Living Authentically brings together classical scholars of Daoism, professors of psychology, practicing psychologists, medical doctors, and alternative practitioners to explore different Daoist concepts of the mind and its transformations in relation to various schools of modern psychology. The book explores how Daoism can help us live in the world sustaining relationships, and educating children, in a stress-free, truly authentic way. Book jacket.
Ethical considerations arise when individuals who were contracted and paid to conduct a research study and write it up for publication, are denied authorship on a scholarly publication on the grounds that their work was contracted and paid for. Each of the various stakeholders should be considered. Researchers need to make sure that the contract recognizes their intellectual contribution and their right to be named as authors if and when the contracted study is published. If authorship disputes of published works (...) arise, journal editors should have mechanisms in place for addressing such disputes. They should be able to see the contract and have all disputing parties agree to any changes in authorship. If the dispute cannot be resolved, the manuscript should be retracted. Contractors should develop a publication plan and include in the contract stipulations ensuring transparent and unambiguous authorship on any publication ensuing from contracted work. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the Committee for Publication Ethics should update their guidance for authors to include advice regarding researchers involved in contracted work and how to resolve an authorship disputes around it. (shrink)
Drawing on the similarity-attraction perspective and social identity theory, we argue that male versus female interlocking directors are likely to have different experiences when they work alongside female board directors of other firms. The theorized source of such experiences for male interlocking directors is in-group favoritism and/or a social identity threat-related discomfort. Interlocking female directors are theorized to be ambivalent between desiring social support versus experiencing identity threat-based career concerns. These experiences are predicted to motivate male versus female interlocking directors (...) in different ways to reduce or, conversely, to potentially facilitate female representation on focal boards. We additionally predict that economic crisis reduces the biases of male directors against appointing female directors to boards. We test our hypotheses based on a novel data set that includes 25,460 directors in Chinese A-share public companies with a sample of 27,058 firm-quarter observations for 1635 firms between 2006 and 2010 and find most of our hypotheses supported. (shrink)
I argue for the role of trust and cooperation as part of the foundation of digital commerce by expanding the reach of the Integrative Social Contract Theory of Donaldson and Dunfee. I propose that a digital business community can be a community in the morally relevant ways that Donaldson and Dunfee describe, and that the basic framework of ISCT can apply to the digital business world similarly to its application in the offline business world. I then analyze the roles of (...) trust and cooperation in e-commerce, showing how they are important to the digital business community and explaining their moral relevance under a digital form of ISCT. I use the ISCT framework to show that trust and cooperation are an instantiation of the hypernorm of necessary social efficiency, and that authentic microsocial norms developed for the ends of trust and cooperation carry moral responsibility. (shrink)
Is there a compensation gap between female CEOs and male CEOs? If so, are there mechanisms to mitigate the compensation gap? Extending role congruity theory, we argue that the perception mismatch between the female gender role and the leadership role may lead to lower compensation to female CEOs, resulting in a gender compensation gap. Nevertheless, the compensation gap may be narrowed if female CEOs display agentic traits through risk-taking, or alternatively, work in female-dominated industries where communal traits are valued. Additionally, (...) we expect that female CEOs’ risk-taking is less effective in reducing the gender compensation gap in female-dominated industries due to the conflicting emphases on agentic and communal traits. Leveraging a sample of Chinese publicly listed firms, we find support for our hypotheses. Overall, this study contributes to the ethics literature on income inequality issues, by highlighting the effectiveness of potential mechanisms to close the gender compensation gap between female and male CEOs. (shrink)
Drawing on the status characteristic theory, we investigate the effect of gender on board directors’ status ranking and find that all else being equal, female directors’ status ranking is 81.48% of one position lower than that of male directors, a discrepancy that is attributable to gender. We theorize on the mechanism that determines the ways in which the status value of gender on a board affects board interactions, and we predict how this mechanism influences firm outcomes, including excessive managerial spending, (...) social responsibility performance, and firm risk. We test our hypotheses in Chinese firms using an unbalanced panel that includes 5396 firm-year observations for a period of 6 years and find them supported. (shrink)
_Care of the Self: Ancient Problematizations of Life and Contemporary Thought_, by Lívia Flachbartová, Pavol Sucharek, and Vladislav Suvák, focus on different manifestations of “taking care of the self” present in ancient and contemporary thought.
