As an important component to promote the development of affective brain–computer interfaces, the study of emotion recognition based on electroencephalography has encountered a difficult challenge; the distribution of EEG data changes among different subjects and at different time periods. Domain adaptation methods can effectively alleviate the generalization problem of EEG emotion recognition models. However, most of them treat multiple source domains, with significantly different distributions, as one single source domain, and only adapt the cross-domain marginal distribution while ignoring the joint (...) distribution difference between the domains. To gain the advantages of multiple source distributions, and better match the distributions of the source and target domains, this paper proposes a novel multi-source joint domain adaptation network. We first map all domains to a shared feature space and then align the joint distributions of the further extracted private representations and the corresponding classification predictions for each pair of source and target domains. Extensive cross-subject and cross-session experiments on the benchmark dataset, SEED, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model, where more significant classification results are obtained on the more difficult cross-subject emotion recognition task. (shrink)
In this paper, we present a time-varying and non-stationary but non-hyperbolic discount function that explains dynamic preference reversal. The new discount function emerges from an analysis of intertemporal consumption and savings choices with mortality risk and an altruistic factor. Our analysis shows that the process of updating survival information may also account for dynamic preference reversal.
Although many studies have provided evidence that abstract knowledge can be acquired in artificial grammar learning, it remains unclear how abstract knowledge can be attained in sequence learning. To address this issue, we proposed a dual simple recurrent network model that includes a surface SRN encoding and predicting the surface properties of stimuli and an abstract SRN encoding and predicting the abstract properties of stimuli. The results of Simulations 1 and 2 showed that the DSRN model can account for learning (...) effects in the serial reaction time task under different conditions, and the manipulation of the contribution weight of each SRN accounted for the contribution of conscious and unconscious processes in inclusion and exclusion tests in previous studies. The results of human performance in Simulation 3 provided further evidence that people can implicitly learn both chunking and abstract knowledge in sequence learning, and the results of Simulation 3 confirmed that the DSRN model can account for how people implicitly acquire the two types of knowledge in sequence learning. These findings extend the learning ability of the SRN model and help understand how different types of knowledge can be acquired implicitly in sequence learning. (shrink)
The lack of a standardized reliable and valid instrument makes it difficult to measure attitudes toward lesbian women and gay men consistently and thus poses a challenge to compare and contrast intervention measures. This study aimed to validate Herek’s ATLG scale among undergraduates in mainland China and identify factors associated with negative attitudes toward LG. A total of 6,036 eligible undergraduates conveniently drawn from 30 provinces across mainland China were randomly split in half. Item analysis was first used to select (...) unrelated or redundant items for deletion. Exploratory factor analysis were then conducted on the first half of the sample, followed by confirmatory factor analysis and reliability analysis in the second half. Logistic regression analyses were finally carried out to identify their determinants. Six items were removed from the item analysis. EFA supported the existence of two factors. CFA results indicated that the two-factor model fit the data better than the one-factor model. Logistic regression analyses indicated that being female, majoring in non-health-related disciplines, attributing homosexuality to uncontrollable causes, non-adherence to traditional gender norms and exposure to homosexual content were significantly associated with less negative attitudes toward both L and G. Urban students were marginally less likely to express negative attitudes toward L but not G, while non-heterosexuals and those who had prior personal contact with homosexuals exhibited less negative attitudes toward G but not L. However, grade showed no significant associations with either ATL or ATG. The retained 14-item version of Herek’s ATLG scale has been proven to be a reliable and valid tool. Furthermore, ATL and ATG were determined by different factors and thus would be treated separately. In order to reduce negative attitudes toward LG among undergraduates in mainland China, a comprehensive intervention plan such as conducting comprehensive sex education and pushing the process of legalizing same-sex marriage should be designed, implemented and evaluated. (shrink)
This book examines some possible ethical principles to resolve moral dilemmas involving water. Existing problems in current water management practices are discussed in light of these principles. Transformation of human water ethics has the potential to be far more effective, cheaper and acceptable than some existing means of “regulation”, but transformation of personal and societal ethics need time because the changes to ethical values are slow.
