Results for 'Marcello Menapace'

637 found
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  1.  11
    Scientific Ethics: A New Approach.Marcello Menapace - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (4):1193-1216.
    Science is an activity of the human intellect and as such has ethical implications that should be reviewed and taken into account. Although science and ethics have conventionally been considered different, it is herewith proposed that they are essentially similar. The proposal set henceforth is to create a new ethics rooted in science: scientific ethics. Science has firm axiological foundations and searches for truth and knowledge. Hence, science cannot be value neutral. Looking at standard scientific principles, it is possible to (...)
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  2.  5
    Interview with Marcello Pezzetti.Carlo Celli & Marcello Pezzetti - 2000 - Critical Inquiry 27 (1):149-157.
  3.  52
    The Organic Codes: An Introduction to Semantic Biology.Marcello Barbieri - 2003 - Cambridge University Press.
    The genetic code appeared on Earth with the first cells. The codes of cultural evolution arrived almost four billion years later. These are the only codes that are recognized by modern biology. In this book, however, Marcello Barbieri explains that there are many more organic codes in nature, and their appearance not only took place throughout the history of life but marked the major steps of that history. A code establishes a correspondence between two independent 'worlds', and the codemaker (...)
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  4.  13
    Inédit 3 : Le sens et la musique. Propos recueillis par Marcello Castellana.Algirdas J. Greimas, Marcello Castellana & Marina Maluli Cesar - 2017 - Semiotica 2017 (214):41-50.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Semiotica Jahrgang: 2017 Heft: 214 Seiten: 41-50.
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  5.  77
    The Rubber Hand Illusion: Sensitivity and Reference Frame for Body Ownership.Marcello Costantini & Patrick Haggard - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2):229-240.
    When subjects view stimulation of a rubber hand while feeling congruent stimulation of their own hand, they may come to feel that the rubber hand is part of their own body. This illusion of body ownership is termed ‘Rubber Hand Illusion’ . We investigated sensitivity of RHI to spatial mismatches between visual and somatic experience. We compared the effects of spatial mismatch between the stimulation of the two hands, and equivalent mismatches between the postures of the two hands. We created (...)
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  6. Hacking the Brain: Brain–Computer Interfacing Technology and the Ethics of Neurosecurity.Marcello Ienca & Pim Haselager - 2016 - Ethics and Information Technology 18 (2):117-129.
    Brain–computer interfacing technologies are used as assistive technologies for patients as well as healthy subjects to control devices solely by brain activity. Yet the risks associated with the misuse of these technologies remain largely unexplored. Recent findings have shown that BCIs are potentially vulnerable to cybercriminality. This opens the prospect of “neurocrime”: extending the range of computer-crime to neural devices. This paper explores a type of neurocrime that we call brain-hacking as it aims at the illicit access to and manipulation (...)
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  7.  13
    The Discourses of Science.Marcello Pera - 1994 - University of Chicago Press.
    In this much-anticipated revision and translation of Scienza e Retorica, Marcello Pera argues that rhetoric is central to the making of scientific knowledge. Pera begins with an attack of what he calls the "Cartesian syndrome"--the fixation on method common to both defenders of traditional philosophy of science and its detractors. He argues that in assuming the primacy of methodological rules, both sides get it wrong. Scientific knowledge is neither the simple mirror of nature nor a cultural construct imposed by (...)
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  8.  4
    Sizing Up Consciousness: Towards an Objective Measure of the Capacity for Experience.Marcello Massimini & Giulio Tononi - 2018 - Oxford University Press.
    This book explores how we can measure consciousness. It clarifies what consciousness is, how it can be generated from a physical system, and how it can be measured. It also shows how conscious states can be expressed mathematically and how precise predictions can be made using data from neurophysiological studies.
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  9.  57
    A Short History of Biosemiotics.Marcello Barbieri - 2009 - Biosemiotics 2 (2):221-245.
