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Myrdene Anderson [55]Michael L. Anderson [48]Michael Anderson [34]Mark Anderson [18]
Michael C. Anderson [10]Melissa S. Anderson [9]M. Anderson [9]Miranda Anderson [8]

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Mark Anderson
Belmont University
Miranda Anderson
University of Edinburgh
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  1. Neural Reuse: A Fundamental Organizational Principle of the Brain.Michael L. Anderson - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (4):245.
    An emerging class of theories concerning the functional structure of the brain takes the reuse of neural circuitry for various cognitive purposes to be a central organizational principle. According to these theories, it is quite common for neural circuits established for one purpose to be exapted (exploited, recycled, redeployed) during evolution or normal development, and be put to different uses, often without losing their original functions. Neural reuse theories thus differ from the usual understanding of the role of neural plasticity (...)
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  2. Machine Ethics.M. Anderson & S. Anderson (eds.) - 2011 - Cambridge Univ. Press.
    The essays in this volume represent the first steps by philosophers and artificial intelligence researchers toward explaining why it is necessary to add an ...
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  3. Embodied Cognition: A Field Guide.Michael L. Anderson - 2003 - Artificial Intelligence 149 (1):91-130.
    The nature of cognition is being re-considered. Instead of emphasizing formal operations on abstract symbols, the new approach foregrounds the fact that cognition is, rather, a situated activity, and suggests that thinking beings ought therefore be considered first and foremost as acting beings. The essay reviews recent work in Embodied Cognition, provides a concise guide to its principles, attitudes and goals, and identifies the physical grounding project as its central research focus.
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  4.  42
    Moral Luck as Moral Lack of Control.Mark B. Anderson - 2019 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 57 (1):5-29.
    When Thomas Nagel originally coined the expression “moral luck,” he used the term “luck” to mean lack of control. This use was a matter of stipulation, as Nagel’s target had little to do with luck itself, but the question of how control is related to moral responsibility. Since then, we have seen several analyses of the concept of luck itself, and recent contributors to the moral luck literature have often assumed that any serious contribution to the moral luck debate must (...)
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  5. Eroding the Boundaries of Cognition: Implications of Embodiment1.Michael L. Anderson, Michael J. Richardson & Anthony Chemero - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (4):717-730.
    To accept that cognition is embodied is to question many of the beliefs traditionally held by cognitive scientists. One key question regards the localization of cognitive faculties. Here we argue that for cognition to be embodied and sometimes embedded, means that the cognitive faculty cannot be localized in a brain area alone. We review recent research on neural reuse, the 1/f structure of human activity, tool use, group cognition, and social coordination dynamics that we believe demonstrates how the boundary between (...)
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  6.  93
    Mining the Brain for a New Taxonomy of the Mind.Michael L. Anderson - 2015 - Philosophy Compass 10 (1):68-77.
    In this paper, I summarize an emerging debate in the cognitive sciences over the right taxonomy for understanding cognition – the right theory of and vocabulary for describing the structure of the mind – and the proper role of neuroscientific evidence in specifying this taxonomy. In part because the discussion clearly entails a deep reconsideration of the supposed autonomy of psychology from neuroscience, this is a debate in which philosophers should be interested, with which they should be familiar, and to (...)
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  7.  75
    The Problem with Brain GUTs: Conflation of Different Senses of “Prediction” Threatens Metaphysical Disaster.Michael L. Anderson & Tony Chemero - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (3):204-205.
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  8.  12
    Consensus on Peirce’s Concept of Habit: Before and Beyond Consciousness.Myrdene Anderson & Donna West (eds.) - 2016 - Springer Verlag.
    This book constitutes the first treatment of C. S. Peirce’s unique concept of habit. Habit animated the pragmatists of the 19th and early 20th centuries, who picked up the baton from classical scholars, principally Aristotle. Most prominent among the pragmatists thereafter is Charles Sanders Peirce. In our vernacular, habit connotes a pattern of conduct. Nonetheless, Peirce’s concept transcends application to mere regularity or to human conduct; it extends into natural and social phenomena, making cohesive inner and outer worlds. Chapters in (...)
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  9.  54
    Neural Mechanisms of Motivated Forgetting.Michael C. Anderson & Simon Hanslmayr - 2014 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (6):279-292.
