"Crónica à clef" es fruto de la lectura a Estrella de dos puntas (Ariel, 2021), libro reconocido con el Premio Xavier Villaurrutia, que presenta una disertación basada en la investigación epistolar entre Carlos Fuentes y Octavio Paz. Gracias al seguimiento, Malva Flores propone algunas conclusiones que generarán un debate en la discusión sobre el campo cultural en México.
The paper contains a detailed discussion of the concepts of reflection and expressivity and attempts to exhibit their central role in the Herderian philosophy of language as well as their character as a leading thread throughout Herders theories of culture and history. Herders idea of a wide ..
This review will develop a theme from the theoretical contrast between Max Weber and Adorno approach of the concept of “progress”, read by their discussions on, respectively, “The Meaning of Wertfreiheit in Sociology and Economics” (1917) and “Fortschritt”, (Progress, 1962). After establishing a comparison between both writings and their theoretical tools, we shall identify the differences in resources by the critical and traditional theory elements. The opposition shall become more distinctly as the comparison reach the historical examples from their readings (...) on Art History. Weber has employed a general bias to equate musical productions and painting, as Adorno, on the other hand, forecast something quite different as he followed the same guideline, the technical progress. (shrink)
The text attempts to look upon globalization in the education as a problem, referring to the governmental strategy that guaranties the control and the social development beginning from a modernization project that is not determined. Therefore, when taking into account as a frame of reference the centuries XIX and XX, it is shown the ‘education role’ as a control mechanism in permanent relation with the public politics and it is questioned its apparent liberal character.
A obra apresenta uma discussão sobre o sentido da democracia e sua relação com os padrões de dominação presentes na sociedade. A ordem democrática liberal não pode ser entendida como a efetiva realização dos valores que promete, pois a igualdade entre os cidadãos, a possibilidade de influenciar as decisões coletivas e a capacidade de desfrutar de direitos são sensíveis às múltiplas assimetrias que vigoram na sociedade. Porém, tampouco pode ser lida segundo a crítica convencional às "liberdades formais" e à "democracia (...) burguesa", que a apresenta como mera fachada desprovida de qualquer sentido real. Assim, a democracia não é um ponto de chegada, e sim um momento de um conflito que se manifesta como sendo entre aqueles que desejam domá-la, tornando-a compatível com uma reprodução incontestada das assimetrias sociais, e quem, ao contrário, pretende usá-la para aprofundar contradições e avançar no combate às desigualdades. Portanto, o conflito na democracia é um conflito também sobre o sentido da democracia, isto é, sobre quanto ela pode se realizar no mundo real como projeto emancipatório e quanto as instituições vigentes contribuem para promovê-la ou para refreá-la. (shrink)
Maslow’s Human Motivation extended Theory, in its late version, proposed transcendence as one of the highest levels, inclusive or holistic in the Human consciousness. Through Meaning Theory, Victor Frankl and Paul Wong suggested that self-transcendence is a fundamental expression of our spiritual nature and a distinctive concept. However, it is not clear whether at present, with an extensive offer of individualistic currents, transcending involves a personal issue or is rather a collective issue, related to community and culture. The objective of (...) this research is to determine if seeking personal transcendence and seeking collective transcendence are two differentiable categories, and if there is a priority among them, which would suggest an extension of the Theory. With the participation of 402 business students in Mexico, and with the help of a structured equation model, it was determined that there is a significant difference between orientation toward “I transcend” and the orientation toward “I help others transcend.” The results obtained from the selected sample indicate that individual transcendence and collective transcendence are distinguishable categories. In addition, it was found that young people prefer to seek a personal meaning rather than a collective one, which suggest that dimension of collective transcendence is prior to personal transcendence. These findings can be used to design job profiles for positions that require staff development, and it can serve as a positive pattern for life education and society. (shrink)
One problem that various thinkers have studied is the relationship between culture and social development. This article will try to explain the principal characteristics of South Korean culture and its Confucian heritage as positive factors in the development of South Korea. To do so, it addresses the existence of values of Confucian origin in government and society. Next, the article reviews historical factors that played an important part in South Korean development. Finally, the authors reach the conclusion that development is (...) possible in distinct cultural contexts, and that it is not possible to establish a deterministic connection between a specific social framework and the conditions of social development. (shrink)
