There is an unresolved paradox concerning the role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in consumer behavior. On the one hand, consumers demand more and more CSR information from corporations. On the other hand, research indicates a considerable gap between consumers’ apparent interest in CSR and the limited role of CSR in purchase behavior. This article attempts to shed light on this paradox by drawing on qualitative data from in-depth interviews. The findings show that the evaluation of CSR initiatives is a (...) complex and hierarchically structured process, during which consumers distinguish between core, central, and peripheral factors. This article describes these factors in detail and explains the complexity of consumers’ assessment of CSR. These insights then serve as a basis for discussing the theoretical and managerial implications of the research findings. To this end, the article contributes to a better understanding of the role of CSR in consumption decisions. (shrink)
Knowledge about colour it properties, methods of fabrication, meanings, and uses has always been the purview of a wide range of individuals, from painters and architects to dyers, printers, pigment manufacturers, chemists. This volume discusses how different communities interacted with respect to knowledge and practices surrounding colour, thus contributing to a better understanding of an important current in cultural history.".
Analyses the social imaginary of undoing, repair and return underpinning the international norm of restitution-makingApproaches restitution not just as a legal norm of property return, but as a social imaginary and a cultural-psychoanalytic 'scene' of undoing, repair and returnBrings together philosophic-political, socio-legal and cultural-psychoanalytic approaches to the study of restitutionOutlines a heterogeneous and multifaceted idea of restitution emergent in modernity, and looks at the peripheries of the modern restitutive tradition in the search for alternatives and counter-traditionsThis book takes a unique (...) approach grounded in political and cultural discourse to develop a political theory of restitution. Challenging assumptions about restitution in the Western legal and political tradition, where it has become nearly synonymous with reacquisition and where legal studies focus on material objects and claims to their ownership, Zolkos argues that the development of restitutive norms has been auxiliary to the emergence of modern state sovereignty, and excavates the restitutive tradition's mythical-religious substrate. Bringing together texts from within and outwith the Western canon of political theory and philosophy, including the writings of Grotius, Durkheim, Freud, and Klein, as well as Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, the book undertakes a dual task: reading literary texts as a political theorising of restitution, and reading political or sociological texts as literary narratives with distinctive 'restitutive tropes' of repair, undoing and return. (shrink)
People obtain value, or gain utility, from procedures rather than merely from outcomes. Academic researchers are slowly and selectively coming to terms with this fact, but it is neither sufficiently nor widely appreciated by actors in Hong Kong’s political arena, whether at the center or on the periphery. The territory is grappling with the issue of democratic reform—both its pace and scope—but the heated exchanges between the proponents and the opponents of representative government are confined to the outcome utility of (...) the various constitutional proposals. It is essential to incorporate the procedural element into this incomplete picture. (shrink)
Socioeconomic changes occurring over time influence the lifestyle choices of a population, and these can significantly affect children’s body weight and composition. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in prevalence of overweight, obesity and adiposity in pre-school children in Poland between 2008 and 2018. Body height, body weight and subscapular and triceps skinfolds were measured in 2167 children aged 3–7 years from Kraków. Body mass index and adiposity were calculated for the children, who were then categorized (...) as underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese according to Cole’s cut-off points. Adiposity was categorized according to the z-scores for %BF as low. Differences between cohorts were analysed using the chi-squared test. Only the decrease in the prevalence of obesity in 5-year-old girls was found to be statistically significant. However, some overall tendencies were noted. Decreases in the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity were observed for both sexes, as well as in the incidence of high adiposity in boys and low adiposity in girls. Increases in the prevalence of high adiposity in girls and low adiposity in boys were also noted. There was no significant change in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among pre-school children over the study decade, and the visible tendencies included decreases in the prevalence of excess body weight and adiposity as well as underweight and low body fat. Also, the visible trends in adiposity were mostly negative. Further studies should, however, also consider the levels of physical fitness and activity of children, as these have a crucial influence on the measured characteristics. (shrink)
La filosofía del Kant pone de manifiesto, como él mismo lo expresó, un “despertar del sueño dogmático”, lo cual es fundamentado por un giro copernicano en la filosofía occidental. Este artículo despliega algunas reflexiones sobre este giro filosófico que puede ser entendido en el vínculo entre cuerpo, tiempo-espacio y lenguaje, donde las fórmulas poéticas: el tiempo se sale de sus goznes, yo soy otro y lo más profundo de lo humano es la piel, permiten abrir un panorama comprensivo sobre el (...) problema de la razón, el entendimiento y la sensibilidad de la estética trascendental kantiana. Por ello, el giro copernicano preconizado por Kant se guía por su premisa según la cual “sólo conocemos de las cosas lo que nosotros mismos ponemos en ellas”, derivando en el problema sobre las condiciones de posibilidad del conocimiento expresadas en la relación entre cuerpo, tiempo-espacio y lenguaje. Desde este último punto de vista, se plantea un análisis del esquematismo kantiano y del diagramatismo foucaultiano en lo que podría ser pensado como lo que late en la corporalidad de un habitar el mundo en aquello que proyectamos de nosotros mismos en los márgenes del lenguaje. (shrink)
