Results for 'Marcello Caleo'

616 found
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  1. Il Mondo Nello Specchio Del Timeo.Marcello Caleo - 2006 - Carocci.
  2. Concepts, Perception and the Dual Process Theories of Mind.Marcello Frixione & Antonio Lieto - 2014 - The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 9.
    In this article we argue that the problem of the relationships between concepts and perception in cognitive science is blurred by the fact that the very notion of concept is rather confused. Since it is not always clear exactly what concepts are, it is not easy to say, for example, whether and in what measure concept possession involves entertaining and manipulating perceptual representations, whether concepts are entirely different from perceptual representations, and so on. As a paradigmatic example of this state (...)
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  3.  52
    The Organic Codes: An Introduction to Semantic Biology.Marcello Barbieri - 2003 - Cambridge University Press.
    The genetic code appeared on Earth with the first cells. The codes of cultural evolution arrived almost four billion years later. These are the only codes that are recognized by modern biology. In this book, however, Marcello Barbieri explains that there are many more organic codes in nature, and their appearance not only took place throughout the history of life but marked the major steps of that history. A code establishes a correspondence between two independent 'worlds', and the codemaker (...)
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  4. Hacking the Brain: Brain–Computer Interfacing Technology and the Ethics of Neurosecurity.Marcello Ienca & Pim Haselager - 2016 - Ethics and Information Technology 18 (2):117-129.
    Brain–computer interfacing technologies are used as assistive technologies for patients as well as healthy subjects to control devices solely by brain activity. Yet the risks associated with the misuse of these technologies remain largely unexplored. Recent findings have shown that BCIs are potentially vulnerable to cybercriminality. This opens the prospect of “neurocrime”: extending the range of computer-crime to neural devices. This paper explores a type of neurocrime that we call brain-hacking as it aims at the illicit access to and manipulation (...)
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  5.  5
    Interview with Marcello Pezzetti.Carlo Celli & Marcello Pezzetti - 2000 - Critical Inquiry 27 (1):149-157.
  6.  10
    Ethical Design of Intelligent Assistive Technologies for Dementia: A Descriptive Review.Marcello Ienca, Tenzin Wangmo, Fabrice Jotterand, Reto W. Kressig & Bernice Elger - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (4):1035-1055.
    The use of Intelligent Assistive Technology in dementia care opens the prospects of reducing the global burden of dementia and enabling novel opportunities to improve the lives of dementia patients. However, with current adoption rates being reportedly low, the potential of IATs might remain under-expressed as long as the reasons for suboptimal adoption remain unaddressed. Among these, ethical and social considerations are critical. This article reviews the spectrum of IATs for dementia and investigates the prevalence of ethical considerations in the (...)
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  7. Representing Concepts in Formal Ontologies: Compositionality Vs. Typicality Effects".Marcello Frixione & Antonio Lieto - 2012 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 21 (4):391-414.
    The problem of concept representation is relevant for many sub-fields of cognitive research, including psychology and philosophy, as well as artificial intelligence. In particular, in recent years it has received a great deal of attention within the field of knowledge representation, due to its relevance for both knowledge engineering as well as ontology-based technologies. However, the notion of a concept itself turns out to be highly disputed and problematic. In our opinion, one of the causes of this state of affairs (...)
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  8.  73
    The Rubber Hand Illusion: Sensitivity and Reference Frame for Body Ownership.Marcello Costantini & Patrick Haggard - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2):229-240.
    When subjects view stimulation of a rubber hand while feeling congruent stimulation of their own hand, they may come to feel that the rubber hand is part of their own body. This illusion of body ownership is termed ‘Rubber Hand Illusion’ . We investigated sensitivity of RHI to spatial mismatches between visual and somatic experience. We compared the effects of spatial mismatch between the stimulation of the two hands, and equivalent mismatches between the postures of the two hands. We created (...)
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  9. Malthus and Ricardo on Economic Methodology.Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi & Marcelo Dascal - 1996 - History of Political Economy 28 (3):475-511.
    The paper is a comparative study of the methodologies of Malthus and Ricardo. Its claims are: (i) economic laws almost always admit of exceptions for Malthus; for Ricardo even contingent predictions allow no exception apart from random temporary variations; (ii) both rely on the prestigious Newtonian paradigm, while interpreting it according to two distinct methodological traditions (the one deriving from MacLaurin, the other from Priestley); (iii) the choice of stressing what happens during intervals or in permanent states leads to opposing (...)
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  10.  50
    Tractable Competence.Marcello Frixione - 2001 - Minds and Machines 11 (3):379-397.
