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Michael Roberts [30]Melinda A. Roberts [18]Mark Roberts [15]Marcus Roberts [11]
M. Roberts [10]Mark S. Roberts [10]M. A. Roberts [7]Marie Mulvey Roberts [6]

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Melinda A. Roberts
The College of New Jersey
Michael Roberts
University of Birmingham
3 more
  1. Child Versus Childmaker: Future Persons and Present Duties in Ethics and the Law.Melinda A. Roberts - 1998 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Child Versus Childmaker investigates a "person-affecting" approach to ethical choice. A form of consequentialism, this approach is intended to capture the idea that agents ought both do the most good that they can and respect each person as distinct from each other. Focusing on cases in which a conflict of interest arises between "childmakers"—parents, infertility specialists, embryologists, and others engaged in the task of bringing new people into existence—and the children they aim to create, the author considers what we today (...)
     
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  2. The Asymmetry: A Solution.Melinda A. Roberts - 2011 - Theoria 77 (4):333-367.
    The Asymmetry consists of two claims. (A) That a possible person's life would be abjectly miserable –less than worth living – counts against bringing that person into existence. But (B) that a distinct possible person's life would be worth living or even well worth living does not count in favour of bringing that person into existence. In recent years, the view that the two halves of the Asymmetry are jointly untenable has become increasingly entrenched. If we say all persons matter (...)
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  3. An Asymmetry in the Ethics of Procreation.Melinda A. Roberts - 2011 - Philosophy Compass 6 (11):765-776.
    According to the Asymmetry, it is wrong to bring a miserable child into existence but permissible not to bring a happy child into existence. When it comes to procreation, we don’t have complete procreative liberty. But we do have some discretion. The Asymmetry seems highly intuitive. But a plausible account of the Asymmetry has been surprisingly difficult to provide, and it may well be that most moral philosophers – or at least most consequentialists – think that all reasonable efforts to (...)
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  4.  20
    Ethical and Regulatory Considerations for Using Social Media Platforms to Locate and Track Research Participants.Ananya Bhatia-Lin, Alexandra Boon-Dooley, Michelle K. Roberts, Caroline Pronai, Dylan Fisher, Lea Parker, Allison Engstrom, Leah Ingraham & Doyanne Darnell - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (6):47-61.
    As social media becomes increasingly popular, human subjects researchers are able to use these platforms to locate, track, and communicate with study participants, thereby increasing participant retention and the generalizability and validity of research. The use of social media; however, raises novel ethical and regulatory issues that have received limited attention in the literature and federal regulations. We review research ethics and regulations and outline the implications for maintaining participant privacy, respecting participant autonomy, and promoting researcher transparency when using social (...)
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  5.  88
    The Nonidentity Problem.Melinda Roberts - 2010 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  6.  56
    Harming Future Persons: Ethics, Genetics and the Nonidentity Problem.David Wasserman & Melinda Roberts (eds.) - 2009 - Springer.
    This collection of essays investigates the obligations we have in respect of future persons, from our own future offspring to distant future generations.
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  7. Can It Ever Be Better Never to Have Existed at All? Person-Based Consequentialism and a New Repugnant Conclusion.Melinda A. Roberts - 2003 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 20 (2):159–185.
  8. Abortion and the Moral Significance of Merely Possible Persons.Melinda A. Roberts - 2010 - Springer.
  9. The Non-Identity Fallacy: Harm, Probability and Another Look at Parfit’s Depletion Example.Melinda A. Roberts - 2007 - Utilitas 19 (3):267-311.
    The non-identity problem is really a collection of problems having distinct logical features. For that reason, non-identity problems can be typed. This article focuses on just one type of non-identity problem, the problem, which includes Derek Parfit's depletion example and many others. The can't-expect-better problem uses an assessment about the low probability of any particular person's coming into existence to reason that an earlier wrong act does not harm that person. This article argues that that line of reasoning is unusually (...)
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  10.  43
    The Nonidentity Problem and the Two Envelope Problem: When is One Act Better for a Person Than Another?Melinda A. Roberts - 2009 - In David Wasserman & Melinda Roberts (eds.), Harming Future Persons. Springer. pp. 201--228.
