Results for 'Laurent Sparrow'

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  1.  38
    The Effects of Frequency and Predictability on Eye Fixations in Reading: An Evaluation of the E-Z Reader Model.Laurent Sparrow, Sébastien Miellet & Yann Coello - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (4):503-505.
    We tested whether the E-Z Reader model can be generalised to the French language. The simulation showed that the model can account for the frequency effect. The predictability effect is moreover accurate for word skipping, but not for fixation times. We think that this model is psychologically plausible for certain aspects of reading and we have used it to evaluate the performance of dyslexic readers.
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  2. Procreative Beneficence, Obligation, and Eugenics.Robert Sparrow - 2007 - Genomics, Society and Policy 3 (3):43-59.
    The argument of Julian Savulescu’s 2001 paper, “Procreative Beneficence: Why We Should Select the Best Children” is flawed in a number of respects. Savulescu confuses reasons with obligations and equivocates between the claim that parents have some reason to want the best for their children and the more radical claim that they are morally obligated to attempt to produce the best child possible. Savulescu offers a prima facie implausible account of parental obligation, as even the best parents typically fail to (...)
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  3.  15
    Autopiction : Où Va la Peinture de Laurent Marissal.Laurent Buffet - 2011 - Nouvelle Revue D’Esthétique 7 (1):81.
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  4. Implants and Ethnocide: Learning From the Cochlear Implant Controversy.Robert Sparrow - 2010 - Disability and Society 25 (4):455-466.
    This paper uses the fictional case of the ‘Babel fish’ to explore and illustrate the issues involved in the controversy about the use of cochlear implants in prelinguistically deaf children. Analysis of this controversy suggests that the development of genetic tests for deafness poses a serious threat to the continued flourishing of Deaf culture. I argue that the relationships between Deaf and hearing cultures that are revealed and constructed in debates about genetic testing are themselves deserving of ethical evaluation. Making (...)
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  5.  75
    Predators or Ploughshares? Arms Control of Robotic Weapons.Robert Sparrow - 2009 - IEEE Technology and Society 28 (1):25-29.
    This paper makes the case for arms control regimes to govern the development and deployment of autonomous weapon systems and long range uninhabited aerial vehicles.
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  6.  27
    Human Germline Genome Editing: On the Nature of Our Reasons to Genome Edit.Robert Sparrow - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (9):4-15.
    Ever since the publication of Derek Parfit’s Reasons and Persons, bioethicists have tended to distinguish between two different ways in which reproductive technologies may have implications for the...
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  7.  36
    Sparrows, Hedgehogs and Castrati: Reflections on Gender and Enhancement.John Harris - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (5):262-266.
    In a number of papers, including the one published in this journal, Robert Sparrow has mounted attacks on consequentialism using principally what he takes to be an important fact, which he believes constitutes a reductio ad absurdum of consequentialism in its many forms and of this author's approach to enhancement and disability in particular (see page 276). This fact is the current longer life expectancy of women when compared with men. Here the author argues that Sparrow's arguments and (...)
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  8. Two Middle English Translations of Friar Laurent's Somme le Roi: Critical Edition.Laurent & Emmanuelle Roux - 2010 - Brepols Publishers N.V..
    This is the first volume of a two-volume project whose aim is to publish all the known Middle English manuscript translations of the French Somme le mi, a thirteenth-century manual of religious instruction offering teaching on the Decalogue, the seven deadly sins and their remedies, compiled by the Dominican friar Laurent of Orleans. The project extends and deepens our knowledge of the influence of this popular French text, known today only from the versions entitled The Ayen bite of Inwit (...)
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  9. Resisting Sparrow's Sexy Reductio : Selection Principles and the Social Good.Simon Rippon, Pablo Stafforini, Katrien Devolder, Russell Powell & Thomas Douglas - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):16-18.
    Principles of procreative beneficence (PPBs) hold that parents have good reasons to select the child with the best life prospects. Sparrow (2010) claims that PPBs imply that we should select only female children, unlesswe attach normative significance to “normal” human capacities. We argue that this claim fails on both empirical and logical grounds. Empirically, Sparrow’s argument for greater female wellbeing rests on a selective reading of the evidence and the incorrect assumption that an advantage for females would persist (...)
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  10.  4
    Signum Est in Praedicadmento Relationis.Laurent Cesalli & Irène Rosier-Catach - 2018 - Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy 6 (1).
    Roger Bacon is a remarkable figure for his theory of the sign. According to the new reading hypothesis presented in this article, the whole theory is grounded on the relational nature of the sign. Every sign is involved in two relations: one to the interpreter, the other to the significate, the first being “more essential” than the second. The hypothesis allows for a better understanding of Bacon’s central claim that speakers constantly re-impose words in colloquial practice, as well as of (...)