    In the study of cognitive processes, limitations on computational resources (computing time and memory space) are usually considered to be beyond the scope of a theory of competence, and to be exclusively relevant to the study of performance. Starting from considerations derived from the theory of computational complexity, in this paper I argue that there are good reasons for claiming that some aspects of resource limitations pertain to the domain of a theory of competence.
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  11.  5
    “Hunting Down My Son’s Killer”: New Roles of Patients in Treatment Discovery and Ethical Uncertainty.Marcello Ienca & Effy Vayena - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (1):37-47.
    The past few years have witnessed several media-covered cases involving citizens actively engaging in the pursuit of experimental treatments for their medical conditions—or those of their loved ones—in the absence of established standards of therapy. This phenomenon is particularly observable in patients with rare genetic diseases, as the development of effective therapies for these disorders is hindered by the limited profitability and market value of pharmaceutical research. Sociotechnical trends at the cross-section of medicine and society are facilitating the involvement of (...)
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  12.  3
    Persuading Science: The Art of Scientific Rhetoric.Marcello Pera & William R. Shea (eds.) - 1991 - Science History Publications, Usa.
  13. What a Self Could Be (Commentary on Metzinger).Marcello Ghin - 2005 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 11.
    Metzinger’s claim that there are no such things as selves has given rise to a lot of discussions. By examining the notion of self used by Metzinger, I want to clarify what he means when saying that nobody ever was or had a self. Furthermore, I want to examine if there could be a notion of ‘self’ which is compatible with the Self- Model Theory of Subjectivity (SMT). I will argue that there is a notion of self which is not (...)
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  14.  57
    A Short History of Biosemiotics.Marcello Barbieri - 2009 - Biosemiotics 2 (2):221-245.
    Biosemiotics is the synthesis of biology and semiotics, and its main purpose is to show that semiosis is a fundamental component of life, i.e., that signs and meaning exist in all living systems. This idea started circulating in the 1960s and was proposed independently from enquires taking place at both ends of the Scala Naturae. At the molecular end it was expressed by Howard Pattee’s analysis of the genetic code, whereas at the human end it took the form of Thomas (...)
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  15.  67
    A Defense of Non-Deductive Reconstructions of Analogical Arguments (AILACT Essay Competition Winner).Marcello Guarini - 2004 - Informal Logic 24 (2):153-168.
    Bruce Waller has defended a deductive reconstruction of the kinds of analogical arguments found in ethics, law, and metaphysics. This paper demonstrates the limits of such a reconstruction and argues for an alternative. non-deductive reconstruction. It will be shown that some analogical arguments do not fit Waller's deductive schema, and that such a schema does not allow for an adequate account of the strengths and weaknesses of an analogical argument. The similarities and differences between the account defended herein and the (...)
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  16.  11
    A Defense Of Non-Deductive Reconstructions Of Analogical Arguments.Marcello Guarini - 2004 - Informal Logic 24 (2):153-168.
    Bruce Waller has defended a deductive reconstruction of the kinds of analogical arguments found in ethics, law, and metaphysics. This paper demonstrates the limits of such a reconstruction and argues for an alternative. non-deductive reconstruction. It will be shown that some analogical arguments do not fit Waller's deductive schema, and that such a schema does not allow for an adequate account of the strengths and weaknesses of an analogical argument. The similarities and differences between the account defended herein and the (...)
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  17. The Benefits of Prototypes: The Case of Medical Concepts.Cristina Amoretti, Marcello Frixione & Antonio Lieto - 2017 - Reti, Saperi E Linguaggi, The Italian Journal of Cognitive Sciences, 2017 3.
    In the present paper, we shall discuss the notion of prototype and show its benefits. First, we shall argue that the prototypes of common-sense concepts are necessary for making prompt and reliable categorisations and inferences. However, the features constituting the prototype of a particular concept are neither necessary nor sufficient conditions for determining category membership; in this sense, the prototype might lead to conclusions regarded as wrong from a theoretical perspective. That being said, the prototype remains essential to handling most (...)
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  18.  13
    Inédit 3 : Le sens et la musique. Propos recueillis par Marcello Castellana.Algirdas J. Greimas, Marcello Castellana & Marina Maluli Cesar - 2017 - Semiotica 2017 (214):41-50.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Semiotica Jahrgang: 2017 Heft: 214 Seiten: 41-50.
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  19.  8
    Artificial Intelligence in Clinical Neuroscience: Methodological and Ethical Challenges.Marcello Ienca & Karolina Ignatiadis - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 11 (2):77-87.
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  20. Dealing with Concepts: From Cognitive Psychology to Knowledge Representation.Marcello Frixione & Antonio Lieto - 2013 - Frontiers of Psychological and Behevioural Science 2 (3):96-106.