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  11.  34
    Phenomenological Constraints: A Problem for Radical Enactivism.Michael Roberts - 2018 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 17 (2):375-399.
    This paper does two things. Firstly, it clarifies the way that phenomenological data is meant to constrain cognitive science according to enactivist thinkers. Secondly, it points to inconsistencies in the ‘Radical Enactivist’ handling of this issue, so as to explicate the commitments that enactivists need to make in order to tackle the explanatory gap. I begin by sketching the basic features of enactivism in sections 1–2, focusing upon enactive accounts of perception. I suggest that enactivist ideas here rely heavily upon (...)
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  12.  62
    A New Way of Doing the Best That We Can: Person‐Based Consequentialism and the Equality Problem.M. A. Roberts - 2002 - Ethics 112 (2):315-350.
  13. Social Laws in Alternating Time: Effectiveness, Feasibility, and Synthesis.Wiebe van der Hoek, Mark Roberts & Michael Wooldridge - 2007 - Synthese 156 (1):1-19.
    Since it was first proposed by Moses, Shoham, and Tennenholtz, the social laws paradigm has proved to be one of the most compelling approaches to the offline coordination of multiagent systems. In this paper, we make four key contributions to the theory and practice of social laws in multiagent systems. First, we show that the Alternating-time Temporal Logic (atl) of Alur, Henzinger, and Kupferman provides an elegant and powerful framework within which to express and understand social laws for multiagent systems. (...)
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  14.  44
    Temkin's Essentially Comparative View, Wrongful Life and the Mere Addition Paradox.M. A. Roberts - 2014 - Analysis 74 (2):306-326.
  15. Is the Person-Affecting Intuition Paradoxical?Melinda A. Roberts - 2003 - Theory and Decision 55 (1):1-44.
    This article critically examines some of the inconsistency objections that have been put forward by John Broome, Larry Temkin and others against the so-called "person-affecting," or "person-based," restriction in normative ethics, including "extra people" problems and a version of the nonidentity problem from Kavka and Parfit. Certain Pareto principles and a version of the "mere addition paradox" are discussed along the way. The inconsistencies at issue can be avoided, it is argued, by situating the person-affecting intuition within a non-additive form (...)
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  16.  32
    Strategies in Relational Inference.Maxwell J. Roberts - 2000 - Thinking and Reasoning 6 (1):1 – 26.
    Three experiments are reported in which the relationships between task format, item type, and strategy usage were investigated for a two-dimensional relational inference task. Contrary to past findings with linear syllogisms, it was found that parallel presentation (presenting problem statements simultaneously) did not result in any increased use of deduction rule processes compared with serial presentation (presenting problem statements individually). Instead, the results suggested that mental models were used by the majority of subjects, and that multiple models were more likely (...)
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  17.  91
    What is the Wrong of Wrongful Disability? From Chance to Choice to Harms to Persons.M. A. Roberts - 2009 - Law and Philosophy 28 (1):1 - 57.
    The issue of wrongful disability arises when parents face the choice whether to produce a child whose life will be unavoidably flawed by a serious disease or disorder (Down syndrome, for example, or Huntington’s disease) yet clearly worth living. The authors of From Chance to Choice claim, with certain restrictions, that the choice to produce such a child is morally wrong. They then argue that an intuitive moral approach––a “person-affecting” approach that pins wrongdoing to the harming of some existing or (...)
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  18.  26
    Social Laws in Alternating Time: Effectiveness, Feasibility, and Synthesis.Wiebe van Der Hoek, Mark Roberts & Michael Wooldridge - 2007 - Synthese 156 (1):1-19.
    Since it was first proposed by Moses, Shoham, and Tennenholtz, the social laws paradigm has proved to be one of the most compelling approaches to the offline coordination of multiagent systems. In this paper, we make four key contributions to the theory and practice of social laws in multiagent systems. First, we show that the "Alternating-time Temporal Logic" of Alur, Henzinger, and Kupferman provides an elegant and powerful framework within which to express and understand social laws for multiagent systems. Second, (...)