ObjectivesAcupuncture therapy has been used for cognitive impairment-related diseases, however, there are still few studies on the overall trend of acupuncture therapy on cognitive impairment based on bibliometric analysis. The purpose of this study was to explore the research trend of the impact of acupuncture on cognitive impairment in the past 15 years, analyze the research trends and hotspots, and provide new ideas and theoretical basis for future research directions.MethodsFrom the Web of Science Core Collection, the relevant literature on the (...) treatment of cognitive impairment with acupuncture from 2007 to 2022 was retrieved. Then, based on the CiteSpace and VOSviewer software of the Java platform, the cooperation between countries and institutions in this field, the co-citation of journals and documents, and the cooperation between authors and authors, etc. were analyzed. In addition, the co-occurrence and burst analysis of keywords are also carried out, and a visual knowledge map is drawn.ResultsAs of August 08, 2022, a total of 394 records related to the treatment of cognitive impairment with acupuncture were identified. The analysis results show: The number and rate of annual publications have steadily increased, with some fluctuations from year to year. The countries that contribute the most to this field are China and the USA. Among them, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Capital Medical University are tied for first place in terms of the number of published papers. Tao Jing is the most prolific author and the number one cited author.ConclusionsThe number of publications on acupuncture for cognitive impairment is expected to increase rapidly in future research, suggesting a bright future for the field. Future research hotspots will focus on pain, injury, protocol, diagnosis, guidelines, etc. It is also necessary to strengthen cross-regional and cross-country cooperation among various academic groups. (shrink)
Common spatial pattern is an effective algorithm for extracting electroencephalogram features of motor imagery ; however, CSP mainly aims at multichannel EEG signals, and its effect in extracting EEG features with fewer channels is poor—even worse than before using CSP. To solve the above problem, a new combined feature extraction method has been proposed in this study. For EEG signals from fewer channels, wavelet packet transform, fast ensemble empirical mode decomposition, and local mean decomposition were used to decompose the band-pass (...) filtered EEG into multiple time–frequency components, and the corresponding components were selected according to the frequency characteristics of MI or the correlation coefficient between its time–frequency components and the original EEG signal. Furthermore, phase space reconstruction was performed on the selected components after the three time-frequency decompositions, the maximum Lyapunov index was calculated, and the features were reconstructed; then, CSP projection mapping was used for the reconstructed features. The support vector machine probability output model was trained by the obtained three mappings. Probability outputs by three different support vector machines were then obtained. Finally, the classification of test samples was determined by the fusion of the Dempster–Shafer evidence theory at the decision level. The results showed that the accuracy of the proposed method was 95.71% on data set III of BCI competition II, which was 2.88% higher than the existing methods. On data set IIb of BCI competition IV, the average accuracy was 86.60%, which was 2.3% higher than the existing methods. This study verified the effectiveness of the proposed method and provided an approach for the research and development of the MI-BCI system based on fewer channels. (shrink)
