Results for 'Lucas J. Mix'

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  1.  30
    Proper Activity, Preference, and the Meaning of Life.Lucas J. Mix - 2014 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 6 (20150505).
    The primary challenge for generating a useful scientific definition of life comes from competing concepts of biological activity and our failure to make them explicit in our models. I set forth a three-part scheme for characterizing definitions of life, identifying a binary , a range , and a preference . The three components together form a proper activity in biology . To be clear, I am not proposing that proper activity be adopted as the best definition of life or even (...)
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  2.  6
    On the Road: Combining Possible Identities and Metaphor to Motivate Disadvantaged Middle-School Students.Mark J. Landau, Jesse Barrera & Lucas A. Keefer - 2017 - Metaphor and Symbol 32 (4):276-290.
    In America, White and affluent middle-school students outperform minority students and those of low socioeconomic status on measures of academic performance. This achievement gap is partly attributable to differences in academic engagement. A promising strategy for engaging students is to elicit an academic possible identity: an image of oneself in the future as an accomplished student. Tests of this strategy’s efficacy show mixed results, however. According to Identity-Based Motivation Theory, this is because a salient possible identity enhances goal engagement when (...)
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  3.  36
    Across the Great Divide: Pluralism and the Hunt for Missing Heritability.Lucas J. Matthews & Eric Turkheimer - 2019 - Synthese 198 (3):2297-2311.
    Genetic explanation of complex human behavior presents an excellent test case for pluralism. Although philosophers agree that successful scientific investigation of behavior is pluralistic, there remains disagreement regarding integration and elimination—is the plurality of approaches here to stay, or merely a waystation on the road to monism? In this paper we introduce an issue taken very seriously by scientists yet mostly ignored by philosophers—the missing heritability problem—and assess its implications for disagreement among pluralists. We argue that the missing heritability problem, (...)
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  4.  20
    II–J.R. Lucas.J. R. Lucas - 1998 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 72 (1):45-56.
  5.  35
    Against Equality Again: J. R. Lucas.J. R. Lucas - 1977 - Philosophy 52 (201):255-280.
    Equality in the present age has become an idol, in much the same way as property was in the age of Locke. Many people worship it, and think that it provides the key to the proper understanding of politics, and that on it alone can a genuinely just society be reconstructed. This is a mistake. Although, like property, it is a useful concept, and although, like property, there are occasions when we want to have it in practice, it is not (...)
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  6. Minds, Machines and Gödel.J. R. Lucas - 1961 - Etica E Politica 5 (1):1.
    In this article, Lucas maintains the falseness of Mechanism - the attempt to explain minds as machines - by means of Incompleteness Theorem of Gödel. Gödel’s theorem shows that in any system consistent and adequate for simple arithmetic there are formulae which cannot be proved in the system but that human minds can recognize as true; Lucas points out in his turn that Gödel’s theorem applies to machines because a machine is the concrete instantiation of a formal system: (...)
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  7.  15
    Lucas John Mix. Life Concepts From Aristotle to Darwin: On Vegetable Souls. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. Pp. 272. $85.00 ; $65.00 . ISBN 978-3-319-96046-3 ; ISBN 978-3-319-96047-0. [REVIEW]Fabrizio Baldassarri - 2019 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 9 (2):423-426.
  8. LUCAS, J. R. The Future. [REVIEW]C. J. F. Williams - 1991 - Philosophy 66:124.
     