The rating of perceived exertion can be used to monitor the exercise intensity during laboratory and specific tests, training sessions, and to estimate the internal training load of the athletes. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a specific pictorial perceived exertion scale for soccer players called GOAL Scale. The pictorial GOAL Scale was validated for twenty under-17 soccer players. In the validation phase, the athletes were evaluated in a progressive protocol involving stimuluses of 3 min (...) with 1 min for the rest into the stages until the voluntary exhaustion in Maximal Cardiopulmonary Effort Test, and in the Yo Yo Intermittent Recovery Test – Level 1. The RPE identified by the GOL Scale, by the Borg Scale 6 – 20 and by the Cavasini Scale, as well as the heart rate, perceptual of the heart rate and the blood lactate concentration were immediately evaluated after each stage of both tests. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used. Construct scale validity was examined by regressing GOAL Scale against Borg Scale 6 – 20 and Cavasini Scale and concurrent scale validity was investigated by regressing GOAL Scale against HR, beats/min and blood lactate concentration during two progressive tests. There was a significant correlation values of the GOAL Scale with Borg Scale, Cavasini Scale, %HRmax, HR and lactate during tests. The results evidenced concurrent and construct validity of the GOAL Scale across a wide range of exercise intensity. The absence of verbal anchors makes the use of this instrument to soccer, futsal and beach soccer athletes of different languages and different literacy levels possible. (shrink)
This article presents the results of a systematic literature review on religiosity and spirituality, particularly in the work context. We aimed to verify the state-of-the-art of scientific production related to these themes. To achieve the proposed objective, we identified 312 articles published in journals in the period between 1960 and 2018 using a rigourous method of analysis and sorting, which resulted in 52 appropriate studies. The analyses presented are based on the three bibliometric laws: those of Lotka, Bradford and Zipf. (...) This article brings contributions that encompass four approaches: measurement scales of spirituality and religiosity; behavioural benefits of religiosity in individuals; insertion of religiosity and spirituality in social service practice; and research directions. This research presents technical and managerial implications to provide theoretical support for the creation of programmes and/or practices of spirituality and religion in the workplace as an effective strategy, towards ethical attitudes. Also, this study contributes to the methodological achievement of SLRs in the field of religion in the workplace, highlighting an effective method for thematic mapping, and holistically identifying new research topics and directions, especially because of the several guidelines presented. (shrink)
El documento expone los antecedentes sugeridos por Paul Ricoeur sobre lo que podría denominarse “la polémica epistemológica en ciencias sociales”, referidos a la formulación de un método legítimo para la investigación en dichas ciencias que responda a las particularidades propias de su objeto de estudio. En este sentido, se rastrea la cuestión en la tradición hermenéutica romántica, concretamente en el pensamiento de Wilhelm Dilthey, pasando por la teoría estructural de estudio del texto escrito y la formulación de una teoría de (...) la acción anglosajona, para finalmente terminar en la ricoeurtiana consideración hermenéutica de la acción significativa, que asume al texto como paradigma y propuesta de superación de los escollos en torno a la referida polémica. (shrink)
BackgroundMonitoring recovery–stress balance in sport is becoming more relevant to prevent training maladaptation and reach the optimal performance for each athlete. The use of questionnaires that identify the athlete’s recovery–stress state have much acceptance in sports due to reliability and useful, furthermore for its low cost. Identifying possible differences between sport modalities and sex is important to determine specific needs and possible intervention ways to keep a recovery–stress balance. The aim was to analyze the differences in the recovery–stress state and (...) mood states by sex and sport type during the competitive phase in young Mexican athletes. As a secondary objective, the psychometric properties of the Mexican version of the Recovery–Stress Questionnaire for Athletes were analyzed.MethodsA cross-sectional study was carried on with 461 athletes, 17.95 years old, from six sports disciplines. The RESTQ-Sport and Profile of Mood States were applied in a single moment. Differences by sex and sports modality were analyzed. RESTQ-Sport’s confirmatory factor analysis was performed after the stress and recovery theoretical structure of two stress and two recovery dimensions, and last, the concurrent validation with the POMS was carried on.ResultsSignificant differences by sex were found in the General Recovery and Sport Stress dimensions of the RESTQ-Sport