In modern times, academics have used the perspective of political liberty and spiritual freedom to interpret and explain Zhuang Ziâs happy excursion as well as the substance of all his other thoughts. The starting point of the former is the political idea of laissez-faire; the latter involves the unique character of Zhuang Ziâs philosophy on life. But it misses the spiritual deficiency contained in Zhuang Zi, and so it is difficult to respond to criticism from modern liberals. This article argues (...) that it is not quite accurate to use happy excursion to express modern freedom, but the spiritual tradition of happy excursion as a kind of native resource could still serve as a way to introduce the idea of liberalism at the level of a life philosophy based on independence, individual consciousness and the personal conscience and virtues embraced by the happy excursion thought of Zhuang Zi. (shrink)
Indoor plants can positively impact physical and mental health in daily life. However, the benefits of viewing indoor plants may be enhanced if the plants emit a fragrant aroma. In this crossover-design study, we measured the physiological and psychological effects of fragrant and non-fragrant Primula plants on 50 female college students, and explored whether aroma stimulation had additive benefits for this group. Non-fragrant Primula malacoides Franch was used as a control stimulus, and Primula forbesii Franch, which has a floral fragrance, (...) was used as an experimental stimulus. We measured blood pressure, pulse rate, and electroencephalogram to evaluate physiological responses, and used a mood state profile and the semantic differential method to evaluate psychological responses. We found that mean blood pressure and pulse rate decreased significantly after the experiment in both conditions. EEGs showed that the mean values of high alpha waves, high beta waves, and relaxation scores were significantly higher in the experimental vs. control condition. The average scores on each subscale of the psychological questionnaire improved after the experiment in both conditions, and the vitality subscale and total emotional state scores were significantly better in the experimental vs. control condition. The results of the SD method showed that the sense of relaxation and comfort were significantly higher in the experimental vs. control condition. Compared with the non-fragrant Primula, the fragrant Primula induced relatively better physiological and psychological effects. (shrink)
Locus equations contain an economical set of hidden (i.e., not directly observable in the data) parameters of speech that provide an elegant way of characterizing the ubiquitous context-dependent behaviors exhibited in speech acoustics. These hidden parameters can be effectively exploited to constrain the huge set of context-dependent speech model parameters currently in use in modern, mainstream speech recognition technology.
Case-cohort design is a biased sampling method. Due to its cost-effective and theoretical significance, this design has extensive application value in many large cohort studies. The case-cohort data includes a subcohort sampled randomly from the entire cohort and all the failed subjects outside the subcohort. In this paper, the adjustment for the distorted covariates is considered to case-cohort data in Cox’s model. According to the existing adjustable methods of distorted covariates for linear and nonlinear models, we propose estimating the distorting (...) functions by nonparametrically regressing the distorted covariates on the distorting factors; then, the estimators for the parameters are obtained using the estimated covariates. The proof of consistency and being asymptotically normal is completed. For calculating the maximum likelihood estimates of the regression coefficients subject in Cox’s model, a minorization-maximization algorithm is developed. Simulation studies are performed to compare the estimations with the covariates undistorted, distorted, and adjusted to illustrate the proposed methods. (shrink)