Results for 'M. Timur Friedman'

980 found
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  1.  46
    BankXX: Supporting legal arguments through heuristic retrieval. [REVIEW]Edwina L. Rissland, David B. Skalak & M. Timur Friedman - 1996 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 4 (1):1-71.
    The BankXX system models the process of perusing and gathering information for argument as a heuristic best-first search for relevant cases, theories, and other domain-specific information. As BankXX searches its heterogeneous and highly interconnected network of domain knowledge, information is incrementally analyzed and amalgamated into a dozen desirable ingredients for argument (called argument pieces), such as citations to cases, applications of legal theories, and references to prototypical factual scenarios. At the conclusion of the search, BankXX outputs the set of argument (...)
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  2.  89
    Evaluating a legal argument program: The BankXX experiments. [REVIEW]Edwina L. Rissland, David B. Skalak & M. Timur Friedman - 1997 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 5 (1-2):1-74.
    In this article we evaluate the BankXX program from several perspectives. BankXX is a case-based legal argument program that retrieves cases and other legal knowledge pertinent to a legal argument through a combination of heuristic search and knowledge-based indexing. The program is described in detail in a companion article in Artificial Intelligence and Law 4: 1--71, 1996. Three perspectives are used to evaluate BankXX:(1) classical information retrieval measures of precision and recall applied against a hand-coded baseline; (2) knowledge-representation and case-based (...)
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  3. Friedman@math.ohio-state.Edu.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    It has been accepted since the early part of the Century that there is no problem formalizing mathematics in standard formal systems of axiomatic set theory. Most people feel that they know as much as they ever want to know about how one can reduce natural numbers, integers, rationals, reals, and complex numbers to sets, and prove all of their basic properties. Furthermore, that this can continue through more and more complicated material, and that there is never a real problem.
     
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  4. Introduction.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    The use of x[y,z,w] rather than the more usual y Πx has many advantages for this work. One of them is that we have found a convenient way to eliminate any need for axiom schemes. All axioms considered are single sentences with clear meaning. (In one case only, the axiom is a conjunction of a manageable finite number of sentences).
     
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  5. Issues in the Foundations of Mathematics.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    C. To what extent, and in what sense, is the natural hierarchy of logical strengths rep resented by familiar systems ranging from exponential function arithmetic to ZF + j:V Æ V robust?
     
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  6. Vigre Lectures.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    In mathematics, we back up our discoveries with rigorous deductive proofs. Mathematicians develop a keen instinctive sense of what makes a proof rigorous. In logic, we strive for a *theory* of rigorous proofs.
     
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  7. Remarks On GÖDel Phenomena and the Field of Reals.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    A lot of the well known impact of the Gödel phenomena is in the form of painful messages telling us that certain major mathematical programs cannot be completed as intended. This aspect of Gödel – the delivery of bad news –is not welcomed, and defensive measures are now in place.
     