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  9.  91
    Against Equality.J. R. Lucas - 1965 - Philosophy 40 (154):296 - 307.
    Equality is the great political issue of our time. Liberty is forgotten: Fraternity never did engage our passions: the maintenance of Law and Order is at a discount: Natural Rights and Natural Justice are outmoded shibboleths. But Equality—there men have something to die for, kill for, agitate about, be miserable about. The demand for Equality obsesses all our political thought. We are not sure what it is—indeed, as I shall show later, we are necessarily not sure what it is—but we (...)
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  10.  23
    On Mechanistic Reasoning in Unexpected Places: The Case of Population Genetics.Lucas J. Matthews - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (6):999-1018.
    A strong case has been made for the role and value of mechanistic reasoning in process-oriented sciences, such as molecular biology and neuroscience. This paper shifts focus to assess the role of mechanistic reasoning in an area where it is neither obvious nor expected: population genetics. Population geneticists abstract away from the causal-mechanical details of individual organisms and, instead, use mathematics to describe population-level, statistical phenomena. This paper, first, develops a framework for the identification of mechanistic reasoning where it is (...)
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  11.  32
    Transcendental Tense: J.R. Lucas.J. R. Lucas - 1998 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 72 (1):45–56.
  12.  60
    On Closing the Gap Between Philosophical Concepts and Their Usage in Scientific Practice: A Lesson From the Debate About Natural Selection as a Mechanism.Lucas J. Matthews - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 55:21-28.
    In addition to theorizing about the role and value of mechanisms in scientific explanation or the causal structure of the world, there is a fundamental task of getting straight what a ‘mechanism’ is in the first place. Broadly, this paper is about the challenge of application: the challenge of aligning one's philosophical account of a scientific concept with the manner in which that concept is actually used in scientific practice. This paper considers a case study of the challenge of application (...)
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  13.  4
    Transcendental Tense: J.R. Lucas.J. Lucas - 1998 - Supplement to the Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 72 (1):45-56.
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  14.  49
    Mechanisms and the Metaphysics of Causation.Lucas J. Matthews & James Tabery - 2018 - In Stuart Glennan & Phyllis Illari (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Mechanisms and Mechanical Philosophy. Routledge.
  15.  41
    Towards a Theory of Taxation*: J. R. LUCAS.J. R. Lucas - 1984 - Social Philosophy and Policy 2 (1):161-173.
    “Towards a Theory of Taxation” is a proper theme for an Englishman to take when giving a paper in America. After all it was from the absence of such a theory that the United States derived its existence. The Colonists felt strongly that there should be no taxation without representation, and George III was unable to explain to them convincingly why they should contribute to the cost of their defense. Since that time, understanding has not advanced much. In Britain we (...)
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  16. The Freedom of the Will.J. R. Lucas - 1970 - Oxford University Press UK.
    The author, who pioneered this argument in 1961, here places it in the context of traditional discussions of the problem, and answers various criticisms that have been made.
     
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  17.  24
    Embedded Mechanisms and Phylogenetics.Lucas J. Matthews - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (5):1116-1126.
    A strong case has been made for the role and value of mechanistic explanation in neuroscience and molecular biology. A similar demonstration in other domains of scientific investigation, however, remains an important challenge of scope for the new mechanists. This article helps answer that challenge by demonstrating one valuable role mechanisms play in phylogenetics. Using the transition/transversion rate parameter as a case example, this article argues that models embedded with mechanisms produce stronger phylogenetic tree hypotheses, as measured by maximum likelihood (...)
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  18.  56
    ‘Because You Are a Woman’: J. R. Lucas.J. R. Lucas - 1973 - Philosophy 48 (184):161-171.
    Plato was the first feminist. In the Republic he puts forward the view that women are just the same as men, only not quite so good. It is a view which has often been expressed in recent years, and generates strong passions. Some of these have deep biological origins, which a philosopher can only hope to recognize and not to assuage. But much of the heat engendered is due to unnecessary friction between views which are certainly compatible and probably correct. (...)
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  19.  2
    Half a Century Later and We're Back Where We Started: How the Problem of Locality Turned in to the Problem of Portability.Lucas J. Matthews - 2022 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 91:1-9.
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  20. LUCAS, J. R. "The Freedom of the Will". [REVIEW]I. J. Good - 1971 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 22:382.
  21. LUCAS, J. R. - "The Concept of Probability". [REVIEW]L. J. Cohen - 1972 - Mind 81:625.
     