    Concept representation is still an open problem in the field of ontology engineering and, more generally, of knowledge representation. In particular, the issue of representing “non classical” concepts, i.e. concepts that cannot be defined in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions, remains unresolved. In this paper we review empirical evidence from cognitive psychology, according to which concept representation is not a unitary phenomenon. On this basis, we sketch some proposals for concept representation, taking into account suggestions from psychological research. In (...)
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  21. Bohm's Metaphors, Causality, and the Quantum Potential.Marcello Guarini - 2003 - Erkenntnis 59 (1):77 - 95.
    David Bohm's interpretation of quantum mechanics yields a quantum potential, Q. In his early work, the effects of Q are understood in causal terms as acting through a real (quantum) field which pushes particles around. In his later work (with Basil Hiley), the causal understanding of Q appears to have been abandoned. The purpose of this paper is to understand how the use of certain metaphors leads Bohm away from a causal treatment of Q, and to evaluate the use of (...)
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  22.  92
    Particularism, Analogy, and Moral Cognition.Marcello Guarini - 2010 - Minds and Machines 20 (3):385-422.
    ‘Particularism’ and ‘generalism’ refer to families of positions in the philosophy of moral reasoning, with the former playing down the importance of principles, rules or standards, and the latter stressing their importance. Part of the debate has taken an empirical turn, and this turn has implications for AI research and the philosophy of cognitive modeling. In this paper, Jonathan Dancy’s approach to particularism (arguably one of the best known and most radical approaches) is questioned both on logical and empirical grounds. (...)
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  23.  46
    Critical Notice: BonJour and Sosa on Epistemic Justification. [REVIEW]Marcello Guarini - 2007 - Synthese 159 (1):131 - 148.
  24. Trial by Statistics: Is a High Probability of Guilt Enough to Convict?Marcello Di Bello - 2019 - Mind 128 (512):1045-1084.
    Suppose one hundred prisoners are in a yard under the supervision of a guard, and at some point, ninety-nine of them collectively kill the guard. If, after the fact, a prisoner is picked at random and tried, the probability of his guilt is 99%. But despite the high probability, the statistical chances, by themselves, seem insufficient to justify a conviction. The question is why. Two arguments are offered. The first, decision-theoretic argument shows that a conviction solely based on the statistics (...)
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  25.  7
    Direct-to-Consumer Neurotechnology: What Is It and What Is It For?Marcello Ienca & Effy Vayena - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (4):149-151.
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  26.  49
    Resources for Research on Analogy: A Multi-Disciplinary Guide.Marcello Guarini, Amy Butchart, Paul Simard Smith & Andrei Moldovan - 2009 - Informal Logic 29 (2):84-197.
    Work on analogy has been done from a number of disciplinary perspectives throughout the history of Western thought. This work is a multidisciplinary guide to theorizing about analogy. It contains 1,406 references, primarily to journal articles and monographs, and primarily to English language material. classical through to contemporary sources are included. The work is classified into eight different sections (with a number of subsections). A brief introduction to each section is provided. Keywords and key expressions of importance to research on (...)
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  27.  26
    Algorithmic Decision-Making Based on Machine Learning From Big Data: Can Transparency Restore Accountability?Massimo Durante & Marcello D'Agostino - 2018 - Philosophy and Technology 31 (4):525-541.
    Decision-making assisted by algorithms developed by machine learning is increasingly determining our lives. Unfortunately, full opacity about the process is the norm. Would transparency contribute to restoring accountability for such systems as is often maintained? Several objections to full transparency are examined: the loss of privacy when datasets become public, the perverse effects of disclosure of the very algorithms themselves, the potential loss of companies’ competitive edge, and the limited gains in answerability to be expected since sophisticated algorithms usually are (...)
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  28.  36
    Cerebral Organoids: Ethical Issues and Consciousness Assessment.Andrea Lavazza & Marcello Massimini - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (9):606-610.
    Organoids are three-dimensional biological structures grown in vitro from different kinds of stem cells that self-organise mimicking real organs with organ-specific cell types. Recently, researchers have managed to produce human organoids which have structural and functional properties very similar to those of different organs, such as the retina, the intestines, the kidneys, the pancreas, the liver and the inner ear. Organoids are considered a great resource for biomedical research, as they allow for a detailed study of the development and pathologies (...)
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  29. The Ambiguous Frog: The Galvani-Volta Controversy on Animal Electricity.Marcello Pera & Wesley C. Salmon - 1995 - Philosophy of Science 62 (1):161.
