It is shown that in a linearly ordered MV-algebra A , the implication is unique if and only if the identity function is the unique De Morgan automorphism on A . Modulo categorical equivalence, our uniqueness criterion recalls Ohkuma's rigidness condition for totally ordered abelian groups. We also show that, if A is an Archimedean totally ordered MV-algebra, then each non-trivial De Morgan automorphism of the underlying involutive lattice of A yields a new implication on A , which is not (...) isomorphic to the original implication. (shrink)
Este artículo analiza un poema en latín arcaico, la Plegaria a Marte, escrito al comienzo del periodo republicano por Catón en el De Agri Cultura 141.2-3, pero generalmente considerada antigua ya en la época del orador; porque la Plegaria es considerada una de las obras propias de la poesía indoeuropea desde los trabajos de Benveniste y Dumezil.
Daydreaming appears to have a complex relationship with life satisfaction and happiness. Here we demonstrate that the facets of daydreaming that predict life satisfaction differ between men and women , that the content of daydreams tends to be social others , and that who we daydream about influences the relation between daydreaming and happiness variables like life satisfaction, loneliness, and perceived social support . Specifically, daydreaming about people not close to us predicts more loneliness and less perceived social support, whereas (...) daydreaming about close others predicts greater life satisfaction. Importantly, these patterns hold even when actual social network depth and breadth are statistically controlled, although these associations tend to be small in magnitude. Individual differences and the content of daydreams are thus important to consider when examining how happiness relates to spontaneous thoughts. (shrink)
The fundamental assumption of many successful geochemical and geomicrobial technologies developed in the past 80 years is that hydrocarbons leak from subsurface accumulations vertically to the surface. Driven by buoyancy, the process involves sufficiently large volumes directly measurable or indirectly inferable from their surface expressions. Even when the additional hydrocarbons are not measurable, their presence slightly changes the environment where complex microbial communities live, and acts as an evolutionary constraint on their development. Because the ecology of this ecosystem is very (...) complicated, we have used the full-microbiome analysis of the shallow sediments samples instead of targeting only a selected number of known species and the use of machine learning for uncovering meaningful correlations in these data. We achieved this by sequencing the microbial biomass in each sample and generating its “DNA fingerprint,” and by analyzing the abundance and distribution of the microbes over the data set. Our technology uses machine learning as a fast and accurate tool for determining the detailed interactions among the various microorganisms and their environment due to the presence or absence of hydrocarbons, thus overcoming data complexity. In a proof-of-technology study, we have taken more than a thousand samples in the Neuquén Basin in Argentina over three distinct areas, namely, an oil field, a gas field, and a dry location outside the basin, and created several successful predictive models. We kept a subset of randomly selected samples outside of the training set and asked the client operator to blind them, providing the means for objectively validating the prediction performance of this methodology. Uncovering the blinded data set after estimating the prospectivity for each sample revealed that we correctly predicted most of these samples. This very encouraging result indicates that analyzing the microbial ecosystem in shallow sediment can, with the appropriate training data, be an additional derisking method in assessing hydrocarbon prospects and improve the probability of success of a drilling campaign. (shrink)
O artigo explora algumas metáforas marinhas que surgem no pensamento alemão de Leibniz a Goethe, com o intuito de indicar como se desenvolvem certos temas de estética, tais como a noção de alma, de linguagem, de criação artística e de relação dialética entre forma e conteúdo. Passando por autores como Leibniz, Winckelmann, Herder, Goethe e Kant, pretende-se mostrar como, por meio desse desenvolvimento, se constitui uma visão de homem mais ampliada, que não se define mais somente pelo entendimento, mas envolve (...) elementos inconscientes e afetivos. (shrink)
Intuitively, there is a difference between knowledge and mere belief. Contemporary philosophical work on the nature of this difference has focused on scenarios known as “Gettier cases.” Designed as counterexamples to the classical theory that knowledge is justified true belief, these cases feature agents who arrive at true beliefs in ways which seem reasonable or justified, while nevertheless seeming to lack knowledge. Prior empirical investigation of these cases has raised questions about whether lay people generally share philosophers’ intuitions about these (...) cases, or whether lay intuitions vary depending on individual factors (e.g. ethnicity) or factors related to specific types of Gettier cases (e.g. cases that include apparent evidence). We report an experiment on lay attributions of knowledge and justification for a wide range of Gettier Cases and for a related class of controversial cases known as Skeptical Pressure cases, which are also thought by philosophers to elicit intuitive denials of knowledge. Although participants rated true beliefs in Gettier and Skeptical Pressure cases as being justified, they were significantly less likely to attribute knowledge for these cases than for matched true belief cases. This pattern of response was consistent across different variations of Gettier cases and did not vary by ethnicity or gender, although attributions of justification were found to be positively related to measures of empathy. These findings therefore suggest that across demographic groups, laypeople share similar epistemic concepts with philosophers, recognizing a difference between knowledge and justified true belief. (shrink)
In Lewin et al. 359–386) the authors proved that certain systems of annotated logics are algebraizable in the sense of Block and Rigozzi 396). Later in Lewin et al. the study of the associated quasi-varieties of annotated algebras is initiated. In this paper we continue the study of the these classes of algebras, in particular, we report some recent results about the free annotated algebras.
