The study examines the religious thought and aspirations of John Stuart Mill. Contrary to the conventional view of Mill as the prototypical "secular" liberal, it shows that religious preoccupations dominated Mill's thought and structured his endeavors throughout his life. What must be recognized for a proper appreciation of Mill's thought ell as and legacy is the depth of his animus toward traditional transcendent religion, as well the seriousness of his intent to found a new "secular" or non-theological religion to serve (...) as its replacement. Mill's "religious" aim was two-pronged---the evisceration of Christian belief and the social establishment of the allegedly superior morality and spirituality embodied in the "Religion of Humanity" he adopted, with revisions, from Auguste Comte. Mill intended his philosophical writings to assist in the realization of this aim, and they cannot adequately be comprehended without an awareness of their subterranean religious theme. ;The study examines the influence of James Mill, Bentham, Saint-Simon, and Comte on Mill's religious thought and aims. It examines Mill's Three Essays on Religion; discusses his participation in the "Mansel Controversy"; and offers an interpretation of On Liberty and Utilitarianism from the perspective developed in the study. Both essays are shown to have been employed by Mill as crucial instruments toward the accomplishment of his religious mission. ;The material brought to light in this study requires a far-reaching re-evaluation of Mill's contribution to the development of the liberal tradition. Through his influence the radical anti-Christianity of the French Revolution was incorporated into the Anglo-American tradition. Mill's "non-theological" utilitarianism also involved the equally important, if less dramatic, insinuation of Comtean "altruism" and its notion of the superiority of "social" to personal morality into Anglo-American consciousness. The "social morality" embodied in Mill's Religion of Humanity has been assimilated by large segments of contemporary Anglo-American society and is the ethos that has impelled the rise of modern-liberalism The intense intramundane religiosity that Mill incorporated into the Anglo-American political tradition also casts a new light on the nature of modern "secular" liberalism, the chief political carrier of the new secular religiosity in the American context. (shrink)
In addition to the infant cry being a signal for attention, it may also be a critical component of the early formation of attachments with caregivers. We consider the complex development of that attachment, which involves reciprocal interactive signaling and a host of evolutionarily conserved caregiver factors.
Previously, Rodriguez & LeMaster (2007) recommended that the SEC issue a “CSR Seal of Approval” for companies that voluntarily disclose their corporate social responsibility (CSR) projects. That work lacks the strength of third or fourth-party accreditation. This paper recommends that the SEC issue an accreditation grade of A, B, B-, or C to provide strength to the “CSR Seal of Approval” and to help companies indicate the quality of company CSR programs. By issuing an accredited “CSR Seal of Approval,” all (...) stakeholders benefit because companies can incorporate CSR into their strategies and achieve recognition for their CSR projects. The premise of the accreditation concept support the original authors notion of letting CSR remain voluntary and not legislated; thus, all companies (small, medium, large, foreign or domestic) maintain competitive advantage by not incurring additional regulated costs. (shrink)
We look at the relationship of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and country risk. We conceptualize the relationship first by asking if there is a correlationand then positing the directionality of the relationship. We posit that there is an inverse or negative correlation of implicit CSR with country risk and a positive correlation between explicit CSR and country risk. Understanding this relationship can help firms respond to a variety of external pressures such as those from activist organizations and stockholder disciplining; thus, (...) preventing firms from the need to “bolt” on CSR strategies to existing corporate strategies, as well as to help fulfill social needs within the community, mitigate political risks, and improve firm reputation. (shrink)
This paper concerns the connection between perceived country risk and corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies and the communication of CSR strategychoices to consumers. This study incorporates the idea of explicit (voluntary) and implicit (regulated) CSR and presents possible CSR strategies that managers might choose based on risk. Using a convenience sample, this study finds that as managers perceive greater country risk, managers choose predominately compliance based CSR strategies. The purpose of this study is to understand strategies that managers choose based (...) on perceived country risk and to recommend future research for CSR strategy implementation. (shrink)
Should the private sector concern itself with the health of the communities in which it operates? Should the community look to local businesses for collaboration in the effort to elevate the health of its citizens? Is there an opportunity between the public and private sectors to create shared value through the enhancement of public health? These are questions this paper explores and analyzes, using theoretical models that originate in disparate literatures.