    Biosemiotics is the synthesis of biology and semiotics, and its main purpose is to show that semiosis is a fundamental component of life, i.e., that signs and meaning exist in all living systems. This idea started circulating in the 1960s and was proposed independently from enquires taking place at both ends of the Scala Naturae. At the molecular end it was expressed by Howard Pattee’s analysis of the genetic code, whereas at the human end it took the form of Thomas (...)
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  10.  10
    Ethical Design of Intelligent Assistive Technologies for Dementia: A Descriptive Review.Marcello Ienca, Tenzin Wangmo, Fabrice Jotterand, Reto W. Kressig & Bernice Elger - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (4):1035-1055.
    The use of Intelligent Assistive Technology in dementia care opens the prospects of reducing the global burden of dementia and enabling novel opportunities to improve the lives of dementia patients. However, with current adoption rates being reportedly low, the potential of IATs might remain under-expressed as long as the reasons for suboptimal adoption remain unaddressed. Among these, ethical and social considerations are critical. This article reviews the spectrum of IATs for dementia and investigates the prevalence of ethical considerations in the (...)
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  11.  2
    Images of Life: Merging Into Landscape.Marcello Ghilardi - 2022 - Journal of Aesthetics and Phenomenology 7 (2):129-138.
    The article deals with Chinese ink painting and some aesthetic notions, in particular those of xiang 象 and shanshui 山水 (literally: “mountains-waters”, i.e. landscape...
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  12.  10
    Artificial Intelligence in Clinical Neuroscience: Methodological and Ethical Challenges.Marcello Ienca & Karolina Ignatiadis - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 11 (2):77-87.
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  13. Scienza E Retorica.Marcello Pera - 1991
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  14.  6
    “Hunting Down My Son’s Killer”: New Roles of Patients in Treatment Discovery and Ethical Uncertainty.Marcello Ienca & Effy Vayena - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (1):37-47.
    The past few years have witnessed several media-covered cases involving citizens actively engaging in the pursuit of experimental treatments for their medical conditions—or those of their loved ones—in the absence of established standards of therapy. This phenomenon is particularly observable in patients with rare genetic diseases, as the development of effective therapies for these disorders is hindered by the limited profitability and market value of pharmaceutical research. Sociotechnical trends at the cross-section of medicine and society are facilitating the involvement of (...)
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  15.  88
    Code Biology – A New Science of Life.Marcello Barbieri - 2012 - Biosemiotics 5 (3):411-437.
    Systems Biology and the Modern Synthesis are recent versions of two classical biological paradigms that are known as structuralism and functionalism, or internalism and externalism. According to functionalism (or externalism), living matter is a fundamentally passive entity that owes its organization to external forces (functions that shape organs) or to an external organizing agent (natural selection). Structuralism (or internalism), is the view that living matter is an intrinsically active entity that is capable of organizing itself from within, with purely internal (...)
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  16.  12
    A Defense Of Non-Deductive Reconstructions Of Analogical Arguments.Marcello Guarini - 2004 - Informal Logic 24 (2):153-168.
    Bruce Waller has defended a deductive reconstruction of the kinds of analogical arguments found in ethics, law, and metaphysics. This paper demonstrates the limits of such a reconstruction and argues for an alternative. non-deductive reconstruction. It will be shown that some analogical arguments do not fit Waller's deductive schema, and that such a schema does not allow for an adequate account of the strengths and weaknesses of an analogical argument. The similarities and differences between the account defended herein and the (...)
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  17.  69
    A Defense of Non-Deductive Reconstructions of Analogical Arguments (AILACT Essay Competition Winner).Marcello Guarini - 2004 - Informal Logic 24 (2):153-168.
    Bruce Waller has defended a deductive reconstruction of the kinds of analogical arguments found in ethics, law, and metaphysics. This paper demonstrates the limits of such a reconstruction and argues for an alternative. non-deductive reconstruction. It will be shown that some analogical arguments do not fit Waller's deductive schema, and that such a schema does not allow for an adequate account of the strengths and weaknesses of an analogical argument. The similarities and differences between the account defended herein and the (...)
