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Louis Sass [31]Louis A. Sass [27]Louis Arnorsson Sass [4]Louis D. Sass [2]
Louis Dewald Sass [1]
  1. Schizophrenia, Consciousness, and the Self.Louis A. Sass & Josef Parnas - 2003 - Schizophrenia Bulletin 29 (3):427-444.
    In recent years, there has been much focus on the apparent heterogeneity of schizophrenic symptoms. By contrast, this article proposes a unifying account emphasizing basic abnormalities of consciousness that underlie and also antecede a disparate assortment of signs and symptoms. Schizophrenia, we argue, is fundamentally a self-disorder or ipseity disturbance that is characterized by complementary distortions of the act of awareness: hyperreflexivity and diminished self-affection. Hyperreflexivity refers to forms of exaggerated self-consciousness in which aspects of oneself are experienced as akin (...)
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  2. Phenomenological Psychopathology and Schizophrenia: Contemporary Approaches and Misunderstandings.Louis Sass, Josef Parnas & Dan Zahavi - 2011 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (1):1–23.
    The phenomenological approach to schizophrenia has undergone something of a renaissance in Anglophone psychiatry in recent years. There has been a proliferation of works that focus on the nature of subjectivity in schizophrenia and related disorders, and that take inspiration from the work of such German and French philosophers as Husserl, Heidegger, and Merleau-Ponty, and such classical psychiatrists as Minkowski, Blankenburg, and Binswanger (Rulf 2003; Sass 2001a, 2001b). This trend includes predominantly theoretical articles, which typically incorporate clinical material as well (...)
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  3. Self, Solipsism, and Schizophrenic Delusions.Josef Parnas & Louis A. Sass - 2001 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 8 (2-3):101-120.
  4. Anomalous Self-Experience in Depersonalization and Schizophrenia: A Comparative Investigation.Louis Sass, Elizabeth Pienkos, Barnaby Nelson & Nick Medford - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (2):430-441.
    Various forms of anomalous self-experience can be seen as central to schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. We examined similarities and differences between anomalous self-experiences common in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, as listed in the EASE , and those described in published accounts of severe depersonalization. Our aims were to consider anomalous self-experience in schizophrenia in a comparative context, to refine and enlarge upon existing descriptions of experiential disturbances in depersonalization, and to explore hypotheses concerning a possible core process in schizophrenia . Numerous (...)
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  5.  34
    Schizophrenia, Self-Experience, and the so-Called "Negative Symptoms": Reflections on Hyperreflexivity.Louis A. Sass - 2000 - In Dan Zahavi (ed.), Exploring the Self: Philosophical and Psychopathological Perspectives on Self-Experience. John Benjamins. pp. 149--82.
  6. The Structure of Self-Consciousness in Schizophrenia.Josef Parnas & Louis Sass - 2011 - In Shaun Gallagher (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Self. Oxford University Press.
    This article examines the structure of self-consciousness in people with schizophrenia. The findings indicate that our self-experience is not neutral with respect to the metaphysical status of the self and that it is important to attend carefully to the experience of the subject in order to understand schizophrenia. The results also suggest that the variable disruptions in the sense of self-presence, first-person perspective, and the phenomenality of experience in schizophrenics directly affect the minimal self and it may also have implications (...)
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  7. Self and World in Schizophrenia: Three Classic Approaches.Louis Arnorsson Sass - 2001 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 8 (4):251-270.
  8. Space, Time, and Atmosphere A Comparative Phenomenology of Melancholia, Mania, and Schizophrenia, Part II.Louis Sass & E. Pienkos - 2013 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 20 (7-8):131-152.
    This paper offers a comparative study of abnormalities in the experience of space, time, and general atmosphere in three psychiatric conditions: schizophrenia, melancholia, and mania. It is a companion piece to our previous article entitled 'Varieties of Self- Experience'; here we focus on experiences of the world rather than of the self. As before, we are especially interested in similarities but also in some subtle distinctions in the forms of subjectivity associated with these three conditions. As before, we survey phenomenologicallyoriented (...)
     
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  9. Anomalous Experience of Self and World: Administration of EASE and EAWE Scales to Four Subjects with Schizophrenia.Jérôme Englebert, François Monville, Caroline Valentiny, Françoise Mossay, Elizabeth Pienkos & Louis Sass - forthcoming - Psychopathology.