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  19.  45
    The Production of the Psychiatric Subject: Power, Knowledge and Michel Foucault.Marc Roberts - 2005 - Nursing Philosophy 6 (1):33-42.
    The issue of power has become increasingly important within psychiatry, psychotherapy and mental health nursing generally. This paper will suggest that the work of Michel Foucault, the French philosopher and historian, has much to contribute to the discussion about the nature, existence and exercise of power within contemporary mental health care. As well as examining his original and challenging account of power, Foucault's emphasis on the intimate relationship between power and knowledge will be explored within the context of psychiatry and (...)
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  20. Critical Realism and Marxism.Andrew Brown, Steve Fleetwood, Michael Roberts & John Michael Roberts - 2002 - Psychology Press.
    Critical Realism and Marxism addresses controversial debates, revealing a potentially fruitful relationship; deepening our understanding of the social world and contibuting towards eliminating barbarism in contemporary capitalism.
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  21.  18
    Self‐Organized Trail Systems in Groups of Humans.Robert L. Goldstone & Michael E. Roberts - 2006 - Complexity 11 (6):43-50.
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  22.  28
    Quantifier Interpretation and Syllogistic Reasoning.Maxwell J. Roberts, Stephen E. Newstead & Richard A. Griggs - 2001 - Thinking and Reasoning 7 (2):173 – 204.
    Many researchers have suggested that premise interpretation errors can account, at least in part, for errors on categorical syllogisms. However, although it is possible to show that people make such errors in simple inference tasks, the evidence for them is far less clear when actual syllogisms are administered. Part of the problem is due to the lack of clear predictions for the solutions that would be expected when using modified quantifiers, assuming that correct inferences are made from them. This paper (...)
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  23. Toward a Theory of Culturally Relevant Critical Teacher Care: African American Teachers' Definitions and Perceptions of Care for African American Students.Mari Ann Roberts - 2010 - Journal of Moral Education 39 (4):449-467.
    Growing research evidence on the ethic of care suggests that caring should be an integral part of the pedagogical methods implemented in schools. However, the colour blind ?community of care? often described in the literature does not disaggregate lines of ethnicity or race and much of this existing literature concerns elementary? and middle?school students. This phenomenological study examined teacher care for African American secondary students, through a theoretical lens of critical race and care theory, as it was represented through the (...)
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  24.  49
    Is a Person-Affecting Solution to the Nonidentity Problem Impossible? Axiology, Accessibility and Additional People.Melinda A. Roberts - 2017 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 47 (2-3):200-228.
    This paper considers two objections based in axiological considerations against the position that whether a given outcome, or possible future or world, is morally worse than a second world may depend in part on what is going on at a third world. Such a wide-angled approach to determining worseness is critical to the solution I have previously proposed in connection with the nonidentity problem. I argue that both objections fail.
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  25.  24
    Gilles Deleuze: Psychiatry, Subjectivity, and the Passive Synthesis of Time.Marc Roberts - 2006 - Nursing Philosophy 7 (4):191-204.
  26.  22
    Good Intentions and a Great Divide: Having Babies by Intending Them. [REVIEW]Melinda A. Roberts - 1993 - Law and Philosophy 12 (3):287 - 317.
    Thus, there is a compelling policy argument as well as a suggestive constitutional argument that the practice of selling parental rights in general, and in particular the practice of commercial surrogacy, should not be permitted. These arguments favor the approach adopted in New York State as opposed to any more latitudinarian approach that would permit commercial surrogacy. Clearly, if the payment of money in exchange for parental rights should be prohibited, then we have a strong basis on which to reject (...)
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  27.  1
    Toward the Postmodern.Jean François Lyotard, Robert Harvey & Mark S. Roberts (eds.) - 1993 - Humanity Books.
    Brings together previously unpublished essays by one of the most important philosophers of the last three decades of the 20th century. This authorized compilation of 13 essays reflect the main stages of Lyotard's thought-the libidinal, the pagan, and the intractable-leading toward his account of the postmodern in contemporary thought and culture.
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  28.  8
    Analytical Marxism: A Critique.Marcus Roberts - 1996 - Verso.