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  22.  19
    A Mind of One's Own: J. R. Lucas.J. R. Lucas - 1993 - Philosophy 68 (266):457-471.
    Whatever good or ill it did to Guy Fawkes, his resuscitation at the hands of Bernard Williams has, by any utilitarian reckoning, been a Good Thing. A casual glance at the literature that has accumulated over the past thirty-five years leaves no doubt that the topic has been reduplicated many times over, to the great enjoyment of undergraduates, who have been able to write science fiction under the guise of essays in the Philosophy of Mind, and of dons, who in (...)
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  23.  12
    Lucas Against Mechanism II: A Rejoinder.J. R. Lucas - 1984 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 14 (2):189-191.
    David Lewis criticizes an argument I put forward against mechansim on the grounds that I fail to distinguish between OL, Lucas's ordinary potential arithmetic output, and OML, Lucas's arithmetical output when accused of being some particular machine M; and correspondingly, between OM the ordinary potential arithmetic output of the machine M, and ONM, the arithmetic output of the machine M when accused of being a particular machine N. For any given machine, M, N, O, P, Q, R,... etc., (...)
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  24.  16
    Justice.J. R. Lucas - 1972 - Philosophy 47 (181):229 - 248.
    Justice has always been regarded as one of the fundamental political virtues. No association of human individuals could subsist, says Hume, “were no regard paid to the laws of equity and justice”, and nearly every thinker who has turned to consider human society, has reached the same conclusion. Yet we are not at all clear what justice is, nor why it is so important. There are many other ideals which a society may cherish, and often reformers have felt impatient of (...)
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  25.  20
    Moralists and Gamesmen.J. R. Lucas - 1959 - Philosophy 34 (128):1 - 11.
    Professor Braithwaite’s inaugural lecture, here published in book form,1 is a trial run at a Platonic definition of the concept of dianemetic justice; or, as he himself would put it, a rational reconstruction of the concept “sensible-prudent-and-fair”. Aristotle left it that dianemetic justice was an equality and a matter of ratios. A just distribution of őoα µεριστ? τoς κoινωνoσι τς πoλιτείαѕ2 was one in which each had an equitable share, no one having either more or less than he should. Professor (...)
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  26.  9
    Three Legs of the Missing Heritability Problem.Lucas J. Matthews & Eric Turkheimer - 2022 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 93:183-191.
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  27.  6
    They Cannot, They Will Not, or We Are Asking the Wrong Questions: Re-Examining Age-Related Decline in Social Cognition.Lucas J. Hamilton, Amy N. Gourley & Anne C. Krendl - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Social cognition is critical for successfully navigating social relationships. Current evidence suggests that older adults exhibit poorer performance in several core social-cognitive domains compared to younger adults. Neurocognitive decline is commonly discussed as one of the key arbiters of age-related decline in social-cognitive abilities. While evidence supports this notion, age effects are likely attributable to multiple factors. This paper aims to recontextualize past evidence by focusing issues of motivation, task design, and representative samples. In light of these issues, we identify (...)
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  28.  38
    Lucas, Godel and Astaire: A Rejoinder.J. R. Lucas - 1984 - Philosophical Quarterly 34 (137):507-508.
  29.  33
    Heritability.Stephen M. Downes & Lucas J. Matthews - 2019 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Lucas Matthews and I substantially revised my SEP entry on Heritability. This version includes discussion of the missing heritability problem and other issues that arise from the use of Genome Wide Association Studies by Behavioral Geneticists.
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  30.  35
    Consciousness: A Philosophic Study of Minds and Machines.J. R. Lucas & Kenneth M. Sayre - 1972 - Philosophical Review 81 (2):241.
  31.  28
    The Lesbian Rule.J. R. Lucas - 1955 - Philosophy 30 (114):195 - 213.
    The problem with which I wish to deal in this paper is the problem of singular reasons in the humanities, whether they exist, or rather, whether they can exist: for it would seem that the word “reason” carried with it some idea of generality, so that the phrase “singular reason” was a contradiction in terms, a specification which could never be fulfilled. But humanists are always sensing the singularity of their studies: and the philosopher wondering about the nature of humane (...)
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  32.  13
    Spacetime and Electromagnetism: An Essay on the Philosophy of the Special Theory of Relativity.J. R. Lucas - 1990 - Oxford University Press.
    That space and time should be integrated into a single entity, spacetime, is the great insight of Einstein's special theory of relativity, and leads us to regard spacetime as a fundamental context in which to make sense of the world around us. But it is not the only one. Causality is equally important and at least as far as the special theory goes, it cannot be subsumed under a fundamentally geometrical form of explanation. In fact, the agent of propagation of (...)
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  33.  17
    Against Equality Again.J. R. Lucas - 1977 - Philosophy 52 (201):255 - 280.
  34. Minds, Machines, and Gödel: A Retrospect.J. R. Lucas - 1996 - In P. J. R. Millican & A. Clark (eds.), Etica E Politica. Clarendon Press. pp. 1.
    In this paper Lucas comes back to Gödelian argument against Mecanism to clarify some points. First of all, he explains his use of Gödel’s theorem instead of Turing’s theorem, showing how Gödel’ theorem, but not Turing’s theorem, raises questions concerning truth and reasoning that bear on the nature of mind and how Turing’s theorem suggests that there is something that cannot be done by any computers but not that it can be done by human minds. He considers moreover how (...)
     