    The aim of this paper is to study anomalies of self- and world-experience in schizophrenia from a phenomenological perspective, through the use of the EASE and the EAWE interviews. Four patients with diagnoses of schizophrenia were interviewed with both EASE and EAWE. A qualitative analysis of these interviews was carried out on all the data; quantitative scores were also assigned based on the frequency and intensity of items endorsed by the subjects. For the EASE, subjects endorsed an average frequency of (...)
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  10. Some Reflections on the (Analytic) Philosophical Approach to Delusion.Louis Arnorsson Sass - 2004 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 11 (1):71-80.
  11. Phenomenology of Self-Disturbances in Schizophrenia: Some Research Findings and Directions.Louis A. Sass & Josef Parnas - 2001 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 8 (4):347-356.
  12.  95
    Heidegger, Schizophrenia and the Ontological Difference.Louis A. Sass - 1992 - Philosophical Psychology 5 (2):109 – 132.
    This paper offers a phenomenological or hermeneutic reading—employing Heidegger's notion of the 'ontological difference'—of certain central aspects of schizophrenic experience. The main focus is on signs and symptoms that have traditionally been taken to indicate either 'poor reality-testing' or else 'poverty of content of speech' (defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III-R as: “speech that is adequate in amount but conveys little information because of vagueness, empty repetitions, or use of stereotyped or obscure phrases"). I argue (...)
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  13.  54
    Affectivity in Schizophrenia: A Phenomenological View.Louis A. Sass - 2004 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 11 (10-11):127-147.
    Schizophrenia involves profound but enigmatic disturbances of affective or emotional life. The affective responses as well as expression of many patients in the schizophrenia spectrum can seem odd, incongruent, inadequate, or otherwise off-the-mark. Such patients are, in fact, often described in rather contradictory terms: as being prone both to exaggerated and to diminished levels of emotional or affective response. According to Ernst Kretschmer, they actually tend to have both kinds of experience at the same time. This paper attempts to explain (...)
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  14.  76
    Beyond Words: Linguistic Experience in Melancholia, Mania, and Schizophrenia. [REVIEW]Louis Sass & Elizabeth Pienkos - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (3):475-495.
    In this paper, we use a phenomenological approach to compare the unusual ways in which language can be experienced by individuals with schizophrenia or severe mood disorders, specifically mania and melancholia. Our discussion follows a tripartite/dialectical format: first we describe traditionally observed distinctions ; then we consider some apparent similarities in the experience of language in these conditions. Finally, we explore more subtle, qualitative differences. These involve: 1, interpersonal orientation, 2, forms of attention and context-relevance, 3, underlying mutations of experience, (...)
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  15. Incomprehensibility and Understanding: On the Interpretation of Severe Mental Illness.Louis Arnorsson Sass - 2003 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 10 (2):125-132.
  16.  35
    Faces of Intersubjectivity.Louis Sass & Elizabeth Pienkos - 2015 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 46 (1):1-32.
    Here we consider interpersonal experience in schizophrenia, melancholia, and mania. Our goal is to improve understanding of similarities and differences in how other people can be experienced in these disorders, through a review of first-person accounts and case examples and of contemporary and classic literature on the phenomenology of these disorders. We adopt a tripartite/dialectical structure: first we explore main differences as traditionally described; next we consider how the disorders may resemble each other; finally we discuss more subtle but perhaps (...)
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  17.  7
    Everywhere and Nowhere: Reflections on Phenomenology as Impossible and Indispensable.Louis Sass - 2021 - Critical Inquiry 47 (3):544-564.
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  18.  89
    The Truth-Taking-Stare: A Heideggerian Interpretation of a Schizophrenic World.Louis A. Sass - 1990 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 21 (2):121-149.
  19.  61
    Self-Disturbance in Schizophrenia: Hyperreflexivity and Diminished Self-Affection.Louis A. Sass - 2003 - In Tilo Kircher & Anthony S. David (eds.), The Self in Neuroscience and Psychiatry. Cambridge University Press. pp. 870539117.
  20.  29
    Schizophrenia, Self-Consciousness, and the Modern Mind.Louis A. Sass - 1998 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 5 (5-6):5-6.
    This paper uses certain of Michel Foucault's ideas concerning modern consciousness (from The Order of Things) to illuminate a central paradox of the schizophrenic condition: a strange oscillation, or even coexistence, between two opposite experiences of the self: between the loss or fragmentation of self and its apotheosis in moments of solipsistic grandeur. Many schizophrenic patients lose their sense of integrated and active intentionality; even their most intimate thoughts and inclinations may be experienced as emanating from, or under the control (...)