This paper presents some reflections about an approach in work psychology: the Activity Clinic. After a brief introduction to the conceptual background of the “Activity Clinic”, it covers three deeply interconnected themes. The first concerns the meaning attributed to the development of the affects present in the work situation under analysis; the second discusses the reasons for the conflicts that are ultimately due to these affects; the third considers how a method of co-analysis of the activity can lead towards transformation (...) of those conflicts. Our reflections refer to the process engendered by this methodological approach as one of “transferential activity”. The paper explains this process by empirically describing the “transport” of affects involved in the conflicts. The personal interpretation of the cause of problems gives way to the understanding that they are due to organizational dysfunction rather than to individual personalities. Measures can then be taken to break the deadlocks experienced both at the personal and collective level. (shrink)
The Committee for Ethics in Science and Higher Education was created in Croatia as a national body appointed by the Parliament. Thus Croatia became one of a handful of countries with national means of responding to allegations of scientific misconduct. The Committee’s duties, with the help of the Ethics Code, include promotion of ethical norms and values in science and higher education. The CESHE will work on cases of possible research misconduct and alleged disregard for the ethical norms associated with (...) research. (shrink)
A large body of literature agrees that persons with schizophrenia suffer from a Theory of Mind deficit. However, most empirical studies have focused on third-person, egocentric ToM, underestimating other facets of this complex cognitive skill. Aim of this research is to examine the ToM of schizophrenic persons considering its various aspects, to determine whether some components are more impaired than others. We developed a Theory of Mind Assessment Scale and administered it to 22 persons with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia (...) and a matching control group. Th.o.m.a.s. is a semi-structured interview which allows a multi-component measurement of ToM. Both groups were also administered a few existing ToM tasks and the schizophrenic subjects were administered the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale and the WAIS-R. The schizophrenic persons performed worse than control at all the ToM measurements; however, these deficits appeared to be differently distributed among different components of ToM. Our conclusion is that ToM deficits are not unitary in schizophrenia, which also testifies to the importance of a complete and articulated investigation of ToM. (shrink)
In this article we argue that discourse structure constrains the set ofpossible constituents in a discourse that can provide the relevantcontext for structuring information in a target sentence, whileinformation structure critically constrains discourse structureambiguity. For the speaker, the discourse structure provides a set of possible contexts for continuation while information structure assignment is independent of discourse structure. For the hearer, the information structure of a sentence together with discourse structure instructs dynamic semantics how rhematic information should be used to update (...) the meaning representation of the discourse. (shrink)
Ljudski se mozak polako otvara znanstvenoj spoznaji. Novi uvidi u način rada ovog vrhunski sofisticiranog ljudskog/digitalnog »stroja« bacaju povratno svjetlo na načine »aktiviranja « ljudske osjetilnosti, načine doživljavanja i spoznavanja svijeta.Cilj je ovog rada istražiti moguću povezanost tehničkih naprava kao ljudskih ekstenzija i procesa u mozgu koji povratno određuju načine percepcije svijeta. Istovremeno riječ je o promišljanju zanimljive i u znanosti prisutne teze o podijeljenosti hemisfera ljudskoga mozga kao oblika podijeljenosti temeljnih ljudskih sposobnosti.U tom kontekstu želimo propitati bioetičku dimenziju McLuhanovog (...) razmišljanja o paraleli podijeljenosti hemisfera ljudskoga mozga i hemisfera civilizacija nastanjenih na istočnoj odnosno zapadnoj strani zemaljske kugle.Područja istraživanja su dakle sljedeća: tehnologije kao ekstenzije i ljudski mozak; lijeva i desna hemisfera mozga; tehnologije, kultura, mozak; ekstenzije jezika i pisma u predjezičkom i predpismenom; »digitalno« ustrojstvo mozga; mozak kao krajnji korektiv tehnocivilizacijskih zabluda.Postoje poveznice između neurolingvističkih, teoloških, filozofijskih i biologijskih stavova o mozgu. Tragajući za svojim odgovorima o izvorima jezika, o determiniranosti ljudskoga mišljenja, o odnosu potencijalnoga i realiziranoga, o sukobima u čovjeku između utilitarnog i empatije… u konačnici promišljanje želi odgovoriti na pitanje regulativnog karaktera ljudskog mozga u uspostavljanju balansa moći kako pojedinih ljudi tako i civilizacija.Science is slowly revealing secrets of the human brain. Latest discoveries on the functioning of this digital, highly sophisticated human “device” reflect the ways how sensations, experience and understanding of the world are “activated”.The aim of this study is to investigate the eventual link between technical devices as human extensions and brain processes that in return determine the ways of the perception of the world. At the same time it is a reflection on interesting thesis which exists in the science on the split of the human brain hemispheres as a form of a division between basic human abilities.In this context we want to investigate the bioethical dimension of McLuhan’s thought on the parallel between two hemispheres of the human brain