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  35. A Treatise on Time and Space.J. R. Lucas - 1973 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 164 (4):486-487.
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  36.  42
    Satan Stultified: A Rejoinder to Paul Benacerraf.J. R. Lucas - 1968 - The Monist 52 (1):145-158.
    The application of Gödel’s theorem to the problem of minds and machines is difficult. Paul Benacerraf makes the entirely valid ‘Duhemian’ point that the argument is not, and cannot be, a purely mathematical one, but needs some philosophical premisses to be able to yield any philosophical conclusions. Moreover, the philosophical premisses are of very different kinds. Some are concerned with what is essential to being a machine—these are typically intricate, but definite, easily formalised by the mathematician, but unintelligible to the (...)
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  37. Euclides Ab Omni Naevo Vindicatus.J. R. Lucas - 1969 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 20 (1):1-11.
    The issue is obscured by the fact that the word `space' can be used in four different ways. It can be used, first, as a term of pure mathematics, as when mathematicians talk of an `n-dimensional phase-space', an `n-dimensional vector-space', a `three-dimensional projective space' or a `twodimensional Riemannian space'. In this sense the word `space' means the totality of the abstract entities-the `points'-implicitly defined by the axioms. There is no doubt that there exist, iii this sense, non-Euclidean spaces, because all (...)
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  38.  4
    True.J. R. Lucas - 1969 - Philosophy 44 (169):175 - 186.
  39. Wilberforce and Huxley: A Legendary Encounter.J. R. Lucas - unknown
    The legend of the encounter between Wilberforce and Huxley is well established. Almost every scientist knows, and every viewer of the BBC's recent programme on Darwin was shown,* how Samuel Wilberforce, bishop of Oxford, attempted to pour scorn on Darwin's Origin of Species at a meeting of the British Association in Oxford on 30 June 1860, and had the tables turned on him by T. H. Huxley. In this memorable encounter Huxley's simple scientific sincerity humbled the prelatical insolence and clerical (...)
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  40. LUCAS, J. R.-"The Principles of Politics". [REVIEW]Alan Ryan - 1968 - Philosophy 43:300.
     
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  41.  58
    Does Your Family Make You Smarter: Nature, Nurture, and Human Autonomy, James Flynn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2016), 258, Softcover, ISBN-10: 1316604462. [REVIEW]Lucas J. Matthews & Eric Turkheimer - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 65:35-40.
  42. LUCAS, J. R.-"The Concept of Probability". [REVIEW]Dorothy Edgington - 1972 - Philosophy 47:375.
     
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  43.  1
    EBB, J. C.: "Mechanism, Mentalism and Metamathematics". [REVIEW]J. R. Lucas - 1982 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 33:441.
  44. Lucas, J., "Space, Time and Causality". [REVIEW]G. Schlesinger - 1986 - Mind 95:528.
     
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  45.  11
    Christopher F. Mooney, S. J. Ed. The Presence and Absence of God, Pp. Ix + 178. . $6.00. [REVIEW]J. R. Lucas - 1972 - Religious Studies 8 (3):286.
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  46.  20
    Isolability as the Unifying Feature of Modularity.Lucas J. Matthews - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (2):20.
    Although the concept of modularity is pervasive across fields and disciplines, philosophers and scientists use the term in a variety of different ways. This paper identifies two distinct ways of thinking about modularity, and considers what makes them similar and different. For philosophers of mind and cognitive science, cognitive modularity helps explain the capacities of brains to process sundry and distinct kinds of informational input. For philosophy of biology and evolutionary science, biological modularity helps explain the capacity of random evolutionary (...)
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  47.  14
    Review of "Understanding Perspectivism: Scientific Challenges and Methodological Prospects".Lucas J. Matthews - 2019 - Notre Dame Philosophical Review 2019.
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  48.  14
    Beyond Human Nurture: Robert Plomin: Blueprint: How DNA Makes Us Who We Are. MIT Press, 2018, 280 Pp, USD$27.95 HB.Lucas J. Matthews - 2019 - Metascience 28 (3):383-386.
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  49. The Nature-Nurture Debate Today.Lucas J. Matthews - 2018 - Psychology Review 24 (1):25-27.
     
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  50. The Future.J. R. Lucas - 1993 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (3):579-583.
     
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