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  18.  20
    Jumping for Joy: The Importance of the Body and of Dynamics in the Expression and Recognition of Positive Emotions.Marcello Mortillaro & Daniel Dukes - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  19.  53
    On the Origin of Language.Marcello Barbieri - 2010 - Biosemiotics 3 (2):201-223.
    Thomas Sebeok and Noam Chomsky are the acknowledged founding fathers of two research fields which are known respectively as Biosemiotics and Biolinguistics and which have been developed in parallel during the past 50 years. Both fields claim that language has biological roots and must be studied as a natural phenomenon, thus bringing to an end the old divide between nature and culture. In addition to this common goal, there are many other important similarities between them. Their definitions of language, for (...)
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  20.  43
    Three Types of Semiosis.Marcello Barbieri - 2009 - Biosemiotics 2 (1):19-30.
    The existence of different types of semiosis has been recognized, so far, in two ways. It has been pointed out that different semiotic features exist in different taxa and this has led to the distinction between zoosemiosis, phytosemiosis, mycosemiosis, bacterial semiosis and the like. Another type of diversity is due to the existence of different types of signs and has led to the distinction between iconic, indexical and symbolic semiosis. In all these cases, however, semiosis has been defined by the (...)
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  21.  2
    On the Strangeness of Quantum Mechanics.Marcello Poletti - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (3):1-7.
    The extravagances of quantum mechanics never fail to enrich daily the debate around natural philosophy. Entanglement, non-locality, collapse, many worlds, many minds, and subjectivism have challenged generations of thinkers. Its approach can perhaps be placed in the stream of quantum logic, in which the “strangeness” of QM is “measured” through the violation of Bell’s inequalities and, from there, attempts an interpretative path that preserves realism yet ends up overturning it, restating the fundamental mechanisms of QM as a logical necessity for (...)
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  22.  93
    Particularism, Analogy, and Moral Cognition.Marcello Guarini - 2010 - Minds and Machines 20 (3):385-422.
    ‘Particularism’ and ‘generalism’ refer to families of positions in the philosophy of moral reasoning, with the former playing down the importance of principles, rules or standards, and the latter stressing their importance. Part of the debate has taken an empirical turn, and this turn has implications for AI research and the philosophy of cognitive modeling. In this paper, Jonathan Dancy’s approach to particularism (arguably one of the best known and most radical approaches) is questioned both on logical and empirical grounds. (...)
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  23.  74
    The Paradigms of Biology.Marcello Barbieri - 2013 - Biosemiotics 6 (1):33-59.
    Today there are two major theoretical frameworks in biology. One is the ‘chemical paradigm’, the idea that life is an extremely complex form of chemistry. The other is the ‘information paradigm’, the view that life is not just ‘chemistry’ but ‘chemistry-plus-information’. This implies the existence of a fundamental difference between information and chemistry, a conclusion that is strongly supported by the fact that information and information-based-processes like heredity and natural selection simply do not exist in the world of chemistry. Against (...)
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  24.  39
    Cerebral Organoids: Ethical Issues and Consciousness Assessment.Andrea Lavazza & Marcello Massimini - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (9):606-610.
    Organoids are three-dimensional biological structures grown in vitro from different kinds of stem cells that self-organise mimicking real organs with organ-specific cell types. Recently, researchers have managed to produce human organoids which have structural and functional properties very similar to those of different organs, such as the retina, the intestines, the kidneys, the pancreas, the liver and the inner ear. Organoids are considered a great resource for biomedical research, as they allow for a detailed study of the development and pathologies (...)
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  25.  47
    Semantic Biology and the Mind-Body Problem: The Theory of the Conventional Mind.Marcello Barbieri - 2006 - Biological Theory 1 (4):352-356.
  26.  48
    Critical Notice: BonJour and Sosa on Epistemic Justification. [REVIEW]Marcello Guarini - 2007 - Synthese 159 (1):131 - 148.
  27.  52
    Origin and Evolution of the Brain.Marcello Barbieri - 2011 - Biosemiotics 4 (3):369-399.