Objective: Tangent Space Mapping using the geometric structure of the covariance matrices is an effective method to recognize multiclass motor imagery. Compared with the traditional CSP method, the Riemann geometric method based on TSM takes into account the nonlinear information contained in the covariance matrix, and can extract more abundant and effective features. Moreover, the method is an unsupervised operation, which can reduce the time of feature extraction. However, EEG features induced by MI mental activities of different subjects are not (...) the same, so selection of subject-specific discriminative EEG frequency components play a vital role in the recognition of multiclass MI. In order to solve the problem, a discriminative and multi-scale filter bank tangent space mapping algorithm is proposed in this article to design the subject-specific Filter Bank so as to effectively recognize multiclass MI tasks. Methods: On the 4-class BCI competition IV-2a dataset, first, a non-parametric method of multivariate analysis of variance based on the sum of squared distances is used to select discriminative frequency bands for a subject; next, a multi-scale FB is generated according to the range of these frequency bands, and then decompose multi-channel EEG of the subject into multiple sub-bands combined with several time windows. Then TSM algorithm is used to estimate Riemannian tangent space features in each sub-band and finally a liner Support Vector Machines is used for classification. Main Results: The analysis results show that the proposed discriminative FB enhances the multi-scale TSM algorithm, improves the classification accuracy and reduces the execution time during training and testing. On the 4-class BCI competition IV-2a dataset, the average session to session classification accuracy of nine subjects reached 77.33 ± 12.3%. When the training time and the test time are similar, the average classification accuracy is 2.56% higher than the latest TSM method based on multi-scale filter bank analysis technology. When the classification accuracy is similar, the training speed is increased by more than three times, and the test speed is increased two times more. Compared with Supervised Fisher Geodesic Minimum Distance to the Mean, another new variant based on Riemann geometry classifier, the average accuracy is 3.36% higher, we also compared with the latest Deep Learning method, and the average accuracy of 10-fold cross validation improved by 2.58%. Conclusion: Research shows that the proposed DMFBTSM algorithm can improve the classification accuracy of MI tasks. Significance: Compared with the MFBTSM algorithm, the algorithm proposed in this article is expected to select frequency bands with good separability for specific subject to improve the classification accuracy of multiclass MI tasks and reduce the feature dimension to reduce training time and testing time. (shrink)
Santa Birgitta di Svezia (1303-1373), una delle più importanti visionarie del tardo Medioevo, fu celebrata come profetessa e sibilla fino a tutto il XVII secolo. È opinione comune che lo status di profetessa di Birgitta sia stato costruito dai suoi sostenitori dopo la sua morte. Di contro, la mia tesi è che la costruzione dell'immagine di profetessa sia stata il risultato di una strategia scientemente elaborata fin dall'inizio della sua esperienza profetica e alla quale hanno contribuito con attenzione sia i (...) suoi sostenitori sia lei stessa. Le tracce di questa costruzione possono essere rinvenute nei primi resoconti degli agiografi, nel vivo appoggio dei confessori e dei numerosi testimoni al processo di canonizzazione. Tuttavia, le testimonianze più forti dell'aspirazione profetica di Birgitta si trovano nelle sue stesse rivelazioni, che sono al centro di questo saggio. (shrink)
Este artigo tem quatro objetivos. O primeiro deles é mostrar que dois debates contemporâneos de grande importância para a filosofia política aristotélica – a saber, o debate acerca do laço que liga ou deve ligar os cidadãos de uma comunidade política e o debate acerca da importância da participação política no que diz respeito ao alcance da felicidade – devem ser compreendidos em conjunto com o movimento hermenêutico que chamamos hoje de biological turn. Como veremos, a maneira como respondemos a (...) essas duas questões influencia ainda uma terceira, a saber, a questão acerca da importância e da função da lei para a comunidade política tal como pensada por Aristóteles. O segundo objetivo é resumir os principais argumentos apresentados nos ditos debates apontando sua pertinência e as suas falhas. O terceiro objetivo é ressaltar um ponto de considerável importância para ambos os debates que não recebeu a devida atenção por parte dos comentadores. Sendo impossível alcançar uma resposta definitiva a respeito das duas questões no espaço que temos aqui, o último objetivo do presente artigo é indicar um possível caminho para futuras investigações. (shrink)