The aim of this article is to question the epistemic presuppositions of applying behavioural science in public policymaking. Philosophers of science who have examined the recent applications of the behavioural sciences to policy have contributed to discussions on causation, evidence, and randomised controlled trials. These have focused on epistemological and methodological questions about the reliability of scientific evidence and the conditions under which we can predict that a policy informed by behavioural research will achieve the policymakers’ goals. This paper argues (...) that the philosophical work of Helen Longino can also help us to have a better and fuller understanding of the knowledge which the behavioural sciences provide. The paper advances an analysis of the knowledge claims that are made in the context of policy applications of behavioural science and compares them with the behavioural research on which they are based. This allows us to show that behavioural policy and the debates accompanying it are based on an oversimplified understanding of what knowledge behavioural science actually provides. Recognising this problem is important as arguments that justify reliance on the behavioural sciences in policy typically presume this simplification. (shrink)
In this paper we have two main aims. First, we present an account of mood-congruent delusions in depression (hereafter, depressive delusions). We propose that depressive delusions constitute acknowledgements of self-related beliefs acquired as a result of a negatively biased learning process. Second, we argue that depressive delusions have the potential for psychological and epistemic benefits despite their obvious epistemic and psychological costs. We suggest that depressive delusions play an important role in preserving a person’s overall coherence and narrative identity at (...) a critical time, and thus can be regarded as epistemically innocent. (shrink)
We discuss the semantic significance of a puzzle concerning ‘ought’ and conditionals recently discussed by Kolodny and MacFarlane. We argue that the puzzle is problematic for the standard Kratzer-style analysis of modality. In Kratzer’s semantics, modals are evaluated relative to a pair of conversational backgrounds. We show that there is no sensible way of assigning values to these conversational backgrounds so as to derive all of the intuitions in Kolodny and MacFarlane’s case. We show that the appropriate verdicts can be (...) derived by extending Kratzer’s framework to feature a third conversational background and claiming that the relevant reading of ‘ought’ is sensitive to this parameter. (shrink)
This paper presents a dialogue system called Lorenzen–Hamblin Natural Dialogue (LHND), in which participants can commit formal fallacies and have a method of both identifying and withdrawing formal fallacies. It therefore provides a tool for the dialectical evaluation of force of argument when players advance reasons which are deductively incorrect. The system is inspired by Hamblin’s formal dialectic and Lorenzen’s dialogical logic. It offers uniform protocols for Hamblin’s and Lorenzen’s dialogues and adds a protocol for embedding them. This unification required (...) a reformulation of the original description of Lorenzen’s system to distinguish “between different stances that a person might take in the discussion”, as suggested by Hodges. The LHND system is compared to Walton and Krabbe’s Complex Persuasion Dialogue using an example of a dialogue. (shrink)
Researchers and companies are paying increasing attention to corporate social responsibility programs and the reaction to them by consumers. Despite such corporate efforts and an expanding literature exploring consumers’ response to CSR, it remains unclear how consumers perceive CSR and which “Gestalt” consumers have in mind when considering CSR. Academics and managers lack a tool for measuring consumers’ perceptions of CSR. This research explores CPCSR and develops a measurement model. Based on qualitative data from interviews with managers and consumers, the (...) authors develop a conceptualization of CPCSR. Subsequently, model testing and validating occurs on three large quantitative data sets. The conceptualization and the measurement scale can assist companies to assess CPCSR relative to their performance. They also enable managers in identifying shortcomings in CSR engagement and/or communication. Finally, the paper discusses implications for marketing practice and future research. (shrink)
In this article we argue that a widespread adoption of nudging can alter legal and political institutions. Debates on nudges thus far have largely revolved around a set of philosophical theories that we call individualistic approaches. Our analysis concerns the ways in which adherents of nudging make use of the newest findings in the behavioral sciences for the purposes of policy-making. We emphasize the fact that most nudges proposed so far are not a part of the legal system and are (...) also non-normative. We propose two ideal types: “law-as-normative” and “law-as-instrumental”, that allow us to understand and evaluate the relation of nudges and the law. We stress the importance of law as a safeguard for the possible negative consequences of nudges and conclude with proposals that could complement nudging policies. (shrink)
This paper refutes the widespread view that disjunctions of imperatives invariably grant free choice between the actions named by their disjuncts. Like other disjunctions they can also express a correlation with some factual distinction, but as with modalized declaratives used for non-assertive speech acts this needs to be indicated explicitly. A compositional analysis of one such indicator, depending on, constitutes the point of departure for a uniform analysis of disjunctions across clause types. Disjunctions are analyzed as sets of propositional alternatives (...) that correlate with a partition that the speaker may or may not be able to indicate explicitly. Free choice arises as the specific case where the partition is induced by the preferences of the addressee. (shrink)