  28.  57
    Resources for Research on Analogy: A Multi-Disciplinary Guide.Marcello Guarini, Amy Butchart, Paul Simard Smith & Andrei Moldovan - 2009 - Informal Logic 29 (2):84-197.
    Work on analogy has been done from a number of disciplinary perspectives throughout the history of Western thought. This work is a multidisciplinary guide to theorizing about analogy. It contains 1,406 references, primarily to journal articles and monographs, and primarily to English language material. classical through to contemporary sources are included. The work is classified into eight different sections (with a number of subsections). A brief introduction to each section is provided. Keywords and key expressions of importance to research on (...)
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  29.  68
    What is Biosemiotics?Marcello Barbieri - 2008 - Biosemiotics 1 (1):1-3.
  30.  37
    From Biosemiotics to Code Biology.Marcello Barbieri - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (2):239-249.
  31. Representing Concepts in Formal Ontologies: Compositionality Vs. Typicality Effects".Marcello Frixione & Antonio Lieto - 2012 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 21 (4):391-414.
    The problem of concept representation is relevant for many sub-fields of cognitive research, including psychology and philosophy, as well as artificial intelligence. In particular, in recent years it has received a great deal of attention within the field of knowledge representation, due to its relevance for both knowledge engineering as well as ontology-based technologies. However, the notion of a concept itself turns out to be highly disputed and problematic. In our opinion, one of the causes of this state of affairs (...)
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  32.  5
    Persuading Science: The Art of Scientific Rhetoric.Marcello Pera & William R. Shea (eds.) - 1991 - Science History Publications, Usa.
  33.  58
    Organic Semiosis and Peircean Semiosis.Marcello Barbieri - 2013 - Biosemiotics 6 (2):273-289.
    The discovery of the genetic code has shown that the origin of life has also been the origin of semiosis, and the discovery of many other organic codes has indicated that organic semiosis has been the sole form of semiosis present on Earth in the first three thousand million years of evolution. With the origin of animals and the evolution of the brain, however, a new type of semiosis came into existence, a semiosis that is based on interpretation and is (...)
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  34.  7
    Direct-to-Consumer Neurotechnology: What Is It and What Is It For?Marcello Ienca & Effy Vayena - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (4):149-151.
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  35.  59
    What is Information?Marcello Barbieri - 2012 - Biosemiotics 5 (2):147-152.
  36.  83
    Consciousness as a Contextually Emergent Property of Self-Sustaining Systems.J. Scott Jordan & Marcello Ghin - 2006 - Mind and Matter 4 (1):45-68.
    The concept of contextual emergence has been introduced as a speci?c kind of emergence in which some, but not all of the conditions for a higher-level phenomenon exist at a lower level. Further conditions exist in contingent contexts that provide stability conditions at the lower level, which in turn accord the emergence of novelty at the higher level. The purpose of the present paper is to propose that consciousness is a contextually emergent property of self-sustaining systems. The core assumption is (...)
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  37.  30
    Algorithmic Decision-Making Based on Machine Learning From Big Data: Can Transparency Restore Accountability?Massimo Durante & Marcello D'Agostino - 2018 - Philosophy and Technology 31 (4):525-541.
    Decision-making assisted by algorithms developed by machine learning is increasingly determining our lives. Unfortunately, full opacity about the process is the norm. Would transparency contribute to restoring accountability for such systems as is often maintained? Several objections to full transparency are examined: the loss of privacy when datasets become public, the perverse effects of disclosure of the very algorithms themselves, the potential loss of companies’ competitive edge, and the limited gains in answerability to be expected since sophisticated algorithms usually are (...)
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  38. Computational Neural Modeling and the Philosophy of Ethics: Reflections on the Particularism-Generalism Debate.Marcello Guarini - 2011 - In M. Anderson S. Anderson (ed.), Machine Ethics. Cambridge Univ. Press.
  39.  16
    Has Biosemiotics Come of Age?Marcello Barbieri - 2002 - Semiotica 2002 (139):283-295.
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  40.  51
    Tractable Competence.Marcello Frixione - 2001 - Minds and Machines 11 (3):379-397.