    In the 1980s, leading philosophers at Oxford, Chicago and UCLA undertook a controversial reassessment of Marxism using the techniques of analytical philosophy. The aim of these so-called "Non-Bullshit" Marxists was no less than the complete reconstruction of Marxist theory, recasting it on a logical and rigorous basis, free from all metaphysical jargon and sentimentality. Marcus Roberts's study serves as a lucid survey of the Analytical Marxists' contributions to the understanding of historical materialism, exploitation, class structure, method, politics and ethics—a panoramic (...)
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  29.  13
    A Critical Analysis of the Failure of Nurses to Raise Concerns About Poor Patient Care.Marc Roberts - 2017 - Nursing Philosophy 18 (3):e12149.
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  30. P-Model Alternative to the T-Model.Mark D. Roberts - 2004 - Web Journal of Formal, Computational and Logical Linguistics 5:1-18.
    Standard linguistic analysis of syntax uses the T-model. This model requires the ordering: D-structure > S-structure > LF, where D-structure is the sentences deep structure, S-structure is its surface structure, and LF is its logical form. Between each of these representations there is movement which alters the order of the constituent words; movement is achieved using the principles and parameters of syntactic theory. Psychological analysis of sentence production is usually either serial or connectionist. Psychological serial models do not accommodate the (...)
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  31.  52
    Realizing Societal Benefit From Academic Research: Analysis of the National Science Foundation's Broader Impacts Criterion.Melanie R. Roberts - 2009 - Social Epistemology 23 (3):199-219.
    The National Science Foundation (NSF) evaluates grant proposals based on two criteria: intellectual merit and broader impacts. NSF gives applicants wide latitude to choose among a number of broader impacts, which include both benefits for the scientific community and benefits for society. This paper considers whether including potential societal benefits in the Broader Impacts Criterion leads to enhanced benefits for society. One prerequisite for realizing societal benefit is to transfer research results to potential users in a meaningful format. To determine (...)
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  32. Analytical Marxism.M. Roberts - 1998 - Philosophy East and West 48:187-187.
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  33. Does Meaning Evolve?Mark D. Roberts - 2004 - Behavior and Philosophy 32 (2):401 - 426.
    A common method of making a theory more understandable is to compare it to another theory that has been better developed. Radical interpretation is a theory that attempts to explain how communication has meaning. Radical interpretation is treated as another time-dependent theory and compared to the time-dependent theory of biological evolution. The main reason for doing this is to find the nature of the time dependence; producing analogs between the two theories is a necessary prerequisite to this and brings up (...)
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  34.  57
    Capitalism, Psychiatry, and Schizophrenia: A Critical Introduction to Deleuze and Guattari?S Anti-Oedipus.Marc Roberts - 2007 - Nursing Philosophy 8 (2):114-127.
  35.  16
    Copie Subversive : Le Journalisme Féministe En France À la Fin du Siècle Dernier.Mary Louise Roberts - 1997 - Clio: A Journal of Literature, History, and the Philosophy of History 6.
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  36. Ultrametric Distance in Syntax.Mark D. Roberts - manuscript
    Phrase structure trees have a hierarchical structure. In many subjects, most notably in {\bf taxonomy} such tree structures have been studied using ultrametrics. Here syntactical hierarchical phrase trees are subject to a similar analysis, which is much simpler as the branching structure is more readily discernible and switched. The occurrence of hierarchical structure elsewhere in linguistics is mentioned. The phrase tree can be represented by a matrix and the elements of the matrix can be represented by triangles. The height at (...)
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  37.  3
    Critical Thinking and Contemporary Mental Health Care: Michel Foucault's “History of the Present”.Marc Roberts - 2017 - Nursing Inquiry 24 (2):e12167.
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  38.  11
    High Culture: Reflections on Addiction and Modernity.Anna Alexander & Mark S. Roberts (eds.) - 2002 - State University of New York Press.
    Addresses the place of addiction in modern art, literature, philosophy, and psychology, including its effects on the works of such thinkers and writers as Heidegger, Nietzsche, DeQuincey, Breton, and Burroughs.
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  39.  53
    On Constructing the Disorder of Hysteria.D. B. Allison & M. S. Roberts - 1994 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (3):239-259.