Philosophers have always recognized the value of reason, but the process of reasoning itself has only recently begun to emerge as a philosophical topic in its own right. Is reasoning a distinctive kind of mental process? If so, what is its nature? How does reasoning differ from merely freely associating thoughts? What is the relationship between reasoning about what to believe and reasoning about how to act? Is reasoning itself something you do, or something that happens to you? And what (...) is the value of reasoning? Are there rules for good or correct reasoning and, if so, what are they like? Does good reasoning always lead to justified belief or rational action? Is there more than one way to reason correctly from your evidence? This volume comprises twelve new essays by leading researchers in the philosophy of reasoning that together address these questions and many more, and explore the connections between them. (shrink)
The topic of this paper is the concept of originality as it relates to the concept of genesis developed by Deleuze in his early essay ‘The Idea of Genesis in Kant's Esthetics’. Using the exhibition of Tim Bennett's as a starting point, it brings together two accounts of originality, the first postmodern one represented by Rosalind Krauss's ‘The Originality of the Avant-garde’ and the second genetic kind found in Deleuze's aforementioned essay, to show how originality and genesis might correspond, paying (...) close attention to the transcendental innovations of Kant's aesthetic tradition to which both concepts belong. (shrink)
En las últimas décadas, las redes sociales virtuales se han convertido en espacios centrales para los/as jóvenes. Allí comparten información, se comunican con amigos/as, conocen gente y muestran su vida cotidiana. El enfoque dramatúrgico de Goffman ha sido ampliamente retomado para estudiar las prácticas on line de los/as jóvenes. Sin embargo, han sido menos frecuentes las investigaciones orientadas a comprender las normas que organizan el comportamiento juvenil en los espacios virtuales. En este artículo, analizamos las prácticas de presentación del sí (...) mismo que realizan en Instagram jóvenes estudiantes secundarios de clases medias altas de La Plata, con el objetivo de identificar las reglas y los significados detrás del uso de esta plataforma. A su vez, buscamos comprender de qué manera los/as jóvenes se relacionan con estas reglas de comportamiento y con la presión de los/as pares para formar parte de espacios de sociabilidad on line. Para esto, a partir de un enfoque metodológico cualitativo, que combinó entrevistas biográficas con observaciones virtuales de publicaciones de Instagram, indagamos en las prácticas para mostrarse e interactuar on line de 27 varones y mujeres de entre 15 y 18 años. A partir de nuestra investigación, identificamos dos regulaciones principales para mostrarse en Instagram, asentadas en la imagen corporal y el estilo de vida. En relación al tipo de imagen corporal que se debe mostrar, encontramos una tendencia a la reproducción de estereotipos de género, donde se destacan la importancia de la delgadez, principalmente entre las mujeres, y de la musculatura, entre los varones. Con respecto a los estilos de vida, las regulaciones identificadas se orientan a la imitación de la vida cotidiana de personas famosas, enfatizando la importancia del consumo, la belleza y el entretenimiento. (shrink)
Resumen Ante el dilema de si la Lógica de Hegel debe entenderse como una ontología o como una continuación del proyecto kantiano de la lógica trascendental, el artículo sostiene que no es propiamente una ontología, ni un análisis de conceptos y categorías subjetivas. Su vocación metafísica se basa en el postulado según el cual la reflexión del pensamiento sobre sí mismo tiene consecuencias para la comprensión del ser de lo que no es pensamiento, de modo que resulta ser un proyecto (...) novedoso de ontología mediada por la autorreflexión del pensar.This text faces the dilemma whether Hegel’s Logic must be understood as ontology or as continuation of the Kantian project of transcendental logics. It upholds the thesis that Hegel’s Logic is not properly an Ontology -a direct and immediate description of object’s immanent way of being- nor an analysis of merely subjective concepts and categories. The metaphysical vocation of Hegel’s Logic draws rather on the claim that thought’s self-reflection has necessarily consequences for the comprehension of the being of all that is not thought. Hence, we are facing a groundbreaking project of an ontology that is mediated by thought’s self-reflection. (shrink)
While social research has documented the prevalence and ill effects of hepatitis C related stigma, there has been little analysis of the ways in which this stigma is constituted. This article addresses this gap in the literature by providing a phenomenologically informed account of the ways in which societal attitudes and regulations draw from and feed back into corporeal processes and experiences of embodiment in the creation of hepatitis C related stigma. The case is made that three components are central (...) to hepatitis C stigma: associations with illicit drug injecting, infectiousness and societal aversion to chronic illness. The article draws upon qualitative interviews with 40 people living with chronic hepatitis C in New Zealand and Australia, as well as the researcher’s embodied experience of living with the virus. The works of Julia Kristeva and Mary Douglas are utilized to provide an analysis that moves beyond acknowledgement of societal reinforcers of stigma, such as prohibitory drug laws, to address underlying notions of boundary crossing in the production of stigma and exclusionary practices. (shrink)
El proyecto inicial de Martin Heidegger, tal como aparece elaborado en los textos de sus lecciones tempranas entre 1919 y 1923, y como ha mostrado el ya clásico trabajo de Theodore Kisiel, parece anticipar en cierto sentido algu- nas de las temáticas que se desarrollan de modo más sistemático en Ser y tiempo, la gran obra de 1927.