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  10.  49
    Précis of After Phrenology: Neural Reuse and the Interactive Brain.Michael L. Anderson - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39:1-22.
    Neural reuse is a form of neuroplasticity whereby neural elements originally developed for one purpose are put to multiple uses. A diverse behavioral repertoire is achieved by means of the creation of multiple, nested, and overlapping neural coalitions, in which each neural element is a member of multiple different coalitions and cooperates with a different set of partners at different times. Neural reuse has profound implications for how we think about our continuity with other species, for how we understand the (...)
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  11. The Massive Redeployment Hypothesis and the Functional Topography of the Brain.Michael L. Anderson - 2008 - Philosophical Psychology 21 (2):143-174.
    This essay introduces the massive redeployment hypothesis, an account of the functional organization of the brain that centrally features the fact that brain areas are typically employed to support numerous functions. The central contribution of the essay is to outline a middle course between strict localization on the one hand, and holism on the other, in such a way as to account for the supporting data on both sides of the argument. The massive redeployment hypothesis is supported by case studies (...)
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  12.  71
    The Perverse Effects of Competition on Scientists' Work and Relationships.Melissa S. Anderson, Emily A. Ronning, Raymond De Vries & Brian C. Martinson - 2007 - Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (4):437-461.
    Competition among scientists for funding, positions and prestige, among other things, is often seen as a salutary driving force in U.S. science. Its effects on scientists, their work and their relationships are seldom considered. Focus-group discussions with 51 mid- and early-career scientists, on which this study is based, reveal a dark side of competition in science. According to these scientists, competition contributes to strategic game-playing in science, a decline in free and open sharing of information and methods, sabotage of others’ (...)
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  13. Content and Action: The Guidance Theory of Representation.Gregg H. Rosenberg & Michael L. Anderson - 2008 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 29 (1-2):55-86.
    The current essay introduces the guidance theory of representation, according to which the content and intentionality of representations can be accounted for in terms of the way they provide guidance for action. The guidance theory offers a way of fixing representational content that gives the causal and evolutionary history of the subject only an indirect role, and an account of representational error, based on failure of action, that does not rely on any such notions as proper functions, ideal conditions, or (...)
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  14.  38
    A Prima Facie Duty Approach to Machine Ethics Machine Learning of Features of Ethical Dilemmas, Prima Facie Duties, and Decision Principles Through a Dialogue with Ethicists.Susan Leigh Anderson & Michael Anderson - 2011 - In M. Anderson S. Anderson (ed.), Machine Ethics. Cambridge Univ. Press.
  15. Massive Redeployment, Exaptation, and the Functional Integration of Cognitive Operations.Michael L. Anderson - 2007 - Synthese 159 (3):329 - 345.
    Abstract: The massive redeployment hypothesis (MRH) is a theory about the functional topography of the human brain, offering a middle course between strict localization on the one hand, and holism on the other. Central to MRH is the claim that cognitive evolution proceeded in a way analogous to component reuse in software engineering, whereby existing components-originally developed to serve some specific purpose-were used for new purposes and combined to support new capacities, without disrupting their participation in existing programs. If the (...)
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  16.  11
    Memory Control: A Fundamental Mechanism of Emotion Regulation.Haakon G. Engen & Michael C. Anderson - 2018 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 22 (11):982-995.
  17.  14
    Extended Skill Learning.Edward Baggs, Vicente Raja & Michael L. Anderson - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
  18.  10
    The Massive Redeployment Hypothesis and the Functional Topography of the Brain.Michael L. Anderson - 2007 - Philosophical Psychology 20 (2):143-174.
  19. Neural Reuse in the Evolution and Development of the Brain: Evidence for Developmental.Marcie Penner-Wilger & Michael L. Anderson - unknown
    This paper lays out some of the empirical evidence for the importance of neural reuse—the reuse of existing (inherited and/or early-developing) neural circuitry for multiple behavioral purposes—in defining the overall functional structure of the brain. We then discuss in some detail one particular instance of such reuse: the involvement of a local neural circuit in finger awareness, number representation, and other diverse functions. Finally, we consider whether and how the notion of a developmental homology can help us understand the relationships (...)
