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Lex Bouter [12]Lex M. Bouter [8]
  1.  14
    Ranking major and minor research misbehaviors: results from a survey among participants of four World Conferences on Research Integrity.Gerben ter Riet, Brian C. Martinson, Nils Axelsen, Joeri Tijdink & Lex M. Bouter - 2016 - Research Integrity and Peer Review 1 (1).
    BackgroundCodes of conduct mainly focus on research misconduct that takes the form of fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. However, at the aggregate level, lesser forms of research misbehavior may be more important due to their much higher prevalence. Little is known about what the most frequent research misbehaviors are and what their impact is if they occur.MethodsA survey was conducted among 1353 attendees of international research integrity conferences. They were asked to score 60 research misbehaviors according to their views on and (...)
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  2.  19
    What Research Institutions Can Do to Foster Research Integrity.Lex Bouter - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2363-2369.
    In many countries attention for fostering research integrity started with a misconduct case that got a lot of media exposure. But there is an emerging consensus that questionable research practices are more harmful due to their high prevalence. QRPs have in common that they can help to make study results more exciting, more positive and more statistically significant. That makes them tempting to engage in. Research institutions have the duty to empower their research staff to steer away from QRPs and (...)
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  3.  17
    Researchers’ Perceptions of a Responsible Research Climate: A Multi Focus Group Study.Tamarinde Haven, H. Roeline Pasman, Guy Widdershoven, Lex Bouter & Joeri Tijdink - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (6):3017-3036.
    The research climate plays a key role in fostering integrity in research. However, little is known about what constitutes a responsible research climate. We investigated academic researchers’ perceptions on this through focus group interviews. We recruited researchers from the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and the Amsterdam University Medical Center to participate in focus group discussions that consisted of researchers from similar academic ranks and disciplinary fields. We asked participants to reflect on the characteristics of a responsible research climate, the barriers they (...)
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  4.  19
    Value pluralism in research integrity.Lex Bouter, Tamarinde Haven, Jeroen de Ridder & Rik Peels - 2019 - Research Integrity and Peer Review 4 (1).
    Both scientists and society at large have rightfully become increasingly concerned about research integrity in recent decades. In response, codes of conduct for research have been developed and elaborated. We show that these codes contain substantial pluralism. First, there is metaphysical pluralism in that codes include values, norms, and virtues. Second, there is axiological pluralism, because there are different categories of values, norms, and virtues: epistemic, moral, professional, social, and legal. Within and between these different categories, norms can be incommensurable (...)
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  5.  24
    Important Topics for Fostering Research Integrity by Research Performing and Research Funding Organizations: A Delphi Consensus Study.Joeri Tijdink, Lidwine Mokkink, Ana Marušić, Natalie Evans, Guy Widdershoven, Lex Bouter, Rea Roje & Krishma Labib - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (4):1-22.
    To foster research integrity (RI), it is necessary to address the institutional and system-of-science factors that influence researchers’ behavior. Consequently, research performing and research funding organizations (RPOs and RFOs) could develop comprehensive RI policies outlining the concrete steps they will take to foster RI. So far, there is no consensus on which topics are important to address in RI policies. Therefore, we conducted a three round Delphi survey study to explore which RI topics to address in institutional RI policies by (...)
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  6.  30
    The Contribution of Moral Case Deliberation to Teaching RCR to PhD Students.Giulia Inguaggiato, Krishma Labib, Natalie Evans, Fenneke Blom, Lex Bouter & Guy Widdershoven - 2023 - Science and Engineering Ethics 29 (2):1-18.
    Teaching responsible conduct of research (RCR) to PhD students is crucial for fostering responsible research practice. In this paper, we show how the use of Moral Case Deliberation—a case reflection method used in the Amsterdam UMC RCR PhD course—is particularity valuable to address three goals of RCR education: (1) making students aware of, and internalize, RCR principles and values, (2) supporting reflection on good conduct in personal daily practice, and (3) developing students’ dialogical attitude and skills so that they can (...)
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  7.  26
    Should research misconduct be criminalized?Rafael Dal-Ré, Lex M. Bouter, Pim Cuijpers, Christian Gluud & Søren Holm - 2020 - Research Ethics 16 (1-2):1-12.
    For more than 25 years, research misconduct is defined as fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism —although other research misbehaviors have been also added in codes of cond...
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  8.  25
    Can moral case deliberation in research groups help to navigate research integrity dilemmas? A pilot study.Tamarinde L. Haven, Bert Molewijk, Lex Bouter, Guy Widdershoven, Fenneke Blom & Joeri Tijdink - 2024 - Research Ethics 20 (2):219-238.