In the light of changes in the living conditions of populations, excess adiposity is currently a serious public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in the body fat ratio among preschool children aged 3–7 years from Kraków, Poland, between 2008 and 2018. The study group consisted of children examined in two cross-sectional studies. Analysed characteristics included triceps, calf, subscapular, abdominal and suprailiac skinfold thicknesses, and adiposity calculated according to Slaughter’s equations. The trunk adiposity (...) index and limbs-to-trunk fat ratio were also calculated. Statistical significance was obtained using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests. Lower-limb adiposity was largest in the 2008 cohort and trunk adiposity was greater in the 2018 cohort. The mean values of the trunk adiposity index and limbs-to-trunk fat ratio were lower in the 2018 cohort than in the 2008 cohort. The 2018 cohort was also characterized by a lower overall adiposity. Regardless of the lower body adiposity percentage, in 2018 there was a tendency towards the central allocation of fat tissue. This is a negative phenomenon because, especially when co-existing with reduced lower-limb adiposity, it is associated with an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, even in young children. (shrink)
The article analyses the history of the Einfühlung concept. Theories of ‘feeling into’ Nature, works of art or feelings and behaviours of other persons by German philosophers of the second half of the nineteenth century Robert and Friedrich Vischer and Theodor Lipps are evoked, as well as similar theory of understanding (Verstehen) by Wilhelm Dilthey and Friedrich Schleiermacher, to which Dilthey refers. The meaning of the term Einfühlung within Edith Stein’s thought is also analysed. Both Einfühlung and Verstehen were criticized (...) as non-objective and naive methods consisting only in the identification of the subject with the object or the projection of feelings onto the object. The article refers to criticism by Georg Gadamer and Bertolt Brecht and proposes ways to restitute the concept of Einfühlung after this criticism, recalling the theory of empathy by Dominick Lacapra, in terms of its advantages for the historical enquiry, or the myth of Narcissus analyzed in the spirit of psychoanalysis by Julia Kristeva. The article proposes a reformulation of the concept of mimesis, connected to the Einfühlung, understood as the identification, analogy, imitation of feelings (as it was described by Lipss and Vischer). Mimesis does not necessarily mean a passive repetition and reconstruction of the feelings of the object, but serves only as a starting point for the interest of the subject for the outside world or for experiences of historical protagonists. Then there is no identification or projection of feelings, but the creative, active and critical reformulation of knowledge. It is stated that empathy is not a passive, uncritical process, but that it deals with the critical choice of the object of empathy and with an active approach to the perceived feelings and appearances. In addition to this cognitive aspect, empathy may also contribute to the analytical and valuable introspection. Furthermore empathy allows us to connect the analysis of the facts with a personal narrative and understanding of individual identity in historical knowledge. (shrink)
This new volume addresses the central questions which surround the process of reasoning. This emerging topic of analytic philosophy intersects with numerous other areas of philosophy, such as epistemology, philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, and metaethics, and also psychological work on reasoning.