The heterogeneous nature of the empathy construct demands that neuroscience investigations into this topic employ methods directed at uncovering multiple processes. This article touches upon some of the methods most appropriate for empathy research, and closes by arguing for a better distinction between perception and imagination during the initial stage of an empathic response.
We suggest that the hierarchical predictive processing account detailed by Clark can be usefully integrated with narrative psychology by situating personal narratives at the top of an individual's knowledge hierarchy. Narrative representations function as high-level generative models that direct our attention and structure our expectations about unfolding events. Implications for integrating scientific and humanistic views of human experience are discussed.
In this paper the scientific trajectory of Spanish influential biochemist Alberto Sols (1917–1989) is presented in comparative perspective. His social and academic environment, his research training under the Cori's in the US in the early 1950s and his works when coming back to Spain to develop his own scientific career are described in order to present the central argument of this paper on his path from physiological research to research on enzymatic regulation. Sols' main contributions were both scientific and academic. (...) He and his collaborators not only contributed to biological knowledge on the biochemistry of metabolic regulation but to the active reception of biochemistry in the Spanish academia and to update of Spanish medical education. -/- . (shrink)
The discovery of a second genesis of life besides the one on Earth, this time on Mars, would have profound scientific and philosophical implications. Scientifically, it would provide a second example of biochemistry and of evolutionary history. Many important biological questions may be answerable through the comparison of biochemistry between the life forms on the two planets. Philosophically, the discovery of a second genesis of life in our solar system would suggest that the phenomenon of life is distributed throughout the (...) universe. We could finally be confident that we are not alone. To protect a second genesis as we search for it, the robotic and human exploration of Mars should be done in a way that is biologically reversible, i.e., we must be able to undo our contamination of Mars if we discover a second genesis of life there. It is important to note that human exploration can be done in a way that is biologically reversible. Further, the discovery of a second genesis of life on Mars poses new questions in ethics. One question is: what ethical consideration is due to an alien life form when that life is distinctly different from Earth life, and the members of that life are no more advanced than microorganisms? Will we choose to terraform Mars to enhance the richness and diversity of the indigenous life we find there? In considering our answers to these questions, we should note that for most of Earth’s history our ancestors were microscopic. (shrink)
Ce témoignage écrit est le récit d'un 8 mars, très particulier, dans un pays aujourd'hui déchiré par la guerre civile, l'Algérie. Catherine Lévy a enseigné de 1962 à 1965 en tant que « pied-rouge » : on désignait ainsi les Français et les Françaises qui sont partis en Algérie après l'indépendance pour aider à la construction de l'Algérie nouvelle. Professeur au Collège Ben Cheneb à Alger, elle était militante à l'UGTA de Bab-El-Oued et a participé à la manifestation qu'elle décrit (...) ci-d.. (shrink)
This article provides current Schwartz Values Survey data from samples of business managers and professionals across 50 societies that are culturally and socioeconomically diverse. We report the society scores for SVS values dimensions for both individual- and societallevel analyses. At the individual- level, we report on the ten circumplex values sub- dimensions and two sets of values dimensions. At the societal- level, we report on the values dimensions of embeddedness, hierarchy, mastery, affective autonomy, intellectual autonomy, egalitarianism, and harmony. For each (...) society, we report the Cronbach' s? statistics for each values dimension scale to assess their internal consistency as well as report interrater agreement analyses to assess the acceptability of using aggregated individual level values scores to represent country span sp. (shrink)
Readers of fiction tend to have better abilities of empathy and theory of mind. We present a study designed to replicate this finding, rule out one possible explanation, and extend the assessment of social outcomes. In order to rule out the role of personality, we first identified Openness as the most consistent correlate. This trait was then statistically controlled for, along with two other important individual differences: the tendency to be drawn into stories and gender. Even after accounting for these (...) variables, fiction exposure still predicted performance on an empathy task. Extending these results, we also found that exposure to fiction was positively correlated with social support. Exposure to nonfiction, in contrast, was associated with loneliness, and negatively related to social support. (shrink)
In this paper we shall introduce the variety FWHA of frontal weak Heyting algebras as a generalization of the frontal Heyting algebras introduced by Leo Esakia in . A frontal operator in a weak Heyting algebra A is an expansive operator r preserving finite meets which also satisfies the equation?? b V, for all a,b? A. These operators were studied from an algebraic, logical and topological point of view by Leo Esakia in . We will study frontal operators in weak (...) Heyting algebras and we will consider two examples of them. We will give a Priestley duality for the category of frontal weak Heyting algebras in terms of relational spaces where is a WH space , and R is an additional binary relation used to interpret the modal operator. We will also study the WH- algebras with successor and the WTf- algebras with gamma. For these varieties we will give two topological dualities. The first one is based on the representation given for the frontal weak Heyting algebras. The second one is based on certain particular classes of WH-spaces. (shrink)
This trenchant study analyzes the rise and decline in the quality and format of science in America since World War II. Science-Mart attributes this decline to a powerful neoliberal ideology in the 1980s which saw the fruits of scientific investigation as commodities that could be monetized, rather than as a public good.