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  20.  11
    On the Status of Inhibitory Mechanisms in Cognition: Memory Retrieval as a Model Case.Michael C. Anderson & Barbara A. Spellman - 1995 - Psychological Review 102 (1):68-100.
  21. Can a Theory-Laden Observation Test the Theory?A. Franklin, M. Anderson, D. Brock, S. Coleman, J. Downing, A. Gruvander, J. Lilly, J. Neal, D. Peterson, M. Price, R. Rice, L. Smith, S. Speirer & D. Toering - 1989 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 40 (2):229-231.
  22.  68
    Legein to What End?Merrick Anderson - 2019 - Australasian Philosophical Review 3 (2):176-182.
    In the 5th century a number of sophists challenged the orthodox understanding of morality and claimed that practicing injustice was the best and most profitable way for an individual to live. Although a number of responses to sophistic immoralism were made, one argument, in fact coming from a pair of sophists, has not received the attention it deserves. According to the argument I call Immortal Repute, self-interested individuals should reject immorality and cultivate virtue instead, for only a virtuous agent can (...)
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  23.  56
    How Can the Study of the Humanities Inform the Study of Biosemiotics?Donald Favareau, Kalevi Kull, Gerald Ostdiek, Timo Maran, Louise Westling, Paul Cobley, Frederik Stjernfelt, Myrdene Anderson, Morten Tønnessen & Wendy Wheeler - 2017 - Biosemiotics 10 (1):9-31.
    This essay – a collection of contributions from 10 scholars working in the field of biosemiotics and the humanities – considers nature in culture. It frames this by asking the question ‘Why does biosemiotics need the humanities?’. Each author writes from the background of their own disciplinary perspective in order to throw light upon their interdisciplinary engagement with biosemiotics. We start with Donald Favareau, whose originary disciplinary home is ethnomethodology and linguistics, and then move on to Paul Cobley’s contribution on (...)
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  24.  49
    Molinism, Open Theism, and Soteriological Luck.Mark B. Anderson - 2011 - Religious Studies 47 (3):371-381.
    It is sometimes claimed by open theists that, on Molinism, God controls who is saved and who is damned and that, as a consequence, God's judgement of us is unjust. While this charge is usually lumped under the problem of evil, it could easily be classified under the problem of soteriological luck. I argue that the open theist is impugned by this latter problem. I then show that the Molinist has a solution to both problems and consider objections to that (...)
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  25.  59
    Rights-Based Food Systems and the Goals of Food Systems Reform.Molly D. Anderson - 2008 - Agriculture and Human Values 25 (4):593-608.
    Food security, health, decent livelihoods, gender equity, safe working conditions, cultural identity and participation in cultural life are basic human rights that can be achieved at least in part through the food system. But current trends in the US prevent full realization of these economic, social, and cultural rights (ESCR) for residents, farmers, and wageworkers in the food system. Supply chains that strive to meet the goals of social justice, economic equity, and environmental quality better than the dominant globalized food (...)
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  26.  3
    An Approach for Combining Ethical Principles with Public Opinion to Guide Public Policy.Edmond Awad, Michael Anderson, Susan Leigh Anderson & Beishui Liao - 2020 - Artificial Intelligence 287:103349.
  27. The Status of Machine Ethics: A Report From the AAAI Symposium. [REVIEW]Michael Anderson & Susan Leigh Anderson - 2007 - Minds and Machines 17 (1):1-10.
    This paper is a summary and evaluation of work presented at the AAAI 2005 Fall Symposium on Machine Ethics that brought together participants from the fields of Computer Science and Philosophy to the end of clarifying the nature of this newly emerging field and discussing different approaches one could take towards realizing the ultimate goal of creating an ethical machine.
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  28. Collective Openness and Other Recommendations for the Promotion of Research Integrity.Melissa S. Anderson - 2007 - Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (4):387-394.
  29.  6
    AFHVS 2020 Presidential Address: Pushing Beyond the Boundaries.Molly D. Anderson - 2021 - Agriculture and Human Values 38 (3):607-610.