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  21.  32
    Varieties of Self-Experience: A Comparative Phenomenology of Melancholia, Mania, and Schizophrenia, Part I.Louis Sass - 2013 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 20 (7-8):7-8.
    This paper provides a critical survey of some subtle and often overlooked disturbances of self-experience that can occur in schizophrenia, melancholia, and mania. The goal is to better understand both similarities and differences between these conditions. We present classical and contemporary studies, mostly from the phenomenological tradition, and illustrate these with patient reports. Experiential changes in five domains of selfhood are considered: Cognition, Self-Awareness, Bodily Experiences, Demarcation/Transitivism, and Existential Reorientation. We discuss: I. major differences involving self-experience between schizophrenia and affective (...)
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  22.  21
    Contradictions of Emotion in Schizophrenia.Louis Sass - 2007 - Cognition and Emotion 21 (2):351-390.
  23.  59
    Varieties of "Phenomenology" : On Description, Understanding, and Explanation in Psychiatry.Josef Parnas & Louis A. Sass - 2008 - In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry: Explanation, Phenomenology, and Nosology. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 239.
  24.  53
    Lacan, Foucault, and the 'Crisis of the Subject': Revisionist Reflections on Phenomenology and Post-Structuralism.Louis Sass - 2014 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 21 (4):325-341.
    French thought in the twentieth century is typically described as marked by a major fault line, a rupture or grande coupure, that emerged in the 1960s, the heyday of the ‘crisis of the subject.’ Before this time French philosophy, together with associated fields, were focused on issues of subjectivity—first in the vein of Bergsonian vitalism but then shifting, with Sartre and Merleau-Ponty in the late 1930s and 1940s, to forms of phenomenology and existentialism inspired first by Husserl and then, even (...)
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  25.  45
    A New History of Ourselves, in the Shadow of Our Obsessions and Compulsions.Pierre-Henri Castel, Angela Verdier & Louis Sass - 2014 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 21 (4):299-309.
    Before broaching our main subject, and exploring why, among all disorders of the mind, obsessive-compulsive disorders have a place apart, I would like to start from a dilemma that is well-known to historians interested in mental disorders. According to one approach, a mental illness X is considered as a bona fide or ‘genuine’ illness if, and only if, it originates from a disturbance of the brain. Its neurobiological form is in this case considered as invariant, whatever cultural veneer might give (...)
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  26.  11
    Schizophrenia: A Disturbance of the Thematic Field.Louis A. Sass - 2004 - In Lester Embree (ed.), Gurwitsch's Relevancy for Cognitive Science. Springer. pp. 59--78.
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  27.  34
    Introspection and Schizophrenia: A Comparative Investigation of Anomalous Self Experiences.Louis Sass, Elizabeth Pienkos & Barnaby Nelson - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):853-867.
    This paper offers a comparative investigation of anomalous self-experiences common in schizophrenia instrument) and those of normal individuals in an intensely introspective orientation. The latter represent a relatively pure manifestation of certain forms of exaggerated self-consciousness, one facet of the disturbance of core- or minimal-self postulated as central in schizophrenia. Significant similarities with schizophrenia-like experience were found but important differences also emerged. Affinities included feelings of passivity, fading of self or world, and alienation from thoughts, feelings, or lived-body. Differences involved (...)
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  28.  28
    The Phenomenology of Anomalous World Experience in Schizophrenia: A Qualitative Study.Elizabeth Pienkos, Steven Silverstein & Louis Sass - 2017 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 48 (2):188-213.
    This current study is a pilot project designed to clarify changes in the lived world among people with diagnoses within the schizophrenia spectrum. The Examination of Anomalous World Experience was used to interview ten participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and a comparison group of three participants with major depressive disorder. Interviews were analyzed using the descriptive phenomenological method. This analysis revealed two complementary forms of experience unique toszparticipants: Destabilization, the experience that reality and the intersubjective world are less comprehensible, less (...)
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  29. Phenomenology and Psychopathology.Josef Parnas, Louis Sass & Dan Zahavi - 2011 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (1):37-39.
    In this response to Wiggins and Schwartz, Ratcliffe, and Stanghellini, we first wish to express our gratitude to Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology for providing us the space to clarify our views and to overcome certain misunderstandings. Ratcliffe notes that our critique is "harsh," whereas Wiggins and Schwartz lament the fact that the debate "has taken the form of sometimes acid formulations and rejoinders . . . that lack the tone of mutual appreciation" (2011, 31). We deplore the fact that this (...)