The book examines the relation of individual freedom to the economic arrangements of society. It explores both the theory and practice of the competing paradigms of capitalism and socialism, as well as the moral frameworks—justice and social justice—correlative to them.
This book explores the Founders’ conception of American political order, including traditional American rights and their relation to the rule of law, the purpose of government, the meaning of social contract, the elements of liberal democracy, and various assumptions, explicit and implicit, underlying the Founders’ constitutional design.
This paper aligns the Miles and Snow (Miles & Snow, 1978) strategy typology, with corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies and CSR marketing strategies in a unifying framework. The paper traces the evolution of CSR marketing and discusses a flexible definition of CSR. The value of this study is to improve competitive advantage and firm performance by identifying and aligning CSR strategies and CSR marketing strategies with the Reactor, Prospector, Analyzer, and Defender strategy typology.
This chapter contains a brief review of some relevant literature by American scholars that mostly reference to American cultural settings. This literature ranges from viewing will as universal psychological phenomena and others discuss some features of willing that can be found within a certain sociocultural milieu. This chapter also reveals the variable and dynamic nature of assessments and attributions of volitional states in connection to events within the social world.
This in-process study asks how companies in different cultural regions with different macro-risk levels understand the Corporate Sustainability practices. For this developing qualitative study, we review the influence of two components of the National Business Systems, culture and country risk, for firm level Corporate Sustainability practices as expressed by East / West firms in the Global Reporting Initiative’s database – a global initiative that works toward the standardization of organizational sustainability reporting. This study is important because many concepts of CS (...) stem from Western regions like North America and Western Europe; therefore, we expect that Eastern firms would conceptualize and implement CS differently. (shrink)
This case study explores local North Carolina emergency manager perspectives on Defense Support to Civil Authorities. We ask a) How do county emergency managers integrate DSCA to prepare for disasters, and b) What factors do emergency managers consider when integrating DSCA into response and recovery activities. The reason why this study is important is that the results provide detailed and rich data for local emergency managers, and offers possibilities to improve collaborative emergency responses between various local, state, and national emergency (...) management agencies. Moreover, the study outcomes can help key leaders in emergency agencies to improve education and training to facilitate local emergency management through DSCA. (shrink)
This paper uses social capital theory to explain contemporary slavery in the context of American professional sports leagues. While traditional slavery was legallyabolished in the United States (US) during the nineteenth century, using the label slavery to describe professional athletes is often dismissed because these athletes are wellcompensated performers with access to incremental compensation through commercial endorsements. As active players, athletes have opportunities to build and leverage social capital, yet, after they retire from competition, these opportunities frequently diminish. We contend (...) contemporary slavery exists for professional athletes and during their careers they are bound to their owners via “gilded cage” slavery, which is attractive to enter yet difficult to exit. We also contend that during this “bondage,” athletes build and maintain social capital; yet upon retirement, athletes are limited in opportunities to leverage socialcapital to improve their own situations or those of their communities. (shrink)
In addition to endogenously produced opiates, which are part of normal affiliative neurocircuitry and attachment formation, exogenous opiates – such as drugs of addiction and abuse – may affect affiliation. We consider possible modulatory effects of such exogenous opiates on the development of early parent–infant attachment from both parents' and infants' perspectives.
In the dyadic and triadic sharing of emotions, intentions, and behaviors in families, interactive synchrony is important to the early life experiences that contribute to the development of cultural cognition. This synchrony likely depends on neurobiological circuits, currently under study with brain imaging, that involve attention, stress response, and memory.