    The concept of hysteria is traced from Hippocrates, where it was thought to be caused by a wandering uterus, through Galen and up to Freud. Throughout the history of medicine from the early Greeks up to the end of the nineteenth century, the definition and diagnosis of hysteria had a function similar to that found in the persecution of witchcraft: it sought to eradicate the outbursts of nonconforming and emotionally threatening conduct of women. At the beginning of the twentieth century, (...)
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  40.  15
    Similarity and Attraction Effects in Episodic Memory Judgments.Elizabeth A. Maylor & Matthew A. J. Roberts - 2007 - Cognition 105 (3):715-723.
  41.  24
    Rephrasing the Freudian Unconscious: Lyotard's Affect-Phrase"Emma."Heidegger and "The Jews."The InhumanLectures D'Enfance. [REVIEW]Anne Tomiche, Jean-Francois Lyotard, Andreas Michel, Mark S. Roberts, Geoff Bennington & Rachel Bowlby - 1994 - Diacritics 24 (1):42.
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  42. Analytical Marxism-An Ex-Paradigm? The Odyssey of GA Cohen.Marcus Roberts - 1997 - Radical Philosophy 82:17-28.
     
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  43.  1
    Mapping Scientific Disputes That Affect Public Policymaking.Michael J. Dowling, Stephen R. Thomas & Marc J. Roberts - 1984 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 9 (1):112-122.
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  44.  23
    Time, Human Being and Mental Health Care: An Introduction to Gilles Deleuze.Marc Roberts - 2005 - Nursing Philosophy 6 (3):161-173.
  45.  15
    If Sugar is Addictive… What Does It Mean for the Law?Ashley Gearhardt, Michael Roberts & Marice Ashe - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (s1):46-49.
    Sugar consumption has long been linked with a host of chronic health problems, including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. To reduce Americans’ intake, many have called for taxing sugary products or limiting access in certain environments like schools and workplaces. These sometimes controversial calls for new public policy to curb consumption may soon be eclipsed by newly emerging links between sugar and addiction.Attaching the label “addictive” to a substance like sugar, which is necessary for human life, challenges widely held beliefs (...)
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  46.  10
    Supernumerary Pregnancies, the Harm Issue and the Limits of Constitutional Privacy.Melinda A. Roberts - 2005 - Journal of Philosophical Research 30 (Supplement):105-117.
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  47.  20
    Human Cloning: A Case of No Harm Done?M. A. Roberts - 1996 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 21 (5):537-554.
    Some have objected to the laboratory cloning of human preembryos on the grounds that the procedure would violate the dignity of and respect owed to human preembryos. Others have argued that human cloning ought be permitted if it will predictably benefit, or at least not burden, individuals who are, unlike the human preembryo, clearly entitled to our respect and concern. Taking this latter position, the legal theorist John A. Robertson has argued that, since cloning does not harm anyone who is (...)
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  48.  3
    Does the Transparency of the Counting System Affect Children's Numerical Abilities?Ann Dowker & Manon Roberts - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  49.  9
    If Sugar Is Addictive…What Does It Mean for the Law?Ashley Gearhardt, Michael Roberts & Marice Ashe - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (s1):46-49.
    Newly emerging links between sugar and addiction raise challenging issues for public health policy. What was once a naturally occurring food ingredient is now a highly concentrated food additive. If foods containing artificially high levels of sugar are capable of triggering addictive behaviors, how should policymakers respond? What regulatory steps would be suitable and practical? This paper explores the concept and definition of addiction and presents evidence of the addictive potential of sugar. It also explores the legal implications if sufficient (...)
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  50. Name Strategy: Its Existence and Implications.Mark D. Roberts - 2005 - Int.J.Computational Cognition 3:1-14.
    It is argued that colour name strategy, object name strategy, and chunking strategy in memory are all aspects of the same general phenomena, called stereotyping, and this in turn is an example of a know-how representation. Such representations are argued to have their origin in a principle called the minimum duplication of resources. For most the subsequent discussions existence of colour name strategy suffices. It is pointed out that the BerlinA- KayA universal partial ordering of colours and the frequency of (...)
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