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  11. Liberalism and Eugenics.Robert Sparrow - 2011 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 89 (3):499 - 517.
    ‘Liberal eugenics’ has emerged as the most popular position amongst philosophers writing in the contemporary debate about the ethics of human enhancement. This position has been most clearly articulated by Nicholas Agar, who argues that the ‘new’ liberal eugenics can avoid the repugnant consequences associated with eugenics in the past. Agar suggests that parents should be free to make only those interventions into the genetics of their children that will benefit them no matter what way of life they grow up (...)
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  12. Lettre de M. Harsin et réponse de M. H. Laurent.H. Laurent & M. Harsin - 1928 - Revue Belge de Philologie Et D’Histoire 7 (3):1301-1306.
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  13. Every Sparrow That Falls: Understanding Animal Rights Activism as Functional Religion.Caspar Wenk, James Parker & Wesley Jamison - 2000 - Society and Animals 8 (3):305-330.
    This article reports original research conducted among animal rights activists and elites in Switzerland and the United States, and the finding that activism functioned in activists' and elites' lives like religious belief. The study used reference sampling to select Swiss and American informants. Various articles and activists have identified both latent and manifest quasi-religious components in the contemporary movement. Hence, the research followed upon these data and anecdotes and tested the role of activism in adherents' lives. Using extensive interviews, the (...)
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  14.  13
    The End of Phenomenology: Metaphysics and the New Realism.Tom Sparrow - 2014 - Edinburgh University Press.
    Tom Sparrow shows how, in the 21st century, speculative realism aims to do what phenomenology could not: provide a philosophical method that disengages the human-centred approach to metaphysics in order to chronicle the complex realm of nonhuman reality. -/- Through a focused reading of the methodological statements and metaphysical commitments of key phenomenologists and speculative realists, Sparrow shows how speculative realism is replacing phenomenology as the beacon of realism in contemporary Continental philosophy.
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  15.  62
    Talkin' 'Bout a (Nanotechnological) Revolution.Robert Sparrow - 2008 - IEEE Technology and Society 27 (2):37-43.
    It is often claimed that the development of nanotechnology will constitute a “technological revolution” with profound social, economic, and political consequences. The full implications of this claim can best be understood by imagining a scenario in which a political revolutionary made all the same claims that are commonly made by enthusiasts for nanotechnology. I argue that most people would be outraged to learn that the members of an unelected group were planning to radically reshape society in this fashion. I survey (...)
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  16.  18
    The Sparrow Question: Social and Scientific Accord in Britain, 1850–1900.Matthew Holmes - 2017 - Journal of the History of Biology 50 (3):645-671.
    During the latter-half of the nineteenth century, the utility of the house sparrow to humankind was a contentious topic. In Britain, numerous actors from various backgrounds including natural history, acclimatisation, agriculture and economic ornithology converged on the bird, as contemporaries sought to calculate its economic cost and benefit to growers. Periodicals and newspapers provided an accessible and anonymous means of expression, through which the debate raged for over 50 years. By the end of the century, sparrows had been cast (...)
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  17.  20
    The Sociology of Critical Capacity.Laurent Thévenot & Luc Boltanski - 1999 - European Journal of Social Theory 2 (3):359-377.
    This article argues that many situations in social life can be analyzed by their requirement for the justification of action. It is in particular in situations of dispute that a need arises to explicate the grounds on which responsibility for errors is distributed and on which new agreement can be reached. Since a plurality of mutually incompatible modes of justification exists, disputes can be understood as disagreements either about whether the accepted rule of justification has not been violated or about (...)
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  18. Yesterday’s Child: How Gene Editing for Enhancement Will Produce Obsolescence—and Why It Matters.Robert Sparrow - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (7):6-15.
    Despite the advent of CRISPR, safe and effective gene editing for human enhancement remains well beyond our current technological capabilities. For the discussion about enhancing human beings to be worth having, then, we must assume that gene-editing technology will improve rapidly. However, rapid progress in the development and application of any technology comes at a price: obsolescence. If the genetic enhancements we can provide children get better and better each year, then the enhancements granted to children born in any given (...)
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  19. Killer Robots.Robert Sparrow - 2007 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 24 (1):62–77.
    The United States Army’s Future Combat Systems Project, which aims to manufacture a “robot army” to be ready for deployment by 2012, is only the latest and most dramatic example of military interest in the use of artificially intelligent systems in modern warfare. This paper considers the ethics of a decision to send artificially intelligent robots into war, by asking who we should hold responsible when an autonomous weapon system is involved in an atrocity of the sort that would normally (...)