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  30.  20
    Schreber's Panopticism: Psychosis and the Modern Soul.Louis Sass - 1987 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 54.
  31. Phenomenology, Context, and Self-Experience in Schizophrenia.Louis A. Sass & Peter J. Uhlhaas - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (1):104-105.
    Impairments in cognitive coordination in schizophrenia are supported by phenomenological data that suggest deficits in the processing of visual context. Although the target article is sympathetic to such a phenomenological perspective, we argue that the relevance of phenomenological data for a wider understanding of consciousness in schizophrenia is not sufficiently addressed by the authors.
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  32.  70
    "My So-Called Delusions": Solipsism, Madness, and the Schreber Case.Louis A. Sass - 1994 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 25 (1):70-103.
    This paper offers a critique of a central psychopathological concept, the notion of "poor reality-testing. "Using ideas from the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, I consider the nature of delusions in schizophrenia, largely through examining Daniel Paul Schreber's famous Memoirs of My Nervous Illness. Many schizophrenic individuals do not in fact mistake their fantasies for reality, as is traditionally assumed. Rather, I argue, they engage in a solipsistic mode of experience, a felt subjectivization of the lived world that is associated with a (...)
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  33.  18
    Expressing experience: the promise and perils of the phenomenological interview.Elizabeth Pienkos, Borut Škodlar & Louis Sass - 2022 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 21 (1):53-71.
    This paper outlines several of the challenges that are inherent in any attempt to communicate subjective experience to others, particularly in the context of a clinical interview. It presents the phenomenological interview as a way of effectively responding to these challenges, which may be especially important when attempting to understand the profound experiential transformations that take place in schizophrenia. Features of language experience in schizophrenia—including changes in interpersonal orientation, a sense of the arbitrariness of language, and a desire for faithful (...)
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  34.  32
    Lacan: The Mind of the Modernist.Louis A. Sass - 2015 - Continental Philosophy Review 48 (4):409-443.
    This paper offers an intellectual portrait of the French psychoanalyst, Jacques Lacan, by considering his incorporation of perspectives associated with “modernism,” the artistic and intellectual avant-garde of the first half of the twentieth century. These perspectives are largely absent in other alternatives in psychology, psychiatry, and psychoanalysis. Emphasis is placed on Lacan’s affinities with phenomenology, a tradition he criticized and to which he is often seen as opposed. Two general issues are discussed. The first is Lacan’s unparalleled appreciation of the (...)
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  35.  48
    More Aristotle, Less DSM: The Ontology of Mental Disorders in Constructivist Perspective.Marino Pérez-Álvarez, Louis A. Sass & José M. García-Montes - 2008 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 15 (3):211-225.
    This work begins by proposing the need for exploring the mode of being of mental disorders. It is a philosophical study in an Aristotelian perspective, with special emphasis on the anthropological–cultural dimension. It is difficult for such an inquiry to be carried out from within psychiatry or clinical psychology, committed as these fields are to their own logic and practical conditions. The issues are, in any case, more ontological than strictly clinical in nature. We therefore turn to Aristotle, and specifically (...)
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  36.  13
    Husserl, Heidegger, and the paradox of subjectivity.Louis Sass - 2021 - Continental Philosophy Review 54 (3):295-317.
    This article considers the differences between Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger in light of Pascal’s distinction between the esprit de géometrie and the esprit de finesse. According to Pascal, the essential “principles” dominating our perceptual lives cannot be clearly and confidently demonstrated in a manner akin to logic and mathematics, but must be discerned in a more spontaneous or intuitive manner.It is unsurprising that Husserl, originally a student of mathematics, might seem closer to the esprit de géometrie, whereas Heidegger, trained (...)
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  37.  18
    Recent French Thought at the Intersection of Culture, Subjectivity, and Psychopathology.Louis Sass - 2014 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 21 (4):279-284.
    French thought no longer enjoys the kind of prominence in the Anglophone world that it did in most of the last half of the twentieth century, a time when Sartre and Camus, then Lévi-Strauss, Foucault, and Derrida exercised a decisive influence on innovative work in literary and cultural theory, the human and social sciences, and on social thought more generally. It would be a mistake, however, to exaggerate the degree to which this represents either a decline in the actual influence (...)
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  38.  9
    Jonathan Hall. Reaction Formations: Dialogism, Ideology, and Capitalist Culture: The Creation of the Modern Unconscious. Boston: Brill, 2019. 286 Pp. [REVIEW]Louis Sass - 2021 - Critical Inquiry 47 (3):620-621.