as well as Vigor factor of the POMS, being higher for men; furthermore, both the Sport Recovery dimension of RESTQ-Sport and Cholera and the Fatigue and Depression factors from POMS also had differences by sport type, showing a less recovery and high stress for individual sport athletes. Goodness-of-fit indexes of the model for the RESTQ-Sport were acceptable. Pearson’s correlation between questionnaires was moderate.ConclusionThe recovery–stress state shows differences in the function of sex and sport modality. More special attention is suggested for women and individual sport athletes. The higher punctuation for men compared with women in sport stress dimension did not negatively affect the recovery–stress balance for male athletes. Finally, the Mexican context adaptation of the RESTQ-Sport provides a psychometric instrument suitable to assess the recovery–stress balance in Mexican athletes. (shrink)
El auge de los populismos de extrema derecha en el último tiempo amerita una indagación acerca de las características de la ideología reaccionaria. Una forma de aproximarse a esta es a través del pensamiento de sus principales autores. Nicolás Gómez Dávila es el mejor representante del pensamiento reaccionario en la filosofía latinoamericana, de modo que, a partir del análisis de algunos de sus escritos y siguiendo la propuesta de Richard Shorten para identificar lo reaccionario con base en tres pilares retóricos: (...) decadencia (_logos_), conspiración (_ethos_) e indignación (_pathos_), este artículo enfatiza algunas características propias de la ideología reaccionaria que la distinguen del conservadurismo, ilustrando esas diferencias con la retórica de algunos líderes reaccionarios que antecedieron a Nicolás Gómez Dávila en la Colombia del siglo XX. (shrink)
Popper restricted his definition of falsifiability to consistent theories through what we may call his requirement of consistency. His main argument was that an inconsistent theory does not distinguish the sentences that corroborate it from those that contradict it, for all sentences follow from it. I propose to replace this requirement by the more basic requirement that the classes of potential corroborators and falsifiers of a theory do not overlap. This results not only in an unrestricted definition of falsifiability but (...) also in some inconsistent theories being falsifiable whenever that inconsistency is not located among its observational statements. Although this assumes a restriction of the principle of explosion or ex contradictione sequitur quodlibet (ECQ), it does not depend on any particular system or approach of paraconsistent logic. Finally, I propose to define the class of potential refuters of a theory, which is obtained by subtracting the class of potential corroborators from the class of potential falsifiers. Given that, by definition, the classes of potential refuters and corroborators of a theory do not overlap, it immediately follows that some observationally inconsistent theories are refutable in this sense. This establishes the bases for a new and more general formal theory of falsifiability of scientific factual/empirical theories. (shrink)
Este artículo intenta desarrollar una deducción del concepto de sumo bien kantiano: esto es, intenta demostrar, de acuerdo con la interpretación de Dieter Henrich acerca de la deducción, que el sumo bien es un fin a la vez que un deber. Apelo a los rasgos de la razón práctica que constituyen la legitimidad de los hechos, la premisa que cualquier deducción debe tener. De acuerdo con Kant, el sumo bien consiste en la felicidad, la virtud y sus relaciones de proporcionalidad (...) y causalidad, tal que la felicidad es proporcional a, y causada por, la virtud. Sostengo, utilizando las nociones kantianas aceptadas, que Kant tiene razones convincentes para concluir que el sumo bien es, de hecho, un fin a la vez que un deber. Si esto es correcto, entonces este argumento ofrece la deducción prometida en mi título. This paper attempts a deduction of Kant's concept of the highest good: that is, it attempts to prove, in accordance with Dieter Henrich's interpretation of the notion of deduction, that the highest good is an end that is also a duty. It does this by appealing to features of practical reason that make up the legitimating facts that serve as the premises that any deduction must possess. According to Kant, the highest good consists of happiness, virtue, and relations of proportionality and causationbetween happiness and virtue, such that happiness is proportional to and caused by virtue. I argue, by drawing on accepted Kantian notions, that Kant had compelling reasons for concluding that the highest good is in fact an end that is also a duty. If correct, then this argument provides the deduction promised in my title. (shrink)
En los textos del Marx maduro encontramos planteada una teoría del método científico entendido como proceso de «aproximaciones sucesivas». El punto de partida de la investigación no es la experiencia sensible, sino una representación caótica de la totalidad. El punto de partida del proceso de conocimiento es, para Marx, la ideología. En nuestra lectura del apartado del fetichismo de la mercancía en El capital descubriremos las resonancias lacanianas del planteamiento de Marx.