RESUMEN El pensamiento y las prácticas sociales de los atenienses de la Época Clásica se hallaban jerarquizados en favor de los varones, que se consideraban superiores naturalmente y con capacidad y derecho a gobernar en la polis y en la casa. Se muestra cómo el Agamenón de Esquilo cuestiona la naturalización de esta superioridad mediante el personaje de Clitemnestra, quien actúa, piensa y habla como varón, y muestra que matar a un familiar, cambiar de pareja, luchar por el mando se (...) justificaban si lo realizaba Agamenón. ¿Por qué se condenaban estas acciones cuando eran llevadas a cabo por Clitemnestra? ABSTRACT The thought and social practices of Athenians during the Classical period were hierarchized in favor of males, who were considered naturally superior and endowed with the capacity and right to rule the polis and the home. The article shows how Aeschylus' Agamemnon questions the naturalization of that superiority through the character of Clytemnestra, who acts, thinks, and speaks like a man, and shows that killing a family member, changing partners, and fighting for power were justified if Agamemnon did those things. Why were such actions condemned if Clytemnestra carried them out? (shrink)
Después de la publicación de su tesis doctoral titulada La acción (1893), el filósofo francés Maurice Blondel escribió algunas obras en las que trató asuntos de enorme importancia, tanto en el campo filosófico como teológico, que desarrollaron las temáticas centrales de La acción, obra que a finales del siglo XIX generó tanto revuelo en el ambiente filosófico francés. Con la conciencia de su actualidad y su inmenso valor para una perspectiva novedosa de la metafísica y el diálogo fe-razón, se pretende (...) aquí una aproximación a cuatro obras que los estudiosos del pensamiento blondeliano han llamado “menores”. El presente artículo desarrolla los principales aportes de dichas obras a la reflexión filosófica contemporánea, indagando al mismo tiempo por la filosofía de la acción en cada una de ellas. Después de una corta biografía del pensador en cuestión, se abordará el significado de la filosofía de la acción con vistas a su elucidación para el lector. Posteriormente se presentará el contexto histórico de cada obra y se mostrarán sus vínculos con La acción, para terminar con algunas reflexiones que su lectura suscita en nuestro tiempo, cuyos desafíos son similares a los que Blondel tuvo que enfrentar en su momento. (shrink)
Startery Podlaskiej Gospodarki. Analiza Gospodarczych Obszarów Wzrostu I Innowacji Województwa Podlaskiego: Sektor Rehabilitacji Geriatrycznej (Podlasie Economy Starters. Analysis of Economic Growth and Innovation Areas of Podlaskie: Geriatric Rehabilitat Bogusław Plawgo, Magdalena Klimczuk, Mariusz Citkowski, Marta Juchnicka & Andrzej Klimczuk Wojewódzki Urz¸Ad Pracy W Białymstoku (2009) .
This special issue on posthumanist perspectives on affect seeks to create a platform for thinking about the intersection of, on the one hand, the posthumanist project of radically reconfiguring the meaning of the “human” in light of the critiques of a unified and bounded subjectivity and, on the other, the insights coming from recent scholarship on affect and feeling about the subject, sociality, and connectivity. Posthumanism stands for diverse theoretical positions which together call into question the anthropocentric assertion of the (...) human as a distinctive, unique and dominant form of life – in turn, the concept of affect has been linked with ideas of increasing and decreasing energetic intensities, which underlie, but for some also precede, processes of individuation and subjectivation.The contributors to this issue consider critically the vistas opened by affect studies and by posthumanism. Coming from diverse disciplinary traditions, including literature, philosophy, critical sociology, visual arts, and heritage studies, the articles contribute to the four thematic idioms of this issue in an attempt to structure a dialogical space on posthumanist perspectives on affect and on affect-based politics. Questions of environmental governance, the critique of speciesism, the formation of cross-species solidarity, the politics of the “inhuman”, biopolitics and necropolitics form the intellectual mosaic of this issue. Finally, we pose the question of “academic affects”, in circulation in the researcher's encounter with her others – humans, insects, ghostly presences or inanimate objects – and we ask how these affects, including anger and mourning, but also joyful affirmation, are brought to bear on the process of writing. (shrink)
This article describes experiences of long-term ethnographic fieldwork on disobedience, disloyalty and dissensus among women in public space in selected Yugoslav cities. I focus on the opportunities and pitfalls of feminist ethnography and methodology in the context of positionality, engagement and solidarity as essential elements of research into activist networks. In order to problematize the emerging field positionalities and solidarities, I examine the “militant ethnography” methodological approach, which seeks to move beyond the divide between research practice and politically engaged participation. (...) It is about being among and within the activist network and adopting many identities and roles by constantly shifting between reflective solidarity and analysis. In trying to shed light on the critical self-reflective research process of embodied understandings and experiences, I focus on ethnographic practices embedded in transnational “crowded fields” that encompass the dynamics of relationships and dependencies between knowledge producers. (shrink)