    In the study of cognitive processes, limitations on computational resources (computing time and memory space) are usually considered to be beyond the scope of a theory of competence, and to be exclusively relevant to the study of performance. Starting from considerations derived from the theory of computational complexity, in this paper I argue that there are good reasons for claiming that some aspects of resource limitations pertain to the domain of a theory of competence.
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  41. Bohm's Metaphors, Causality, and the Quantum Potential.Marcello Guarini - 2003 - Erkenntnis 59 (1):77 - 95.
    David Bohm's interpretation of quantum mechanics yields a quantum potential, Q. In his early work, the effects of Q are understood in causal terms as acting through a real (quantum) field which pushes particles around. In his later work (with Basil Hiley), the causal understanding of Q appears to have been abandoned. The purpose of this paper is to understand how the use of certain metaphors leads Bohm away from a causal treatment of Q, and to evaluate the use of (...)
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  42.  35
    Biology with Information and Meaning.Marcello Barbieri - 2003 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 25 (2):243 - 254.
    It is shown that information and meaning can be defined by operative procedures, and that we need to recognize them as new types of natural entities. They are not quantities (neither fundamental nor derived) because they cannot be measured, and they are not qualities because they are not subjective features. Here it is proposed to call them nominable entities, i.e., entities which can be specified only by naming their components in their natural order.
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  43. Un contributo allo studio della scienza nel medio evo: Il trattato Il cielo e il mondo di Giovanni Buridano e un confronto con alcune posizioni di Tommaso d'Aquino.Marcello Landi - 2007 - Divus Thomas 110 (2):151-185.
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  44.  87
    Moral Case Classification and the Nonlocality of Reasons.Marcello Guarini - 2013 - Topoi 32 (2):267-289.
    This paper presents the results of training an artificial neural network (ANN) to classify moral situations. The ANN produces a similarity space in the process of solving its classification problem. The state space is subjected to analysis that suggests that holistic approaches to interpreting its functioning are problematic. The idea of a contributory or pro tanto standard, as discussed in debates between moral particularists and generalists, is used to understand the structure of the similarity space generated by the ANN. A (...)
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  45.  19
    Evolution of the Genetic Code: The Ribosome-Oriented Model.Marcello Barbieri - 2015 - Biological Theory 10 (4):301-310.
    There are currently three major theories on the origin and evolution of the genetic code: the stereochemical theory, the coevolution theory, and the error-minimization theory. The first two assume that the genetic code originated respectively from chemical affinities and from metabolic relationships between codons and amino acids. The error-minimization theory maintains that in primitive systems the apparatus of protein synthesis was extremely prone to errors, and postulates that the genetic code evolved in order to minimize the deleterious effects of the (...)
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  46.  14
    Tozza, Marcello, "Animales y dioses en la Grecia prehomérica". Monografías de Filología Griega 26.Juan Piquero Rodríguez - 2017 - 'Ilu. Revista de Ciencias de Las Religiones 22:564-567.
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  47.  20
    A Mechanistic Model of Meaning.Marcello Barbieri - 2011 - Biosemiotics 4 (1):1-4.
  48.  23
    Epaminondas Marcello Fortina: Epaminonda. Pp. 115. Turin: Società Editrice Internazionale, 1958. Paper, L. 1,600.H. D. Westlake - 1960 - The Classical Review 10 (02):159-161.
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  49. Antropologia E controversie.Marcello Carlotti - forthcoming - ACME: Annali della Facoltà di lettere e filosofia dell'Università degli studi di Milano.
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  50. Trial by Statistics: Is a High Probability of Guilt Enough to Convict?Marcello Di Bello - 2019 - Mind 128 (512):1045-1084.
    Suppose one hundred prisoners are in a yard under the supervision of a guard, and at some point, ninety-nine of them collectively kill the guard. If, after the fact, a prisoner is picked at random and tried, the probability of his guilt is 99%. But despite the high probability, the statistical chances, by themselves, seem insufficient to justify a conviction. The question is why. Two arguments are offered. The first, decision-theoretic argument shows that a conviction solely based on the statistics (...)
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