Data are lacking with regard to participants' perspectives on return of genetic research results to relatives, including after the participant's death. This paper reports descriptive results from 3,630 survey respondents: 464 participants in a pancreatic cancer biobank, 1,439 family registry participants, and 1,727 healthy individuals. Our findings indicate that most participants would feel obligated to share their results with blood relatives while alive and would want results to be shared with relatives after their death.
Abstract Children aged 7 and 9 years were told four stories, in two of which protagonists committed similar naughty acts, and in two of which they performed similar good deeds. One good and one naughty protagonist performed their acts spontaneously though deliberately, and the others planned beforehand. Children allocated cake (as an implied reward) or telling off (as a punishment) to the good and the bad protagonists, and then made comparative allocations, which they justified, within the good and the bad (...) pairs. The majority of children apparently ignored the planning variable in their allocations, particularly for the naughty acts; allocating more to the planner than to the spontaneous actor was much more common for the good deeds than for the naughty ones. The apparently more advanced moral evaluations for the good deeds may reflect children's experience of adults? views of the relevance of planning to the evaluation of good and naughty behaviour. (shrink)
The purpose of this research is to investigate the masculinity politics of the ex-gay movement, a loose-knit network of religious, scientific, and political organizations that advocates change for homosexuals. Guided by Risman's gender structure theory, the authors analyze the individual, interactional, and institutional dimensions of gender in ex-gay discourses. The authors employ critical discourse analysis of representative ex-gay texts to deconstruct the movement's gender ideology and to discuss the social implications of its masculinity politics. They argue that gender is one (...) of the ex-gay movement's most potent social movement resources, enabling it to consolidate power by enlisting new populations and to globalize by adapting to cultural contexts beyond the United States. The authors conclude that the ex-gay movement is an antigay countermovement and an antifeminist Christian Right men's movement. (shrink)
Background: Breaches of publication ethics such as plagiarism, data fabrication and redundant publication are recognised as forms of research misconduct that can undermine the scientific literature. We surveyed journal editors to determine their views about a range of publication ethics issues. Methods: Questionnaire sent to 524 editors-in-chief of Wiley-Blackwell science journals asking about the severity and frequency of 16 ethical issues at their journals, their confidence in handling such issues, and their awareness and use of guidelines. Results: Responses were obtained (...) from 231 editors (44%), of whom 48% edited healthcare journals. The general level of concern about the 16 issues was low, with mean severity scores of <1 (on a scale of 0–3) for all but one. The issue of greatest concern (mean score 1.19) was redundant publication. Most editors felt confident in handling the issues, with <15% feeling “not at all confident” for all but one of the issues (gift authorship, 22% not confident). Most editors believed such problems occurred less than once a year and >20% of the editors stated that 12 of the 16 items never occurred at their journal. However, 13%–47% did not know the frequency of the problems. Awareness and use of guidelines was generally low. Most editors were unaware of all except other journals’ instructions. Conclusions: Most editors of science journals seem not very concerned about publication ethics and believe that misconduct occurs only rarely in their journals. Many editors are unfamiliar with available guidelines but would welcome more guidance or training. (shrink)
Mettre à la disposition du public l'ensemble des écrits de la « reine Margot » permet d'éclairer la personnalité d'une reine dont l'image est assurément obscurcie par le mythe et dont la production littéraire était jusque là trop méconnue. On saluera donc l'initiative des éditions Champion pour accueillir, outre les Mémoires, des textes polémiques et poétiques variés, présentés par une spécialiste confirmée de Marguerite. Dans cet ensemble indéniablement riche et instructif, la présen..
Resumo Neste artigo, pretendemos abordar o pensamento de duas mulheres por meio dos conceitos de aniquilamento, que encontramos em Le mirouer des simples ames de Marguerite Porete, e descriação que aparece em Pensateur et grace de Simone Weil. Também usaremos a obra de Weil La connaisance surnaturelle composta pelos Cahiers d’Amérique e Notes ècrites à Londres, onde ela faz referência ao livro de Marguerite Porete. Deste modo, apresentaremos, num primeiro momento, a mística de Marguerite Porete, focando no (...) conceito de aniquilamento. Depois, num segundo momento, mostraremos um pouco da mística de Simone Weil por meio do conceito de descriação. A partir deste segundo momento, já iremos traçando alguns paralelos para mostrar a semelhança entre a mística das duas pensadoras que se refletirá no terceiro momento deste artigo, onde apresentaremos Weil como leitura de Le mirouer des simples ames.In this article we intend to approach the thought of two French philosophers through two concepts: annihilation, found in the Le mirouer des simples ames of Marguerite Porete, and decreation, which appears in the Pensateur et grace of Simone Weil. We will also refer to Weil’s La connaisance surnaturelle, composed of the Cahiers d’Amérique and Notes ècrites à Londres, where she refers to Marguerite Porete’s book. First we present the mysticism of Marguerite Porete, focusing on the concept of annihilation. Next we discuss the mysticism of Simone Weil through the concept of decreation. We then draw some parallels to show the similarity between the mysticism of the two thinkers, and discuss Weil as a reader of Le mirouer des simples ames. (shrink)
Plato is one of the key ancient authors studied by both classicists and philosophers. This long-awaited new edition contains seven of the dialogues of Plato, and is the first in the five-volume complete edition of his works in the Oxford Classical Texts series. The result of many years of painstaking scholarship, the new volume will replace the now nearly 100 year old original edition, and is destined to become just as long-lasting a classic.