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  8.  13
    The Lives of Erich Fromm: Love's Prophet.Lawrence J. Friedman & Anke M. Schreiber - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    Erich Fromm was a political activist, psychologist, psychoanalyst, philosopher, and one of the most important intellectuals of the twentieth century. Known for his theories of personality and political insight, Fromm dissected the sadomasochistic appeal of brutal dictators while also eloquently championing love--which, he insisted, was nothing if it did not involve joyful contact with others and humanity at large. Admired all over the world, Fromm continues to inspire with his message of universal brotherhood and quest for lasting peace. The first (...)
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  9.  36
    Better as the value-fundamental.M. Timur - 1955 - Mind 64 (253):52-60.
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  10. The Theory of Morals.M. Timur - 1958 - Philosophy 33 (124):78-80.
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  11.  30
    Community hospital oversight of clinical investigators' financial relationships.M. A. Hall, K. P. Weinfurt, J. S. Lawlor, J. Y. Friedman, K. A. Schulman & J. Sugarman - 2008 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 31 (1):7-13.
    The considerable attention to financial interests in clinical research has focused mostly on academic medical centers, even though the majority of clinical research is conducted in community practice settings. To fill this gap, this article maps the practices and policies in 73 community hospitals and several hundred specialized facilities around the country for reviewing clinical investigators’ financial relationships with research sponsors. Community hospitals face a substantially different mix of issues than academic medical centers do because their physician researchers are usually (...)
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  12. Does mathematics need new axioms.Solomon Feferman, Harvey M. Friedman, Penelope Maddy & John R. Steel - 1999 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (4):401-446.
    Part of the ambiguity lies in the various points of view from which this question might be considered. The crudest di erence lies between the point of view of the working mathematician and that of the logician concerned with the foundations of mathematics. Now some of my fellow mathematical logicians might protest this distinction, since they consider themselves to be just more of those \working mathematicians". Certainly, modern logic has established itself as a very respectable branch of mathematics, and there (...)
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  13.  19
    Social network-based ethical analysis of COVID-19 vaccine supply policy in three Central Asian countries.Kerim M. Munir, Totugul Murzabekova, Zhangir Tulekov, Damin Asadov, Daniel Wikler & Timur Aripov - 2022 - BMC Medical Ethics 23 (1):1-8.
    BackgroundIn the pandemic time, many low- and middle-income countries are experiencing restricted access to COVID-19 vaccines. Access to imported vaccines or ways to produce them locally became the principal source of hope for these countries. But developing a strategy for success in obtaining and allocating vaccines was not easy task. The governments in those countries have faced the difficult decision whether to accept or reject offers of vaccine diplomacy, weighing the price and availability of COVID-19 vaccines against the concerns over (...)
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  14.  85
    Letters to the Editor.Sandra Lee Bartky, Marilyn Friedman, William Harper, Alison M. Jaggar, Richard H. Miller, Abigail L. Rosenthal, Naomi Scheman, Nancy Tuana, Steven Yates, Christina Sommers, Philip E. Devine, Harry Deutsch, Michael Kelly & Charles L. Reid - 1992 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 65 (7):55 - 90.
  15.  81
    The conceptual underpinnings of pretense: Pretending is not 'behaving-as-if.'.Ori Friedman & Alan M. Leslie - 2007 - Cognition 105 (1):103-124.
    The ability to engage in and recognize pretend play begins around 18 months. A major challenge for theories of pretense is explaining how children are able to engage in pretense, and how they are able to recognize pretense in others. According to one major account, the metarepresentational theory, young children possess both production and recognition abilities because they possess the mental state concept, PRETEND. According to a more recent rival account, the Behavioral theory, young children are behaviorists about pretense, and (...)
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  16. The meaning and status of Newton's law of inertia and the nature of gravitational forces.J. Earman & M. Friedman - 1973 - Philosophy of Science 40 (3):329-359.
    A four dimensional approach to Newtonian physics is used to distinguish between a number of different structures for Newtonian space-time and a number of different formulations of Newtonian gravitational theory. This in turn makes possible an in-depth study of the meaning and status of Newton's Law of Inertia and a detailed comparison of the Newtonian and Einsteinian versions of the Law of Inertia and the Newtonian and Einsteinian treatments of gravitational forces. Various claims about the status of Newton's Law of (...)
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  17.  47
    Addressing the Ethical Challenges in Genetic Testing and Sequencing of Children.Ellen Wright Clayton, Laurence B. McCullough, Leslie G. Biesecker, Steven Joffe, Lainie Friedman Ross, Susan M. Wolf & For the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Group - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (3):3-9.
    American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) recently provided two recommendations about predictive genetic testing of children. The Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium's Pediatrics Working Group compared these recommendations, focusing on operational and ethical issues specific to decision making for children. Content analysis of the statements addresses two issues: (1) how these recommendations characterize and analyze locus of decision making, as well as the risks and benefits of testing, and (2) whether the guidelines conflict or (...)
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  18. Overcoming Metaphysics: Carnap and Heidegger.M. Friedman - forthcoming - Origins of Logical Empiricism:45--79.
     