and civilisations which exists on Eastern and Western hemisphere of our planet.The areas of investigation are the following: technologies as extensions and human brain; left and right hemisphere of the brain; technologies, culture, brain; extensions of spoken and written language in pre-linguistic and pre-literacy; “digital” configuration of the brain; brain as the final corrective of the techno-civilisations delusions.There are links between neurolinguistical, theological, philosophical and biological standpoints on human brain. Research into the origins of language, determination of human thoughts, relation between potential and realised, the internal conflict between utilitarian and human empathy… at the end the contemplation tries to answer the question on the regulatory nature of the human brain in establishing the balance of power of both individuals and civilizations. (shrink)
Daoist Identity is an exploration of the various means by which Daoists over the centuries have created an identity for themselves. Using modern sociological studies of identity formation as its foundation, it brings together a representative sample of in-depth analyses by eminent American and Japanese scholars in the field. The discussion begins with critical examinations of the ways identity was found among the early movements of the Way of Great Peace and the Celestial Masters. The role of sacred texts and (...) literary culture in Daoist identity formation is discussed. The volume then focuses on lineage formation and the increasing role of popular religious practices, such as spirit-writing, in modern Daoism since the Song dynasty. Finally it discusses the Daoist adaptation and reinterpretation of Buddhist rites, such as the feeding of souls in hell and the use of ritual gestures, and the changes made in contemporary Daoism in relation to traditional rites and popular practices. Contributors: Asano Haruji, Suzanne Cahill, M. Csikszentmihalyi, Edward L. Davis, Terry F. Kleeman, Livia Kohn, Mabuchi Masaya, Maruyama Hiroshi, Mitamura Keiko, Mori Yuria, Peter Nickerson, Charles D. Orzech, Harold D. Roth, Shiga Ichiko, Tsuchiya Masaaki. (shrink)
In Monastic Life in Medieval Daoism, a senior scholar of Daoist studies presents for the first time a detailed description and analysis of the organization and practices of medieval Daoist monasteries. Following an introduction to the wider, comparative issues involved in the study of monasticism, Livia Kohn outlines the origin, history, conceptual understanding, and social position of the monasteries, which came into their own early in the Tang dynasty. She examines texts from this period along with the architectural layout (...) of Daoist monasteries, the daily discipline and interpersonal etiquette of monks and nuns, their implements and vestments, as well as the liturgical dimension of monastic life. Throughout, Professor Kohn maintains a high comparative level, linking the Daoist situation and practices not only with Chinese popular, Confucian, Buddhist, and lay Daoist traditions, but also with relevant examples from Indian Buddhism and medieval Christianity. Monastic Life in Medieval Daoism breaks new ground in Daoist studies, the understanding of Chinese religion and medieval society, and the theoretical understanding and interpretation of the comparative phenomenon of monasticism. It will be required reading for scholars of Daoist studies and Chinese religion and medieval history and illuminating to experts in comparative religion and religious studies in general as well as to the wider public interested in questions of monastic life. (shrink)
Neste artigo, investigamos práticas de citação de literatura científica na escrita reflexiva do gênero relatório de estágio supervisionado, produzido por professores em formação, em disciplinas de estágio obrigatório em Ensino de Língua Inglesa numa Licenciatura em Letras. Analisaremos, especificamente, como esses professores se representam a partir de citações de literatura científica, e caracterizaremos algumas funções exercidas pelas citações na escrita reflexiva emergente na esfera acadêmica. Utilizamos a abordagem dialógica da linguagem dos estudos bakhtinianos como referencial teórico de base, além de (...) aportes teórico-metodológicos acerca de tipos de sequência e de discurso propostos por Adam e Bronckart. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram que a prática de citação da literatura científica é uma invocação de autoridade com função de erudição, amplificação e ornamentação do discurso produzido, podendo orientar a ação pedagógica desenvolvida pelo professor em formação no estágio supervisionado.In this paper we investigate citation practices of scientific literature in reflexive writing from the genre of supervised pre-service training report produced by pre-service teachers enrolled in the mandatory pre-service training subject of English Language Teaching, at an undergraduate language teaching course. The aim of this research is to analyze how these pre-services teacher represent themselves based on citation practices of scientific literature, and characterize some of the functions deployed by the citations in the reflexive writing emerging in the academic sphere. We use the dialogic approach to language from Bakhtinian studies as a theoretical base, as well as theoretical and methodological contributions regarding types of sequences and of discourse proposed by Adam and Bronckart. The results of this research show that the practice of citation of scientific literature is an invocation of authority as a form of erudition, amplification and ornamentation of the discourse produced. This practice can also guide pedagogical action developed by pre-service teachers in their supervised training. (shrink)