  30.  88
    Code Biology – A New Science of Life.Marcello Barbieri - 2012 - Biosemiotics 5 (3):411-437.
    Systems Biology and the Modern Synthesis are recent versions of two classical biological paradigms that are known as structuralism and functionalism, or internalism and externalism. According to functionalism (or externalism), living matter is a fundamentally passive entity that owes its organization to external forces (functions that shape organs) or to an external organizing agent (natural selection). Structuralism (or internalism), is the view that living matter is an intrinsically active entity that is capable of organizing itself from within, with purely internal (...)
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  31. Computational Neural Modeling and the Philosophy of Ethics: Reflections on the Particularism-Generalism Debate.Marcello Guarini - 2011 - In M. Anderson S. Anderson (ed.), Machine Ethics. Cambridge Univ. Press.
  32. Proof Paradoxes and Normic Support: Socializing or Relativizing?Marcello Di Bello - 2020 - Mind 129 (516):1269-1285.
    Smith argues that, unlike other forms of evidence, naked statistical evidence fails to satisfy normic support. This is his solution to the puzzles of statistical evidence in legal proof. This paper focuses on Smith’s claim that DNA evidence in cold-hit cases does not satisfy normic support. I argue that if this claim is correct, virtually no other form of evidence used at trial can satisfy normic support. This is troublesome. I discuss a few ways in which Smith can respond.
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  33.  6
    European Civilization and the “Emulation of the Nations”: Histories of Europe From the Enlightenment to Guizot.Marcello Verga - 2008 - History of European Ideas 34 (4):353-360.
    This paper discusses the paradigms of European history and of European civilisation defined in the main histories of Europe written from the Enlightenment to Guizot.Voltaire, Robertson, Gibbon, and Guizot consolidated a model of the history of Europe which has its origins in the fall of the western Roman Empire and the invasions of the Barbarians. The other main steps of this history were the Christianisation, the creation of a vital economic centre in western and northern Europe, the development of the (...)
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  34.  53
    On the Origin of Language.Marcello Barbieri - 2010 - Biosemiotics 3 (2):201-223.
    Thomas Sebeok and Noam Chomsky are the acknowledged founding fathers of two research fields which are known respectively as Biosemiotics and Biolinguistics and which have been developed in parallel during the past 50 years. Both fields claim that language has biological roots and must be studied as a natural phenomenon, thus bringing to an end the old divide between nature and culture. In addition to this common goal, there are many other important similarities between them. Their definitions of language, for (...)
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  35.  43
    Three Types of Semiosis.Marcello Barbieri - 2009 - Biosemiotics 2 (1):19-30.
    The existence of different types of semiosis has been recognized, so far, in two ways. It has been pointed out that different semiotic features exist in different taxa and this has led to the distinction between zoosemiosis, phytosemiosis, mycosemiosis, bacterial semiosis and the like. Another type of diversity is due to the existence of different types of signs and has led to the distinction between iconic, indexical and symbolic semiosis. In all these cases, however, semiosis has been defined by the (...)
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  36.  85
    Moral Case Classification and the Nonlocality of Reasons.Marcello Guarini - 2013 - Topoi 32 (2):267-289.
    This paper presents the results of training an artificial neural network (ANN) to classify moral situations. The ANN produces a similarity space in the process of solving its classification problem. The state space is subjected to analysis that suggests that holistic approaches to interpreting its functioning are problematic. The idea of a contributory or pro tanto standard, as discussed in debates between moral particularists and generalists, is used to understand the structure of the similarity space generated by the ANN. A (...)
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  37.  12
    How Real is the Quantum World?Marcello Cini - 2003 - Science & Education 12 (5-6):531-540.
  38. Profile Evidence, Fairness, and the Risks of Mistaken Convictions.Marcello Di Bello & Collin O’Neil - 2020 - Ethics 130 (2):147-178.
    Many oppose the use of profile evidence against defendants at trial, even when the statistical correlations are reliable and the jury is free from prejudice. The literature has struggled to justify this opposition. We argue that admitting profile evidence is objectionable because it violates what we call “equal protection”—that is, a right of innocent defendants not to be exposed to higher ex ante risks of mistaken conviction compared to other innocent defendants facing similar charges. We also show why admitting other (...)
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  39.  4
    Sizing Up Consciousness: Towards an Objective Measure of the Capacity for Experience.Marcello Massimini & Giulio Tononi - 2018 - Oxford University Press.
    This book explores how we can measure consciousness. It clarifies what consciousness is, how it can be generated from a physical system, and how it can be measured. It also shows how conscious states can be expressed mathematically and how precise predictions can be made using data from neurophysiological studies.