En su encierro durante la II Guerra Mundial, Althusser, según declaró, solamente tuvo al alcance un libro: los Pensées de Pascal, un clásico que, tras la reflexión religiosa, también planteó problemas epistemológicos, históricos y sociológicos de tal manera que en él se pueden encontrar rasgos “profundamente materialistas”.  La influencia de Pascal es expresa, cuando Althusser recoge la parábola de la conversión religiosa para explicar (insuficientemente) el fenómeno de la interpelación ideológica. Pero los textos de Pascal contienen intuiciones que sobrepasan (...) los límites de la teoría althusseriana y que se pueden rastrear a la luz de la teoría psicoanalítica de la ideología tal como ésta es elaborada por los autores de la escuela eslovena.  L. Althusser: Filosofía y marxismo. Entrevista por Fernanda Navarro , Madrid, Siglo XXI, 1988, pp. 46-47. (shrink)
Este artículo reconstruye y problematiza el debate sobre la relación entre humanitarismo y uso de la fuerza. Para ello analiza los giros históricos en la familia humanitaria y la consolidación del nuevo humanitarismo político. A continuación, se revisa la convergencia entre las agendas del nuevo humanitarismo y el proyecto de un orden internacional liberal intervencionista en cuyo núcleo se sitúa un discurso transformador, maximalista y utópico de los derechos humanos. Luego, se recogen algunas perspectivas críticas de ese humanismo militar de (...) la posguerra fría, prestando especial atención a los estudios críticos del humanitarismo y a los análisis pospositivistas de la política internacional. Finalmente, se presentan algunos argumentos en favor de quienes consideran que el humanitarismo debe recuperar el mayor grado de neutralidad e independencia posible, alejándose del intervencionismo militar y de los proyectos de transformación a gran escala del sistema internacional. El texto plantea una revisión crítica de la literatura especializada sobre el humanitarismo contemporáneo, cuya naturaleza es esencialmente interdisciplinar, combinando los fundamentos teóricos y metodológicos provenientes de la antropología, el derecho, la filosofía, las relaciones internacionales, y las reflexiones provenientes de los trabajadores humanitarios sobre el terreno. (shrink)
Mucho ha cambiado desde la trágica experiencia de la batalla de Solferino en 1859, retratada por Dunant en su clásica memoria publicada en 1862 la cual motivó el origen de la Cruz Roja, cuyo sistema global ha crecido de manera exponencial desde entonces y ha contribuido a la elaboración y evolución del derecho de la guerra.