    In this 2020 AFHVS Presidential Address, Molly Anderson suggests that we must push beyond the boundaries imposed by our training, institutional reward systems, political system and comfort zones in order to solve global challenges. She lists five challenges facing those who are trying to build more sustainable food systems: overcoming the technocratic and productivist approach of industrial agriculture, avoiding future pandemics, restoring degraded and depleted systems and resources, remaining united as a movement while creating collaborations with other movements, and redistributing (...)
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  30. Thrasymachus’ Sophistic Account of Justice in Republic I.Merrick E. Anderson - 2016 - Ancient Philosophy 36 (1):151-172.
    In this paper, I oppose the now-dominant view that Thrasymachus offers a definition of justice in Book I of the Republic. This way of interpretation Thrasymachus does not pay sufficient attention to the methodological assumptions he makes during his disagreement with Socrates. To better understand Socrates’ antagonist, it is crucial to remember that he was, in fact, a sophist. I argue that what the character Thrasymachus is doing in Book I is importantly akin to a certain genre of sophistic arguments (...)
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  31.  13
    The Mba Oath: Setting a Higher Standard for Business Leaders.Max Anderson - 2010 - Portfolio.
    The trouble with business schools -- The great, but delicate experiment -- A hippocratic oath for business -- Six more arguments for the MBA oath -- The purpose of a manager -- Ethics and integrity -- No man is an island : stakeholders -- Ambition and good faith -- The letter and the spirit : law -- The sunlight of responsibility : transparency -- Personal and professional growth -- Sustainable prosperity : a partnership for living well -- Accountability.
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  32. Socrates as Hoplite.Mark Anderson - 2005 - Ancient Philosophy 25 (2):273-289.
  33.  13
    Emotional and Non-Emotional Memories Are Suppressible Under Direct Suppression Instructions.Kevin van Schie, Elke Geraerts & Michael C. Anderson - 2013 - Cognition and Emotion 27 (6):1122-1131.
  34.  11
    Direct Suppression as a Mechanism for Controlling Unpleasant Memories in Daily Life.Charlotte S. Küpper, Roland G. Benoit, Tim Dalgleish & Michael C. Anderson - 2014 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143 (4):1443-1449.
  35.  34
    What Phantom Limbs Are.Michael L. Anderson - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 64:216-226.
  36. Circuit Sharing and the Implementation of Intelligent Systems.Michael Anderson - manuscript
    One of the most foundational and continually contested questions in the cognitive sciences is the degree to which the functional organization of the brain can be understood as modular. In its classic formulation, a module was defined as a cognitive sub-system with nine specific properties; the classic module is, among other things, domain specific, encapsulated, and implemented in dedicated neural substrates. Most of the examinations—and especially the criticisms—of the modularity thesis have focused on these properties individually, for instance by finding (...)
     
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  37.  8
    Reconsidering Unconscious Persistence: Suppressing Unwanted Memories Reduces Their Indirect Expression in Later Thoughts.Yingying Wang, Andrea Luppi, Jonathan Fawcett & Michael C. Anderson - 2019 - Cognition 187:78-94.
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  38. Cognitive Science and Epistemic Openness.Michael L. Anderson - 2006 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 5 (2):125-154.
    b>. Recent findings in cognitive science suggest that the epistemic subject is more complex and epistemically porous than is generally pictured. Human knowers are open to the world via multiple channels, each operating for particular purposes and according to its own logic. These findings need to be understood and addressed by the philosophical community. The current essay argues that one consequence of the new findings is to invalidate certain arguments for epistemic anti-realism.
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  39.  50
    Introduction to Symposium on Food Sovereignty: Expanding the Analysis and Application. [REVIEW]Molly D. Anderson & Anne C. Bellows - 2012 - Agriculture and Human Values 29 (2):177-184.
  40. A Brief Introduction to the Guidance Theory of Representation.Gregg H. Rosenberg & Michael L. Anderson - unknown
    Recent trends in the philosophy of mind and cognitive science can be fruitfully characterized as part of the ongoing attempt to come to grips with the very idea of homo sapiens--an intelligent, evolved, biological agent--and its signature contribution is the emergence of a philosophical anthropology which, contra Descartes and his thinking thing, instead puts doing at the center of human being. Applying this agency-oriented line of thinking to the problem of representation, this paper introduces the Guidance Theory, according to which (...)
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  41.  12
    Pedagogical Support for Responsible Conduct of Research Training.Misti Ault Anderson - 2016 - Hastings Center Report 46 (1):18-25.