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  40.  20
    Rhetoric and Scientific Controversies.Marcello Pera - 2000 - In Peter K. Machamer, Marcello Pera & Aristeidēs Baltas (eds.), Scientific Controversies: Philosophical and Historical Perspectives. Oxford University Press. pp. 50.
  41.  35
    Klimawandel und globale Gerechtigkeit: Neues Problem, altes Paradigma?Marcello Di Paola & Dale Jamieson - 2015 - In Angela Kallhoff (ed.), Klimagerechtigkeit Und Klimaethik. De Gruyter. pp. 23-38.
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  42.  72
    The Paradigms of Biology.Marcello Barbieri - 2013 - Biosemiotics 6 (1):33-59.
    Today there are two major theoretical frameworks in biology. One is the ‘chemical paradigm’, the idea that life is an extremely complex form of chemistry. The other is the ‘information paradigm’, the view that life is not just ‘chemistry’ but ‘chemistry-plus-information’. This implies the existence of a fundamental difference between information and chemistry, a conclusion that is strongly supported by the fact that information and information-based-processes like heredity and natural selection simply do not exist in the world of chemistry. Against (...)
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  43.  9
    European Civilization and the “Emulation of the Nations”: Histories of Europe From the Enlightenment to Guizot.Marcello Verga - 2008 - History of European Ideas 34 (4):353-360.
    This paper discusses the paradigms of European history and of European civilisation defined in the main histories of Europe written from the Enlightenment to Guizot.Voltaire, Robertson, Gibbon, and Guizot consolidated a model of the history of Europe which has its origins in the fall of the western Roman Empire and the invasions of the Barbarians. The other main steps of this history were the Christianisation, the creation of a vital economic centre in western and northern Europe, the development of the (...)
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  44.  12
    Apologia Del Metodo.Marcello Pera - 1982 - Laterza.
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  45.  14
    From Methodology to Dialectics: A Post-Cartesian Approach to Scientific Rationality.Marcello Pera - 1986 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:359 - 374.
    Although the recent, history-oriented philosophy of science has greatly contributed to the changes in many received views, a Cartesian syndrome seems still to affect many philosophers. Such a syndrome is the combination of the ideas that scientific research pursues its goals by obeying certain universal and impersonal rules, and that violating these rules leads to irrationality. This paper aims at suggesting a view which slips between these two horns. It maintains that scientific rationality does not depend on the respect of (...)
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  46.  52
    Origin and Evolution of the Brain.Marcello Barbieri - 2011 - Biosemiotics 4 (3):369-399.
  47.  11
    Scientific Ethics: A New Approach.Marcello Menapace - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (4):1193-1216.
    Science is an activity of the human intellect and as such has ethical implications that should be reviewed and taken into account. Although science and ethics have conventionally been considered different, it is herewith proposed that they are essentially similar. The proposal set henceforth is to create a new ethics rooted in science: scientific ethics. Science has firm axiological foundations and searches for truth and knowledge. Hence, science cannot be value neutral. Looking at standard scientific principles, it is possible to (...)
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  48.  14
    Temporal Limits on Rubber Hand Illusion Reflect Individuals’ Temporal Resolution in Multisensory Perception.Marcello Costantini, Jeffrey Robinson, Daniele Migliorati, Brunella Donno, Francesca Ferri & Georg Northoff - 2016 - Cognition 157:39-48.
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  49.  5
    Concepts and Fat Plants.Marcello Frixione - 2013 - ProtoSociology 30:152-166.
    During the last decades it has emerged that concepts probably do not constitute a homogeneous set of entities from a psychological point of view. Various divides can be drawn between different types of concepts. Probably, the main empirical achievement in this field has been the inadequacy of the so-called “classical view”: most concepts cannot be characterised in terms of sets of necessary and sufficient conditions; rather, they exhibit typicality effects. In this chapter I will suggest that typicality effects, far from (...)
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  50.  60
    Tra fenomenologia e neurologia. Merleau-Ponty, Goldstein, Sacks.Marcello Ghilardi - 2012 - Chiasmi International 14:217-235.
    Entre phénoménologie et neurologie. Merleau-Ponty, Goldstein, SacksLa phénoménologie de Merleau-Ponty a traité des matériaux et des éléments de réflexion importants de diverses études sur des pathologies psychiques et physiques. La confrontation et l’entrelacement entre la pensée du philosophe français et certaines recherches de neuropsychologie, comme Kurt Goldstein ou Oliver Sacks, font émerger la possibilité de nouvelles approches de la dimension de la maladie, entre narration, spéculation et recherche scientifique. Un dialogue fécond entre disciplines et champs de recherche différents met en (...)
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