Yan Fu was the first Chinese person to introduce the teachings of the West to China systematically. Since returning to China from Britain, to which he had been sent to study in 1879, he held an office at the Beiyang Naval College until leaving the institution in 1900. These twenty-some years were precisely the direst moment in the intensifying of China's social crisis, when the imperialists were pressing their aggression toward China and China was being brought to the brink of (...) being partitioned outright. At the time, all the progressive intellectuals in China were worried for the future of the motherland, and pressed on to find what they considered to be the truth of national salvation. The bourgeois reformist faction of the day, with Kang Youwei as its leader, advocated political and legal reform and was tremendously enthusiatic and active in pleading its case throughout China, calling on the intellectuals to respond. Yan Fu, too, at this time, did a large amount of propaganda work for the cause of reform, using the thought of Lao Zi and Zhuang Zi as his foundation and employing his own exceptional knowledge of Western things and Western learning, and his understanding of the capitalist world. He founded the Guowen bao and published a number of important political essays, including "Lun shibian zhi ji" , "Yuan qiang" , "Pi Han" and "Jiu wang jue lun" . He also translated a number of the works of Western bourgeois social science, including [Thomas Huxley's] Evolution and Ethics , [Adam Smith's] The Wealth of Nations , [Herbert Spencer's] A Study of Sociology , [John Stuart Mill's] Logic , and Montesquieu's De l'esprit des lois . Furthermore, he carried out an annotated and evaluative reading of Lao Zi and Zhuang Zi, and in so doing he assimilated Western learning and ideas into the Chinese interpretation of Lao-Zhuang's thought. (shrink)
Este artigo observa relações entre a ficção das personae poeticae e realidade histórica em Propércio 2.7. Além de seu valor poético, esta elegia de Propércio nos indica precisamente a fronteira entre realidade e ficção em que a elegia romana está situada. De um lado, observamos o aspecto ficcional de suas personae, de outro lado, podemos vislumbrar aspectos referenciais da sociedade romana do período. Entretanto, as personae podem estar impregnadas de características reais, já que não podemos negar a existência histórica de (...) Propércio, Mecenas ou Augusto, bem como eventos históricos podem ser matizados por rumores que são considerados retoricamente uma espécie de prova. (shrink)
Chinese Subjectivity and the Beijing Olympics develops the Foucauldian concept of productive power through examining the ways in which the Chinese government tried to mobilize the population to embrace its Olympic project through deploying various sets of strategies and tactics.
The law in the book of Exodus 21.22-25 presents the situation of a pregnant woman who is at risk of being hurt by men who are dueling each other ~yvin"a] WcN'y-ykiw. From the perspective of the law that guides the Ancient Israel’s cultural, ethical and religious practices, we will present this article in order to realize the reality of the pregnant woman. The methodology is to analyze semantically the literary style of the pregnant hrh in the Hebrew bible. After reading (...) the law in the Ancient Israel we will get to see the current reality of the situation of pregnant woman in the socio-theological perspective. We note that the laws are more related to protect the fetus - abortion - than the mother, resulting in possible moral relativization that aborts justice acts in relation to the pregnant woman. (shrink)
“... für die Wißenschaft, der ich von ganzer Seele lebe.” Otto Böhtlingk : Ein Gelehrten- leben rekonstruiert und beschrieben anhand seiner Briefe. By Agnes Stache-Weiske. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 2017. Pp. xv + 583. €118. Otto Böhtlingk an Rudolf Roth: Briefe zum Petersburger Wörterbuch 1852–1885. Index. By Agnes Stache-Weiske, Gabriele Zeller, and Frank Köhler. Veröffentlichungen der Helmuth von Glasenapp-Stiftung, vol. 45.2. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 2015. Pp. 188. €59.