    There is an increased focus on fostering integrity in research by through creating an open culture where research integrity dilemmas can be discussed. We describe a pilot intervention study that used Moral Case Deliberation (MCD), a method that originated in clinical ethics support, to discuss research integrity dilemmas with researchers. Our research question was: can moral case deliberation in research groups help to navigate research integrity dilemmas? We performed 10 MCDs with 19 researchers who worked in three different research groups (...)
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  9.  9
    Researchers’ perceptions of research misbehaviours: a mixed methods study among academic researchers in Amsterdam.Lex M. Bouter, Gerben ter Riet, Guy Widdershoven, H. Roeline Pasman, Joeri K. Tijdink & Tamarinde L. Haven - 2019 - Research Integrity and Peer Review 4 (1).
    BackgroundThere is increasing evidence that research misbehaviour is common, especially the minor forms. Previous studies on research misbehaviour primarily focused on biomedical and social sciences, and evidence from natural sciences and humanities is scarce. We investigated what academic researchers in Amsterdam perceived to be detrimental research misbehaviours in their respective disciplinary fields.MethodsWe used an explanatory sequential mixed methods design. First, survey participants from four disciplinary fields rated perceived frequency and impact of research misbehaviours from a list of 60. We then (...)
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  10.  13
    Explaining variance in perceived research misbehavior: results from a survey among academic researchers in Amsterdam.Frans Oort, Lex Bouter, Brian Martinson, Joeri Tijdink & Tamarinde Haven - 2021 - Research Integrity and Peer Review 6 (1).
    BackgroundConcerns about research misbehavior in academic science have sparked interest in the factors that may explain research misbehavior. Often three clusters of factors are distinguished: individual factors, climate factors and publication factors. Our research question was: to what extent can individual, climate and publication factors explain the variance in frequently perceived research misbehaviors?MethodsFrom May 2017 until July 2017, we conducted a survey study among academic researchers in Amsterdam. The survey included three measurement instruments that we previously reported individual results of (...)
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  11.  10
    What do Retraction Notices Reveal About Institutional Investigations into Allegations Underlying Retractions?Lex Bouter, Guangwei Hu, Natalie Evans & Shaoxiong Brian Xu - 2023 - Science and Engineering Ethics 29 (4):1-15.
    Academic journal publications may be retracted following institutional investigations that confirm allegations of research misconduct. Retraction notices can provide insight into the role institutional investigations play in the decision to retract a publication. Through a content analysis of 7,318 retraction notices published between 1927 and 2019 and indexed by the Web of Science, we found that most retraction notices (73.7%) provided no information about institutional investigations that may have led to retractions. A minority of the retraction notices (26.3%) mentioned an (...)
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  12.  19
    Co-creating Research Integrity Education Guidelines for Research Institutions.Krishma Labib, Natalie Evans, Daniel Pizzolato, Noémie Aubert Bonn, Guy Widdershoven, Lex Bouter, Teodora Konach, Miranda Langendam, Kris Dierickx & Joeri Tijdink - 2023 - Science and Engineering Ethics 29 (4):1-23.
    To foster research integrity (RI), research institutions should develop a continuous RI education approach, addressing various target groups. To support institutions to achieve this, we developed RI education guidelines together with RI experts and research administrators, exploring similarities and differences in recommendations across target groups, as well as recommendations about RI education using approaches other than formal RI training. We used an iterative co-creative process. We conducted four half-day online co-creation workshops with 16 participants in total, which were informed by (...)
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  13. Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Research Integrity: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro. 31 May - 3 June 2015.Lex Bouter, Melissa S. Anderson, Ana Marusic, Sabine Kleinert, Susan Zimmerman, Paulo S. L. Beirão, Laura Beranzoli, Giuseppe Di Capua, Silvia Peppoloni, Maria Betânia de Freitas Marques, Adriana Sousa, Claudia Rech, Torunn Ellefsen, Adele Flakke Johannessen, Jacob Holen, Raymond Tait, Jillon Van der Wall, John Chibnall, James M. DuBois, Farida Lada, Jigisha Patel, Stephanie Harriman, Leila Posenato Garcia, Adriana Nascimento Sousa, Cláudia Maria Correia Borges Rech, Oliveira Patrocínio, Raphaela Dias Fernandes, Laressa Lima Amâncio, Anja Gillis, David Gallacher, David Malwitz, Tom Lavrijssen, Mariusz Lubomirski, Malini Dasgupta, Katie Speanburg, Elizabeth C. Moylan, Maria K. Kowalczuk, Nikolas Offenhauser, Markus Feufel, Niklas Keller, Volker Bähr, Diego Oliveira Guedes, Douglas Leonardo Gomes Filho, Vincent Larivière, Rodrigo Costas, Daniele Fanelli, Mark William Neff, Aline Carolina de Oliveira Machado Prata, Limbanazo Matandika, Sonia Maria Ramos de Vasconcelos & Karina de A. Rocha - 2016 - Research Integrity and Peer Review 1 (Suppl 1).