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  19.  46
    The physiological psychology of hunger: A physiological perspective.Mark I. Friedman & Edward M. Stricker - 1976 - Psychological Review 83 (6):409-431.
  20.  39
    Weak comparability of well orderings and reverse mathematics.Harvey M. Friedman & Jeffry L. Hirst - 1990 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 47 (1):11-29.
    Two countable well orderings are weakly comparable if there is an order preserving injection of one into the other. We say the well orderings are strongly comparable if the injection is an isomorphism between one ordering and an initial segment of the other. In [5], Friedman announced that the statement “any two countable well orderings are strongly comparable” is equivalent to ATR 0 . Simpson provides a detailed proof of this result in Chapter 5 of [13]. More recently, (...) has proved that the statement “any two countable well orderings are weakly comparable” is equivalent to ATR 0 . The main goal of this paper is to give a detailed exposition of this result. (shrink)
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  21.  50
    Is young children’s recognition of pretense metarepresentational or merely behavioral? Evidence from 2- and 3-year-olds’ understanding of pretend sounds and speech.Ori Friedman, Karen R. Neary, Corinna L. Burnstein & Alan M. Leslie - 2010 - Cognition 115 (2):314-319.
  22.  51
    A developmental shift in processes underlying successful belief‐desire reasoning.Ori Friedman & Alan M. Leslie - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (6):963-977.
    Young children’s failures in reasoning about beliefs and desires, and especially about false beliefs, have been much studied. However, there are few accounts of successful belief-desire reasoning in older children or adults. An exception to this is a model in which belief attribution is treated as a process wherein an inhibitory system selects the most likely content for the belief to be attributed from amongst several competing contents [Leslie, A. M., & Polizzi, P. (1998). Developmental Science, 1, 247–254]. We tested (...)
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  23.  23
    Ethical and Logistical Issues Raised by the Advanced Donation Program “Pay It Forward” Scheme.Lainie Friedman Ross, James R. Rodrigue & Robert M. Veatch - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (5):518-536.
    The advanced donation program was proposed in 2014 to allow an individual to donate a kidney in order to provide a voucher for a kidney in the future for a particular loved one. In this article, we explore the logistical and ethical issues that such a program raises. We argue that such a program is ethical in principle but there are many logistical issues that need to be addressed to ensure that the actual program is fair to both those who (...)
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  24.  18
    Confirmation and Chaos.Michael Friedman, Robert DiSalle, J. D. Trout, Shaun Nichols, Maralee Harrell, Clark Glymour, Carl G. Wagner, Kent W. Staley, Jesús P. Zamora Bonilla & Frederick M. Kronz - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (2):256-265.
    Recently, Rueger and Sharp (1996) and Koperski (1998) have been concerned to show that certain procedural accounts of model confirmation are compromised by non-linear dynamics. We suggest that the issues raised are better approached by considering whether chaotic data analysis methods allow for reliable inference from data. We provide a framework and an example of this approach.
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  25. Similar Subclasses.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    Reflection, in the sense of [Fr03a] and [Fr03b], is based on the idea that a category of classes has a subclass that is “similar” to the category. Here we present axiomatizations based on the idea that a category of classes that does not form a class has extensionally different subclasses that are “similar”. We present two such similarity principles, which are shown to interpret and be interpretable in certain set theories with large cardinal axioms.
     
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  26.  13
    Ketamine Enhanced Psychotherapy: Preliminary Clinical Observations on its Effectiveness in Treating Death Anxiety.Eli Kolp, M. Young, Harris Friedman, Evgeny Krupitsky & Karl Jansen - 2007 - International Journal of Transpersonal Studies 26 (1):1-17.
    Ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic commonly used by US physicians, has recently been shown to be a powerful anti-depressant and is also capable of eliciting transpersonal experiences that can be transformative. Although currently approved in the US only for use as an anesthetic, physicians there can legally prescribe it off-label to treat various psychological/ psychiatric problems and it has been used for these non-anesthetic purposes in Argentina, Iran, Mexico, Russia, and the UK, as well as in the US. The literature on (...)
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  27.  19
    Set existence property for intuitionistic theories with dependent choice.Harvey M. Friedman & Andrej Ščedrov - 1983 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 25 (2):129-140.
  28. Concept calculus: Much better than.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    This is the initial publication on Concept Calculus, which establishes mutual interpretability between formal systems based on informal commonsense concepts and formal systems for mathematics through abstract set theory. Here we work with axioms for "better than" and "much better than", and the Zermelo and Zermelo Frankel axioms for set theory.
     