It is traditionally believed that cerebral activation (the presence of low voltage fast electrical activity in the neocortex and rhythmical slow activity in the hippocampus) is correlated with arousal, while deactivation (the presence of large amplitude irregular slow waves or spindles in both the neocortex and the hippocampus) is correlated with sleep or coma. However, since there are many exceptions, these generalizations have only limited validity. Activated patterns occur in normal sleep (active or paradoxical sleep) and during states of anesthesia (...) and coma. Deactivated patterns occur, at times, during normal waking, or during behavior in awake animals treated with atropinic drugs. Also, the fact that patterns characteristic of sleep, arousal, and waking behavior continue in decorticate animals indicates that reticulo-cortical mechanisms are not essential for these aspects of behavior. (shrink)
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease can lead to the development of neuropsychiatric symptoms. These can include harmful changes in mood and behaviour that alienate family members and raise ethical questions about personal responsibility for actions committed under stimulation-dependent mental states. Qualitative interviews were conducted with twenty participants following subthalamic DBS at a movement disorders centre, in order to explore the meaning and significance of stimulation-related neuropsychiatric symptoms amongst a purposive sample of persons (...) with PD and their spousal caregivers. Interview transcripts underwent inductive thematic analysis. Clinical and experiential aspects of post-DBS neuropsychiatric symptoms were identified. Caregivers were highly burdened by these symptoms and both patients and caregivers felt unprepared for their consequences, despite having received information prior to DBS, desiring greater family and peer engagement prior to neurosurgery. Participants held conflicting opinions as to whether emergent symptoms were attributable to neurostimulation. Many felt that they reflected aspects of the person’s “real” or “younger” personality. Those participants who perceived a close relationship between stimulation changes and changes in mental state were more likely to view these symptoms as inauthentic and uncontrollable. Unexpected and troublesome neuropsychiatric symptoms occurred despite a pre-operative education programme that was delivered to all participants. This suggests that such symptoms are difficult to predict and manage even if best practice guidelines are followed by experienced centres. Further research aimed at predicting these complications may improve the capacity of clinicians to tailor the consent process. (shrink)
Este estudo aprofunda o sentido da experiência relatada por Marguerite Porete, mistica medieval, condenada como herética e queimada em 1310, acusada de ultrapassar e transcender as Escrituras, errar nos artigos da fé e dossacramentos e dizer palavras contrárias e prejudiciais. No entanto, ela traz uma contribuição importante para o pensamento filosófico-teológico e literário, na medida em que levanta questões e articula respostas sobre o problema da inacessibilidade do transcendente. O aniquilamento é o seu tema, perigoso para um tempo em (...) que o ideal era a salvação de si próprio, perigoso também parao tempo atual, fundado no humanismo e, nessa medida, detido no eu. (shrink)
The expansion of research on deep brain stimulation and adaptive DBS raises important neuroethics and policy questions related to data sharing. However, there has been little empirical research on the perspectives of experts developing these technologies. We conducted semi-structured, open-ended interviews with aDBS researchers regarding their data sharing practices and their perspectives on ethical and policy issues related to sharing. Researchers expressed support for and a commitment to sharing, with most saying that they were either sharing their data or would (...) share in the future and that doing so was important for advancing the field. However, those who are sharing reported a variety of sharing partners, suggesting heterogeneity in sharing practices and lack of the broad sharing that would reflect principles of open science. Researchers described several concerns and barriers related to sharing, including privacy and confidentiality, the usability of shared data by others, ownership and control of data, and limited resources for sharing. They also suggested potential solutions to these challenges, including additional safeguards to address privacy issues, standardization and transparency in analysis to address issues of data usability, professional norms and heightened cooperation to address issues of ownership and control, and streamlining of data transmission to address resource limitations. Researchers also offered a range of views on the sensitivity of neural activity data and data related to mental health in the context of sharing. These findings are an important input to deliberations by researchers, policymakers, neuroethicists, and other stakeholders as they navigate ethics and policy questions related to aDBS research. (shrink)