Castiglione * Aspetti della critica di Adam Ferguson al contrattualismo: Marco Geuna * La questione della "politics" in Adam Smith. Un commento a Donald Winch: Adelino Zanini -/- • Parte Il - Storia filosofica e storiografia * David Hume, storico: David Wootton * Paura e meraviglia nell'idea di storia filosofica di Hume, Smith e Gibbon: Alfonso M. Iacono * Il linguaggio della teologia moderata e il Decline and Fall di Gibbon: John G. A. Pocock * Storia della civiltà e storia della religione. Un commento al saggio di John Pocock: Guido Abbattista * Barbari e selvaggi in Gibbon e nella filosofia tedesca della storia: Edoardo Tortarolo * "Storia filosofica" e "filosofia della storia" nell'elaborazione teorica dell'Aufkl• rung: Gabriella Valera -/- • Parte III - Economia politica ed analisi economica * Aspetti dell'influenza di Francis Hutcheson sul pensiero di Adam Smith: Enzo Pesciarelli * Lavoro e scambio tra natura e storia in Adam Smith: Riccardo Bellofiore * Il debito pubblico e le sue antinomie da Davenant a Smith: Maria Luisa Pesante * Debito pubblico, teorie monetarie e tradizione civica nell'Inghilterra del Settecento: Andrea Ginzburg * Credito e virtù nell'Inghilterra del XVIII secolo: eutanasia di un tabù: Marco E. L. Guidi * Il modello della Gran Bretagna nelle discussioni francesi sul credito pubblico: Manuela Albertone -/- . (shrink)
Music can reduce stress and anxiety, enhance positive mood, and facilitate social bonding. However, little is known about the role of music and related personal or cultural variables in maintaining wellbeing during times of stress and social isolation as imposed by the COVID-19 crisis. In an online questionnaire, administered in 11 countries, participants rated the relevance of wellbeing goals during the pandemic, and the effectiveness of different activities in obtaining these goals. Music was found to be the most effective activity (...) for three out of five wellbeing goals: enjoyment, venting negative emotions, and self-connection. For diversion, music was equally good as entertainment, while it was second best to create a sense of togetherness, after socialization. This result was evident across different countries and gender, with minor effects of age on specific goals, and a clear effect of the importance of music in people's lives. Cultural effects were generally small and surfaced mainly in the use of music to obtain a sense of togetherness. Interestingly, culture moderated the use of negatively valenced and nostalgic music for those higher in distress. (shrink)
In this paper I propose a way of characterizing human agency in terms of the concept of a two‐way power. I outline this conception of agency, defend it against some objections, and briefly indicate how it relates to free agency and to moral praise‐ and blameworthiness.
Author: Werner Maria TITLE: EPISTEMOLOGICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL GROUNDS OF HIPPOLYTE TAINE’S THEORY OF ART (Teoriopoznawcze i metodologiczne podstawy filozofii sztuki Hipolita Taine’a) Source: Filo-Sofija year: 2006, vol:.6, number: 2006/1, pages: 223-237 Keywords: TAINE, THEORY OF ART, METHODOLOGY, POSITIVIST PHILOSOPHERS Discipline: PHILOSOPHY Language: POLISH Document type: ARTICLE Publication order reference (Primary author’s office address): E-mail:Taine postulates that the status of the humanities should be equal with that of the sciences. The claim is based on a conviction, shared by other positivist (...) philosophers, that both kinds of knowledge should share the same methodology. Thus, all knowledge turns out to be a collection of facts and relations among them. The facts are subordinate to some major facts being their “causes” or “principal features”. The task of a work of art is to extract such facts. The emergence of the characteristic feature of a phenomenon allows us to describe a work as a perfect one. The value of the work depends on the kind of a characteristic feature, being more or less universal. (shrink)
Within the philosophical discussion between Idealism and Romanticism that took place in Germany toward 1800, they were formed the basic directives that will guide all (critical or apologetical) later exposition about the subjectivity. The Idealism, represented by Fichte, Schelling and Hegel (its ..
Early-career philosophers of science often find themselves caught between a rock and a hard place, facing conflicting demands. While they have to meet the rigorous standards of a career in philosophy, they are at the same time expected to possess detailed knowledge of the sciences they study. By pulling in different directions, these two poles can be difficult to bridge. Interdisciplinarily engaged philosophers of science face not just an increased workload but also institutional conditions that are not always supportive for (...) their engagement. For instance, while the need for interdisciplinary research is impressed upon young researchers by their advisers and by the subject matters of their research, universities and funding institutions, by contrast, still follow rather conservative and disciplinary policies when they fill positions or allocate funding. In March 2013, the interdisciplinarity of philosophy of science and the resulting situation for early career researchers was the subject of a workshop and a panel discussion funded by the Andrea von Braun Foundation. This paper takes up several of the issues that were controversially disputed at that event. (shrink)
La primera comprensión husserliana de la evidencia en cuanto “vivencia de la verdad”, se ve reformulada en las Investigaciones lógicas con la consideración de la vivencia como mención –que implica una gradualidad de la dación y del cumplimiento– por la que es dada una objetividad. La reducción fenomenológica y los análisis noético-noemáticos que de ella resultan en Ideas I , manifiestan la remisión necesaria de toda conciencia modificada a la que da originariamente como fundamento primitivo de su legitimidad. Esta originariedad (...) del cumplimiento se ve determinada por una clase y estilo de evidencia propios de cada región de objetos. (shrink)
Creativity has often been declared, especially by philosophers, as the last frontier of science. The assumption is that it will defy explanation forever. I will defend two claims in order to oppose this assumption and to demystify creativity: (1) the perspective that creativity cannot be explained wrongly identifies creativity with what I shall call metaphysical freedom; (2) the Darwinian approach to creativity, a prominent naturalistic account of creativity, fails to give an explanation of creativity, because it confuses conceptual issues with (...) explanation. I will close with some remarks on the status and differences in some explanations available in contemporary cognitive science. (shrink)
Recent authors have drawn attention to a new kind of defeating evidence commonly referred to as higher-order evidence. Such evidence works by inducing doubts that one’s doxastic state is the result of a flawed process – for instance, a process brought about by a reason-distorting drug. I argue that accommodating defeat by higher-order evidence requires a two-tiered theory of justification, and that the phenomenon gives rise to a puzzle. The puzzle is that at least in some situations involving higher-order defeaters (...) the correct epistemic rules issue conflicting recommendations. For instance, a subject ought to believe p, but she ought also to suspend judgment in p. I discuss three responses. The first resists the puzzle by arguing that there is only one correct epistemic rule, an Über-rule. The second accepts that there are genuine epistemic dilemmas. The third appeals to a hierarchy or ordering of correct epistemic rules. I spell out problems for all of these responses. I conclude that the right lesson to draw from the puzzle is that a state can be epistemically rational or justified even if one has what looks to be strong evidence to think that it is not. As such, the considerations put forth constitute a non question-begging argument for a kind of externalism. (shrink)