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  29. Adjacent Ramsey Theory.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    Let k ≥ 2 and f:Nk Æ [1,k] and n ≥ 1 be such that there is no x1 < ... < xk+1 £ n such that f(x1,...,xk) = f(x1,...,xk+1). Then we want to find g:Nk+1 Æ [1,3] such that there is no x1 < ... < xk+2 £ n such that g(x1,...,xk+1) = g(x2,...,xk+2). This reducees adjacent Ramsey in k dimensions with k colors to adjacent Ramsey in k+1 dimensions with 3 colors.
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  30.  30
    Subtle cardinals and linear orderings.Harvey M. Friedman - 2000 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 107 (1-3):1-34.
    The subtle, almost ineffable, and ineffable cardinals were introduced in an unpublished 1971 manuscript of R. Jensen and K. Kunen. The concepts were extended to that of k-subtle, k-almost ineffable, and k-ineffable cardinals in 1975 by J. Baumgartner. In this paper we give a self contained treatment of the basic facts about this level of the large cardinal hierarchy, which were established by J. Baumgartner. In particular, we give a proof that the k-subtle, k-almost ineffable, and k-ineffable cardinals define three (...)
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  31. A complete theory of everything: Satisfiability in the universal domain.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    Here we take the view that LPC(=) is applicable to structures whose domain is too large to be a set. This is not just a matter of class theory versus set theory, although it can be interpreted as such, and this interpretation is discussed briefly at the end.
     
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  32.  37
    Attitudes of African-American parents about biobank participation and return of results for themselves and their children.Colin M. E. Halverson & Lainie Friedman Ross - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (9):561-566.
    Introduction Biobank-based research is growing in importance. A major controversy exists about the return of aggregate and individual research results. Methods The authors used a mixed-method approach in order to study parents' attitudes towards the return of research results regarding themselves and their children. Participants attended four 2-h, deliberative-engagement sessions held on two consecutive Saturdays. Each session consisted of an educational presentation followed by focus-group discussions with structured questions and prompts. This manuscript examines discussions from the second Saturday which focused (...)
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  33. Selected readings.V. Von Weizsacker & M. Friedman - 1964 - In Maurice S. Friedman (ed.), The Worlds of existentialism: a critical reader. Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press.
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  34. The Upper Shift Kernel Theorems.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    We now fix A ⊆ Q. We study a fundamental class of digraphs associated with A, which we call the A-digraphs. An A,kdigraph is a digraph (Ak,E), where E is an order invariant subset of A2k in the following sense. For all x,y ∈ A2k, if x,y have the same order type then x ∈ E ↔ y ∈ E.
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  35.  9
    Brief report of protective factors associated with family and parental well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic in an outpatient child and adolescent psychiatric clinic.Tamaki Hosoda Urban, Deborah Friedman, Maysa Marwan Kaskas, Alessandra J. Caruso, Katia M. Canenguez, Nancy Rotter, Janet Wozniak & Archana Basu - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Families of children with mental health challenges may have been particularly vulnerable to emotional distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional study surveyed 81 parents of children ages 6–17 years receiving mental health treatment in an outpatient clinic during the pandemic. We sought to characterize the impact of the pandemic on family relationships and parental well-being. Additionally, regression and ANCOVA models examined associations between four potentially protective factors—parents’ psychological resilience, perceived social support, positive family experiences during the pandemic, and children’s (...)
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  36.  27
    Addendum to “Countable algebra and set existence axioms”.Harvey M. Friedman, Stephen G. Simpson & Rick L. Smith - 1984 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 28 (3):319-320.
  37. Remarks On the Unknowable.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    The kind of unknowability I will discuss concerns the count of certain natural finite sets of objects. Even the situation with regard to our present strong formal systems is rather unclear. One can just profitably focus on that, putting aside issues of general unknowability.
     
