For the first time, David Katz's classic monograph _The World of Touch_ has been translated into English. Regarded as one of the premiere experimental psychologists, Katz vigorously opposed the atomism and "tachistoscopic" mentality typical of the sensory psychology of his day. In _The World of Touch_, Katz sought to dispel the invidious distinction between the supposedly higher and lower senses. To help touch regain its original prominence in the field, Katz demonstrated, through very simple, yet creative experiments, how fascinating the (...) abilities of touch are, and how valuable the tactual stimulus can be in specifying objects, surfaces, substances, and events. In addition, Katz emphasized the importance of higher-order invariants in the perception of objects, and the holistic quality of perception in time as well as space. (shrink)
Pylyshyn could have strengthened his case by avoiding side issues and by taking a sterner, firmer line on the unresolved (and perhaps unresolvable) problems plaguing the sensitivity (d') measure of top-down, cognitive effects, as well as the general (nearly utter!) lack of convincing evidence provided by proponents of the cognitive penetrability of visual perception.
Chow pays lip service (but not much more!) to Type I errors and thus opts for a hard (all-or-none) .05 level of significance (Superego of Neyman/Pearson theory; Gigerenzer 1993). Most working scientists disregard Type I errors and thus utilize a soft .05 level (Ego of Fisher; Gigerenzer 1993), which lets them report gradations of significance (e.g., p.
This comprehensive anthology of Bertrand Russell's writings brings together his definitive essays from the period 1903 to 1959. It covers the most fertile and the most lasting work on every significant area he published in.
This collection of new essays by eleven distinguished environmental philosophers addresses two main questions: first, whether environmental philosophy and ethics should be seen as a form of applied philosophy or as something else, perhaps best called practical philosophy; and second, how environmental philosophy is practiced in human life, especially in the lives of academics.
We advocate for an integrative long-term perspective on time, noting that culture changes on timescales amenable to behavioral genetic study with appropriate design and modeling extensions. We note the need for replications of behavioral genetic studies to examine model invariance across long-term timescales, which would afford examination of specified as well as unspecified cultural moderators of behavioral genetic effects.
Insight into Lester Embree’s C.V. Recovery and recognition of his inner purpose with regard to his critical detachment from a particular orientation of phenomenology. Phenomenological theory only makes sense as prepa-ration for real practice. When did the view that we, the “soi disant” phenomenologists, are far from the genuine practice of phenomenology arise in Embree? And, who inspired him, apart from Husserl himself? These are key questions to understand unity and inner coherence in Embre’s C.V., and they meet two (...) aims. The first one is to find the link between his initial entry in phenomenology and his critical stance, particularly evident in the last two decades of his life. The second one is to identify who could have been his guide and model‒apart from Husserl‒from the beginning of his life as phenomenologist until his last two decades, when he wrote his comments on pseudophenomenology. In any case, Embree has been a critical voice who compels us to think about the orientation we are giving to the phenomenology inherited from Husserl. He is therefore a brave and honest philosopher, full of great humanity. In addititon to these qualities, it is worth noting both his creative intelligence and foresight to see‒earlier than others‒the evolution followed by phenomenology until now and his valuable multidisciplinary contribution. Praise to Lester Embree.Mirada hacia el interior del C.V. de Lester Embree. Recuperación y reconocimiento de su propósito interno con respecto a su distanciamiento crítico hacia cierta orientación de la fenomenología. La teoría fenomenológica únicamente tiene sentido como preparación para una real práctica. ¿Cuándo emerge en Embree su consideración de que los “soi disant” fenomenólogos estamos alejados del verdadero ejercicio de la fenomenología? Y, ¿en quién se inspira él además de en Husserl? Estas preguntas son importantes para entender la unidad y coherencia internas en el C.V. de Embree y sirven para satisfacer dos objetivos. El primero es hallar un vínculo entre su entrada inicial en la fenomenología y su posicionamiento crítico manifiesto especialmente en las últimas dos décadas de su vida. El segundo objetivo es determinar quién pudo actuar para él —además de Husserl— como guía y modelo desde el comienzo de su vida de fenomenólogo hasta esas dos últimas de su vida en las que escribe sus comentarios sobre la pseudofenomenología. En todo caso, Embree es una voz crítica que nos fuerza a pensar acerca de la trayectoria que nosotros estamos dando a la fenomenología heredada de Husserl. Él es, así, un filósofo valiente y honesto y de una gran humanidad. Se unen a estas cualidades su gran inteligencia creativa y su sorprendente perspicacia para ver —antes que otros— la evolución que ha seguido la fenomenología hasta hoy y la valiosa contribución multidisciplinar actual. Alabanza a Lester Embree. (shrink)
Paul Ricoeur was one of the foremost interpreters and translators of Edmund Husserl's philosophy. These nine essays present Ricoeur's interpretation of the most important of Husserl's writings, with emphasis on his philosophy of consciousness rather than his work in logic. In Ricoeur's philosophy, phenomenology and existentialism came of age and these essays provide an introduction to the Husserlian elements which most heavily influenced his own philosophical position.
Compared to our understanding of positive prediction error signals occurring due to unexpected reward outcomes, less is known about the neural circuitry in humans that drives negative prediction errors during omission of expected rewards. While classical learning theories such as Rescorla–Wagner or temporal difference learning suggest that both types of prediction errors result from a simple subtraction, there has been recent evidence suggesting that different brain regions provide input to dopamine neurons which contributes to specific components of this prediction error (...) computation. Here, we focus on the brain regions responding to negative prediction error signals, which has been well-established in animal studies to involve a distinct pathway through the lateral habenula. We examine the activity of this pathway in humans, using a conditioned inhibition paradigm with high-resolution functional MRI. First, participants learned to associate a sensory stimulus with reward delivery. Then, reward delivery was omitted whenever this stimulus was presented simultaneously with a different sensory stimulus, the conditioned inhibitor. Both reward presentation and the reward-predictive cue activated midbrain dopamine regions, insula and orbitofrontal cortex. While we found significant activity at an uncorrected threshold for the CI in the habenula, consistent with our predictions, it did not survive correction for multiple comparisons and awaits further replication. Additionally, the pallidum and putamen regions of the basal ganglia showed modulations of activity for the inhibitor that did not survive the corrected threshold. (shrink)