Zusammenfassung Im Mittelpunkt des Beitrags steht das bisher ungeklärte Verhältnis praxistheoretischer Ansätze zum Konzept der face-to-face Interaktion. So berücksichtigen praxistheoretische Analysen i. d. R. nicht, ob soziale Praktiken unter den Bedingungen von Anwesenheit und wechselseitiger Wahrnehmung stattfinden oder alleine. Entsprechend findet die Eigengesetzlichkeit der Interaktionsordnung im Rahmen der Praxistheorie bislang keine Anwendung, wodurch sich wiederum bestimmte Einschränkungen bei der Beschreibung und Erklärung sozialer Wirklichkeit ergeben können. Das gilt vor allem für den Bereich des Sports, der tur die Durchführung körperlicher Leistungsvergleiche (...) wie kaum ein anderes soziales Feld auf die gleichzeitige Anwesenheit der Akteure angewiesen ist. Der Beitrag demonstriert am Beispiel des Fußballspiels den Erkenntnisgewinn, den eine interaktionstheoretische Perspektive leisten kann und liefert erste Vorschläge für die Integration des Interaktionsbegriffs in praxistheoretische Analvsen am Beispiel der Theorie der Praxis von Pierre Bourdieu. (shrink)
Often considered China's greatest poet, Du Fu (712-770) came of age at the height of the Tang dynasty, in an era marked by confidence that the accumulated wisdom of the precedent cultural tradition would guarantee civilization's continued stability and prosperity. When his society collapsed into civil war in 755, however, he began to question contemporary assumptions about the role that tradition should play in making sense of experience and defining human flourishing. In this book, Lucas Bender argues that Du Fu's (...) reconsideration of the nature and importance of tradition has played a pivotal role in the transformation of Chinese poetic understanding over the last millennium. In reimagining his relationship to tradition, Du Fu anticipated important philosophical transitions from the late-medieval into the early-modern period and laid the template for a new and perduring paradigm of poetry's relationship to ethics. He also looked forward to the transformations his own poetry would undergo as it was elevated to the pinnacle of the Chinese poetic pantheon. (shrink)
Uma das mais famosas e inovadoras teses de Maquiavel é a afirmação de que as boas leis nascem dos conflitos sociais, segundo o exemplo romano das oposições entre plebe e nobres. Os conflitos são capazes de produzir ordem por conter a força constritiva própria da necessidade, que impede a ambição de reinar. Contudo, a lei não neutraliza o conflito, mas apenas lhe dá uma ordenação. A lei está, pois, exposta à história, à contínua mudança, o que significa dizer que é (...) potencialmente corruptível. Por causa desta possibilidade, Maquiavel afirma que um Estado somente mantém sua autoridade por meio de um retorno contínuo ao momento da origem, isto é, à revivência da experiência do “medo”, do “terror” e da “punição” do acontecimento originário da fundação. Assim, na origem da lei está a violência, cuja função é proporcionar a legitimação de seu exercício pelo aparato estatal como única forma de preservar da ruína a vida política. (shrink)
Este texto tem dois objetivos principais: apresentar o conceito de “lei natural” e aquilo que seria a sua expressão como “lei escrita” e, depois, reinterpretar este conceito a partir de uma perspectiva nietzschiana. Para alcançar este duplo objetivo urge, pois, em primeiro lugar, traçar, nas suas grandes linhas, as vicissitudes que atravessou a teoria da “lei natural” ao longo da tradição #losó#ca até a sua culminância naquelas correntes do direito natural, típicas dos tempos modernos. Convém também assinalar que este conceito (...) encerra no seu bojo, como derivações, as noções de necessidade, de #nalidade e providência. Eis por que, para interpretá-lo e criticá-lo, são utilizadas algumas intui- ções e análises de Nietzsche que, ao longo de sua obra, não cessa de se referir, direta ou indiretamente, a estas questões e, também, àquela de acaso. Não se trata, portanto, de simplesmente apresentar uma crítica de Nietzsche aos conceitos de “lei natural” e “lei escrita”, mas, principalmente, de examiná-los à luz de seu pensamento. (shrink)
Fünfundzwanzig arabische Geschäftsdokumente aus dem Rotmeer-Hafen al-Quṣayr al-Qadīm [P.QuseirArab. II]. By Andreas Kaplony. Islamic History and Civilization, vol. 109. Leiden: Brill, 2014. Pp. vii + 208, illus. $120, €93.
Tian dao guan shi Zhongguo zhe xue de zhong yao gai nian, ye shi ru jiao de yi ge zhong yao wen ti, ji, shen me shi tian dao? Qi jin wei zhi, ji hu suo you de Zhongguo zhe xue zhu zuo, dou ren wei tian dao jiu shi zi ran gui lü. Ben shu jiang tong guo wen xian zi liao xiang dang dai de du zhe shuo ming, Zhongguo gu dai de tian dao, jiu shi tian zhi (...) dao, shang tian zhi dao. (shrink)