One of the objectives in the field of artificial intelligence for some decades has been the development of artificial agents capable of coexisting in harmony with people and other systems. The computing research community has made efforts to design artificial agents capable of doing tasks the way people do, tasks requiring cognitive mechanisms such as planning, decision-making, and learning. The application domains of such software agents are evident nowadays. Humans are experiencing the inclusion of artificial agents in their environment as (...) unmanned vehicles, intelligent houses, and humanoid robots capable of caring for people. In this context, research in the field of machine ethics has become more than a hot topic. Machine ethics focuses on developing ethical mechanisms for artificial agents to be capable of engaging in moral behavior. However, there are still crucial challenges in the development of truly Artificial Moral Agents. This paper aims to show the current status of Artificial Moral Agents by analyzing models proposed over the past two decades. As a result of this review, a taxonomy to classify Artificial Moral Agents according to the strategies and criteria used to deal with ethical problems is proposed. The presented review aims to illustrate (1) the complexity of designing and developing ethical mechanisms for this type of agent, and (2) that there is a long way to go (from a technological perspective) before this type of artificial agent can replace human judgment in difficult, surprising or ambiguous moral situations. (shrink)
Sainz Rodríguez, P. Luis Vives y el Renacimiento en España.--Fontan, A. El latín de Luis Vives.--Jiménez Delgado, J. Nueves aportaciones al epistolario de Juan Luis Vives.--Swift, L. J. Somnium vivis y el Sueño de Escipión.--Etchegaray Cruz, A. Juan Vives, según Erasmo de Rotterdam.--Argudo Sánchez, F. Vives y el humanismo ciceroniano.
Soccer players inescapably live under stress during the sportive career, and many real-life aspects of soccer situations operate in the ongoing performance. This study’s main objective was to elaborate the List of Stressors in Professional Indoor and Field Soccer, a self-report instrument designed to measure the impact of 77 soccer situations upon the sport performance. Participants were 138 indoor and field soccer players from the Brazilian Premier League. Each situation was evaluated on a 7-point scale, ranging from the most negative (...) to the most positive. Data were analyzed according to the players’ perception of the items: distress or eustress and its intensity, and after that, situations perceived as plus −1 and +1 were compared by time in which they were experienced and distributed among five categories established by the literature: Expectations about the Performance, Personal Factors, Competition Aspects, Training Demands, and Relationship with Significant People. Narratives of athletes’ experiences were also used to discuss the results. An Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling using Bi-factorial was employed to assess the factor structure. For the total participants, 49 situations were perceived as distress and 28 as eustress. Using the criteria established a priori, the distribution was among the five categories in the remaining 32 situations. Differences in perception between less and more experienced players were found in 11 situations. The results revealed that Brazilian professional soccer players experience various stressful situations. These events are important representations of environmental demands and could predict the performance as they are perceived as eustress or distress. Some of these stressful situations are inherent in sport and others adjacent to the sports system or environment. Coach pressure to win and conflicts with teammates are examples of stressors in-sport, family problems and disputes with press or fans are examples of stressors external to the team, also called peripheral opponents, and showed the relative social influence of significant others in soccer performance. We can conclude that the knowledge of the direction of a given stress situation has important practical implications in preparing athletes and helping them face the performance stressors that are part of soccer daily life. (shrink)
O jogo é entendido enquanto um fenômeno complexo, em que a ação do jogador se caracteriza pela eticidade, uma vez que, além de expressar sua subjetividade, visa à boa vida (no caso do jogo, o prazer e a vitória). Assim, o caráter ético da ação do jogador se constitui em um ambiente de jogo, local que a imprevisibilidade, a dinâmica e as novas organizações estão presentes. Dessa maneira, faz parte da função do jogador compreender o ambiente em que ele se (...) encontra, ou seja, entender como as organizações do jogo ocorrem. De modo semelhante, o conceito chamado de “absurdo”, criado por Albert Camus, filósofo franco-argelino, assemelha-se a essa demanda do entendimento do meio em que se vive, ao exaltar a tomada de consciência. Como consequência, segundo ele, o único movimento possível, posterior à compreensão do absurdo é a revolta, ação pautada na expressão do sujeito, com vistas à justiça, à coletividade e à unidade, baseando-se em limites que não devem ser ultrapassados. A partir disso, portanto, pensa-se na possibilidade de entender o jogador enquanto um homem revoltado no jogo, buscando, dada a identificação do meio em que se está, o sucesso de sua equipe, através de suas ações. (shrink)