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  38. P01 INCOMPLETENESS: finite set equations.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    Let R Õ [1,n]3k ¥ [1,n]k. We define R = {y Œ [1,n]k:($xŒA3)(R(x,y))}. We say that R is strictly dominating if and only if for all x,yŒ[1,n]k, if R(x,y) then max(x) < max(y).
     
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  39. Robot Transparency and Team Orientation Effects on Human–Robot Teaming.S. Guznov, J. Lyons, M. Pfahler, A. Heironimus, M. Woolley, J. Friedman & A. Neimeier - 2020 - International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction 36 (7):650-660.
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  40. Recensioni-Dinamiche della ragione.M. Friedman & C. Calosi - 2007 - Epistemologia 30 (1):187-189.
     
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  41. Foundations of Mathematics: Past, Present, and Future.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    It turns out, time and time again, in order to make serious progress in f.o.m., we need to take actual reasoning and actual development into account at precisely the proper level. If we take these into account too much, then we are faced with information that is just too difficult to create an exact science around - at least at a given state of development of f.o.m. And if we take these into account too little, our findings will not have (...)
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  42. Quadratic Axioms.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    We axiomatize EFA in strictly mathematical terms, involving only the ring operations, without extending the language by either exponentiation, finite sets of integers, or polynomials.
     
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  43. Selection for Borel Relations.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    We present several selection theorems for Borel relations, involving only Borel sets and functions, all of which can be obtained as consequences of closely related theorems proved in [DSR 96,99,01,01X] involving coanalytic sets. The relevant proofs given there use substantial set theoretic methods, which were also shown to be necessary. We show that none of our Borel consequences can be proved without substantial set theoretic methods. The results are established for Baire space. We give equivalents of some of the main (...)
     
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  44. Kernel Structure Theory.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    We have been recently engaged in this search, and have announced a long series of successively simpler and more convincing examples. See [Fr09-10].
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  45. Sentential Reflection.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    We present two forms of “sentential reflection”, which are shown to be mutually interpretable with Z2 and ZFC, respectively.
     
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  46. Equational Representations.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    We begin by presenting the language L(N,℘N,℘℘N). This is the standard language for presenting third order sentences, using its intended interpretation.
     
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  47.  22
    Introduction: Greco-Latin Findings.Jeffrey M. Perl, Sara Forsdyke, Colin Davis, Richard Ned Lebow & Yvonne Friedman - 2015 - Common Knowledge 21 (1):10-18.
    In this introduction to part 2 of the Common Knowledge symposium “Peace by Other Means,” the journal's editor reflects on the difference between the contributions to parts 1 and 2. Whereas the first installment concentrated on ethnography, the second focuses on the peacemaking repertoire of the Greco-Latin tradition, whose basis is psychological. That tradition is characterized by its refusal of wishful thinking about human nature and, in particular, by its doubt about claims that human drives other than thumos — the (...)
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  48. Transfer Principles in Set Theory.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    1. Transfer principles from N to On. A. Mahlo cardinals. B. Weakly compact cardinals. C. Ineffable cardinals. D. Ramsey cardinals. E. Ineffably Ramsey cardinals. F. Subtle cardinals. G. From N to (...))
     
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  49. From Russell's paradox to.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    Russell’s way out of his paradox via the impredicative theory of types has roughly the same logical power as Zermelo set theory - which supplanted it as a far more flexible and workable axiomatic foundation for mathematics. We discuss some new formalisms that are conceptually close to Russell, yet simpler, and have the same logical power as higher set theory - as represented by the far more powerful Zermelo-Frankel set theory and beyond. END.
     
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  50. Philosophy 532 Philosophical Problems in Logic Lecture 1 9/25/02.Harvey M. Friedman - unknown
    This is widely accepted, inside and outside philosophy, but one can spend an entire career clarifying, justifying, and amplifying on this statement. Certainly a graduate student career.
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