    The number of training programs for the responsible conduct of research has increased substantially over the past few decades as the importance of research ethics has received greater attention. It is unclear, however, whether the proliferation of RCR training programs has improved researcher integrity or the public's trust in science. Rather than training researchers simply to comply with regulations, we could use the opportunity to develop researchers' ability to understand and appreciate the ethical ideals that inform the regulations in order (...)
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  42.  28
    Predictive Validity of the N2 and P3 ERP Components to Executive Functioning in Children: A Latent-Variable Analysis.Christopher R. Brydges, Allison M. Fox, Corinne L. Reid & Mike Anderson - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  43. Logic, Self-Awareness and Self-Improvement: The Metacognitive Loop Andthe Problem of Brittleness.Michael Anderson - manuscript
    This essay describes a general approach to building perturbation-tolerant autonomous systems, based on the conviction that artificial agents should be able to notice when something is amiss, assess the anomaly, and guide a solution into place. This basic strategy of self-guided learning is termed the metacognitive loop; it involves the system monitoring, reasoning about, and, when necessary, altering its own decision-making components. This paper (a) argues that equipping agents with a metacognitive loop can help to overcome the brittleness problem, (b) (...)
     
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  44.  5
    Ethics in Global Research: Creating a Toolkit to Support Integrity and Ethical Action Throughout the Research Journey.Corinne Reid, Clara Calia, Cristóbal Guerra, Liz Grant, Matilda Anderson, Khama Chibwana, Paul Kawale & Action Amos - 2021 - Research Ethics 17 (3):359-374.
    Global challenge-led research seeks to contribute to solution-generation for complex problems. Multicultural, multidisciplinary, and multisectoral teams must be capable of operating in highly deman...
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  45.  3
    Indexing Burdens and Benefits of Treatment to Age: Revisiting Paul Ramsey’s “Medical Indications” Policy.Matthew Lee Anderson - 2021 - Christian Bioethics 27 (2):183-202.
    This essay reconsiders Paul Ramsey’s “medical indications” policy and argues that his reconstruction of the case of Joseph Saikewicz demonstrates that there is more room for caretakers to decline treatments for “voiceless dependents” than his interlocutors have sometimes thought. It furthermore draws on Ramsey’s earlier work to propose ways that Ramsey might have improved his policy, and argues that the shortcomings of Ramsey’s view arise from his bracketing of age in making determinations about what form of medical care is owed. (...)
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  46. Research Misconduct and Misbehavior.Melissa S. Anderson - 2011 - In Tricia Bertram Gallant (ed.), Creating the Ethical Academy: A Systems Approach to Understanding Misconduct and Empowering Change in Higher Education. Routledge.
     
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  47. Representation, Evolution and Embodiment.Michael L. Anderson - 2005 - Theoria Et Historia Scientarum.
    As part of the ongoing attempt to fully naturalize the concept of human being--and, more specifically, to re-center it around the notion of agency--this essay discusses an approach to defining the content of representations in terms ultimately derived from their central, evolved function of providing guidance for action. This 'guidance theory' of representation is discussed in the context of, and evaluated with respect to, two other biologically inspired theories of representation: Dan Lloyd's dialectical theory of representation and Ruth Millikan's biosemantics.
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  48.  8
    What Doesn’T Kill You Makes You Stronger: Psychological Trauma and its Relationship to Enhanced Memory Control.Justin C. Hulbert & Michael C. Anderson - 2018 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 147 (12):1931-1949.
  49. Misconduct and Departmental Context-Evidence From the Acadia Institute's Graduate Education Project.M. S. Anderson - 1996 - Journal of Information Ethics 5 (1):15-33.
  50.  53
    Normative Orientations of University Faculty and Doctoral Students.Melissa S. Anderson - 2000 - Science and Engineering Ethics 6 (4):443-461.
    Data from two national surveys of 4,000 faculty and doctoral students in chemistry, civil engineering, microbiology and sociology indicate that both faculty and students subscribe strongly to traditional norms but are more likely to see alternative counternorms enacted in their departments. They also show significant effects of departmental climate on normative orientations and suggest that many researchers express some degree of ambivalence about traditional norms.
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