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  39. From the Visions of Saint Teresa of Jesus to the Voices of Schizophrenia.Adolfo J. Cangas, Louis A. Sass & Marino Pérez-Álvarez - 2008 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 15 (3):239-250.
  40.  26
    Delusion, Reality, and Excentricity: Comment on Thomas Fuchs.Louis A. Sass - 2020 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 27 (1):81-83.
    In "Delusion, Reality, and Intersubjectivity," Thomas Fuchs offers a superb presentation of an enactive/phenomenological approach to schizophrenic delusions—an approach that is clearly superior to the poor-reality-testing formula that has dominated thinking about delusion in psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and cognitive-behavioral theory. As he convincingly argues, two key tendencies go a long way toward accounting for the distinctive features of delusion in schizophrenia: 1) withdrawal from practical, sensori-motoric interaction with the physical environment; and 2) failure to experience reality in intersubjective terms—as a realm (...)
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  41.  76
    Michel Foucault and the Contradictions of Modern Thought.Louis A. Sass - 2008 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 28 (2):323-335.
    The present paper offers a sympathetic yet critical examination of Michel Foucault's discussion of the contradictions inherent in the self-consciousness of the modern or post-Kantian mind. Foucault's account of the “empirico-transcendental doublet” of modern thought is shown to provide a useful mapping of humanist, anti-humanist, and postmodern responses to the reflexivity of the modern “ episteme”. Foucault is criticized for his insufficiently critical treatment of structuralism . Foucault is also defended against the charge that he undermines his own position through (...)
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  42.  17
    The Experience of Persons with Parkinson’s Disease: A Hermeneutic-Phenomenological Exploration.John W. Machalaba & Louis Sass - 2020 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 51 (1):16-43.
    This study seeks to understand the subjective experience or lived world typical of patients with Parkinson’s disease. It uses qualitative methodology, grounded in a hermeneutic-phenomenological perspective, to consider lived experience in a small sample of 7 individuals. The analysis identified four themes that appear to be characteristic of the experience of PD: A) Denial, B) Emotion and symptom expression, C) Volitional and spontaneous action, and D) Alteration of temporal perspective. Concepts from existential-phenomenological philosophy were used to reflect upon these themes (...)
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  43. Madness and the Ineffable: Hegel, Kierkegaard, and Lacan.Louis A. Sass - 2009 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 16 (4):319-324.
  44.  46
    The Middle Way: Charles Taylor on Knowledge and the Self.Louis A. Sass - 1986 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 6 (1):49-54.
    Reviews the books, Philosophical papers, volume I: Human agency and language by Charles Taylor and Philosophical papers, volume II: Philosophy and the human sciences by Charles Taylor. Professor Taylor of McGill University is one of a number of thinkers who are attempting the difficult and important task of taking the social sciences "beyond objectivism and relativism." One of the foremost philosophers of his generation, Taylor has long devoted himself to study of the foundations of the social sciences, especially psychology and (...)
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  45. Civilized Madness: Schizophrenia, Self-Consciousness and the Modern Mind.Louis A. Sass - 1994 - History of the Human Sciences 7 (2):83-120.
  46.  27
    On Scheler and Psychiatry.Louis Sass - 2009 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 16 (2):171-174.
  47.  7
    The Self and Its Vicissitudes: An "Archaeological" Study of the Psychoanalytic Avant-Garde.Louis Sass - 1988 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 55.
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  48.  47
    Madness and Melancholia.Louis A. Sass & Elizabeth Pienkos - 2013 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 20 (2):161-164.
    It is a Pleasure to comment on Somogy Varga’s intriguing paper, which offers welcome insight into the historical sources, changing uses, and underlying assumptions pertaining to the concept of ‘melancholia,’ especially in relationship to ‘depression.’ We found Varga’s discussion of the relationship between affect and cognition in past discussions of melancholia and depression to be illuminating, especially given the emphasis on cognitive distortions in contemporary psycho-pathology. His explanation of the gradual evolution of the depression concept from melancholia sheds interesting light (...)
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  49.  62
    Defending a Phenomenological–Behavioral Perspective: Culture, Behavior, and Experience.Marino Pérez-Álvarez, José M. García-Montes, Adolfo J. Cangas & Louis A. Sass - 2008 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 15 (3):281-285.
  50.  61
    The Role of Superstition in Psychopathology.José M. García-Montes, Marino Pérez Álvarez, Louis A. Sass & Adolfo J. Cangas - 2008 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 15 (3):227-237.
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