    Table of contentsI1 Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Research IntegrityConcurrent Sessions:1. Countries' systems and policies to foster research integrityCS01.1 Second time around: Implementing and embedding a review of responsible conduct of research policy and practice in an Australian research-intensive universitySusan Patricia O'BrienCS01.2 Measures to promote research integrity in a university: the case of an Asian universityDanny Chan, Frederick Leung2. Examples of research integrity education programmes in different countriesCS02.1 Development of a state-run “cyber education program of research ethics” in (...)
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  14.  49
    Stakeholders’ Experiences of Research Integrity Support in Universities: A Qualitative Study in Three European Countries.Natalie Evans, Ivan Buljan, Emanuele Valenti, Lex Bouter, Ana Marušić, Raymond de Vries & Guy Widdershoven - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (5):1-23.
    Fostering research integrity (RI) increasingly focuses on normative guidance and supportive measures within institutions. To be successful, the implementation of support should be informed by stakeholders’ experiences of RI support. This study aims to explore experiences of RI support in Dutch, Spanish and Croatian universities. In total, 59 stakeholders (Netherlands n = 25, Spain n = 17, Croatia n = 17) participated in 16 focus groups in three European countries. Global themes on RI support experiences were identified by thematic analysis. (...)
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  15.  7
    Steps toward preregistration of research on research integrity.Lex M. Bouter, Nicholas H. Steneck, Wilco H. M. Emons & Klaas Sijtsma - 2021 - Research Integrity and Peer Review 6 (1).
    BackgroundA proposal to encourage the preregistration of research on research integrity was developed and adopted as the Amsterdam Agenda at the 5th World Conference on Research Integrity. This paper reports on the degree to which abstracts of the 6th World Conference in Research Integrity reported on preregistered research.MethodsConference registration data on participants presenting a paper or a poster at 6th WCRI were made available to the research team. Because the data set was too small for inferential statistics this report is (...)
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  16.  7
    Correction to: ranking major and minor research misbehaviors: results from a survey among participants of four World Conferences on Research Integrity.Gerben ter Riet, Brian C. Martinson, Nils Axelsen, Joeri Tijdink & Lex M. Bouter - 2019 - Research Integrity and Peer Review 4 (1).
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  17.  15
    The effects of industry funding and positive outcomes in the interpretation of clinical trial results: a randomized trial among Dutch psychiatrists.Joeri K. Tijdink, Yvo M. Smulders, Lex M. Bouter & Christiaan H. Vinkers - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):1-8.
    Most studies are inclined to report positive rather than negative or inconclusive results. It is currently unknown how clinicians appraise the results of a randomized clinical trial. For example, how does the study funding source influence the appraisal of an RCT, and do positive findings influence perceived credibility and clinical relevance? This study investigates whether psychiatrists’ appraisal of a scientific abstract is influenced by industry funding disclosures and a positive outcome. Dutch psychiatrists were randomized to evaluate a scientific abstract describing (...)
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  18.  8
    Determinants of Citation in Epidemiological Studies on Phthalates: A Citation Analysis.Miriam J. E. Urlings, Bram Duyx, Gerard M. H. Swaen, Lex M. Bouter & Maurice P. A. Zeegers - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (6):3053-3067.
    Citing of previous publications is an important factor in knowledge development. Because of the great amount of publications available, only a selection of studies gets cited, for varying reasons. If the selection of citations is associated with study outcome this is called citation bias. We will study determinants of citation in a broader sense, including e.g. study design, journal impact factor or the funding source of the publication. As a case study we assess which factors drive citation in the human (...)
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  19.  17
    Selective citation in the literature on swimming in chlorinated water and childhood asthma: a network analysis.Maurice P. Zeegers, Lex M. Bouter, Gerard M. H. Swaen, Miriam J. E. Urlings & Bram Duyx - 2017 - Research Integrity and Peer Review 2 (1).
    BackgroundKnowledge development depends on an unbiased representation of the available evidence. Selective citation may distort this representation. Recently, some controversy emerged regarding the possible impact of swimming on childhood asthma, raising the question about the role of selective citation in this field. Our objective was to assess the occurrence and determinants of selective citation in scientific publications on the relationship between swimming in chlorinated pools and childhood asthma.MethodsWe identified scientific journal articles on this relationship via a systematic literature search. The (...)
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