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  20. Vicarious Agency: Experiencing Control Over the Movements of Others.Daniel M. Wegner & Betsy Sparrow - unknown
    Participants watched themselves in a mirror while another person behind them, hidden from view, extended hands forward on each side where participants’ hands would normally appear. The hands performed a series of movements. When participants could hear instructions previewing each movement, they reported an enhanced feeling of controlling the hands. Hearing instructions for the movements also enhanced skin conductance responses when a rubber band was snapped on the other’s wrist after the movements. Such vicarious agency was not felt when the (...)
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  21.  12
    Washing the Guilt Away: Effects of Personal Versus Vicarious Cleansing on Guilty Feelings and Prosocial Behavior.Hanyi Xu, Laurent Bègue & Brad J. Bushman - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  22.  32
    'Trust Us... We're Doctors': Science, Media, and Ethics in the Hwang Stem Cell Controversy.Robert Sparrow - 2006 - Journal of Communication Research 43 (1):5-24.
    When doubts were first raised about the veracity of the dramatic advances in stem cell research announced by Professor Hwang Woo-Suk, a significant minority response was to question the qualifications of journalists to investigate the matter. In this paper I examine the contemporary relationships between science, scientists, the public, and the media. In the modern context the progress of science often relies on the media to mobilise public support for research and also for the purpose of communication within the scientific (...)
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  23.  35
    Dialogical Logic.Laurent Keiff - 2010 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  24.  10
    Every Sparrow That Falls: Understanding Animal Rights Activism as Functional Religion.James V. Parker, Wesley V. Jamison & Caspar Wenk - 2000 - Society and Animals 8 (1):305-330.
    This article reports original research conducted among animal rights activists and elites in Switzerland and the United States, and the finding that activism functioned in activists' and elites' lives like religious belief. The study used reference sampling to select Swiss and American informants.Various articles and activists have identified both latent and manifest quasi-religious components in the contemporary movement Hence, the research followed upon these data and anecdotes and tested the role of activism in adherents' lives. Using extensive interviews, the research (...)
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  25. Therapeutic Cloning and Reproductive Liberty.Robert Sparrow - 2008 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 33 (2):1-17.
    Concern for “reproductive liberty” suggests that decisions about embryos should normally be made by the persons who would be the genetic parents of the child that would be brought into existence if the embryo were brought to term. Therapeutic cloning would involve creating and destroying an embryo, which, if brought to term, would be the offspring of the genetic parents of the person undergoing therapy. I argue that central arguments in debates about parenthood and genetics therefore suggest that therapeutic cloning (...)
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  26. Why Machines Cannot Be Moral.Robert Sparrow - 2021 - AI and Society:1-9.
    The fact that real-world decisions made by artificial intelligences are often ethically loaded has led a number of authorities to advocate the development of “moral machines”. I argue that the project of building “ethics” “into” machines presupposes a flawed understanding of the nature of ethics. Drawing on the work of the Australian philosopher, Raimond Gaita, I argue that ethical dilemmas are problems for particular people and not problems for everyone who faces a similar situation. Moreover, the force of an ethical (...)
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  27.  83
    Robots, Rape, and Representation.Robert Sparrow - 2017 - International Journal of Social Robotics 9 (4):465-477.
    Sex robots are likely to play an important role in shaping public understandings of sex and of relations between the sexes in the future. This paper contributes to the larger project of understanding how they will do so by examining the ethics of the “rape” of robots. I argue that the design of realistic female robots that could explicitly refuse consent to sex in order to facilitate rape fantasy would be unethical because sex with robots in these circumstances is a (...)
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  28. In the Hands of Machines? The Future of Aged Care.Robert Sparrow & Linda Sparrow - 2006 - Minds and Machines 16 (2):141-161.
    It is remarkable how much robotics research is promoted by appealing to the idea that the only way to deal with a looming demographic crisis is to develop robots to look after older persons. This paper surveys and assesses the claims made on behalf of robots in relation to their capacity to meet the needs of older persons. We consider each of the roles that has been suggested for robots in aged care and attempt to evaluate how successful robots might (...)
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  29. Better Living Through Chemistry? A Reply to Savulescu and Persson on ‘Moral Enhancement’.Robert Sparrow - 2014 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 31 (1):23-32.
    In ‘Moral Enhancement, Freedom, and the God Machine’, Savulescu and Persson argue that recent scientific findings suggest that there is a realistic prospect of achieving ‘moral enhancement’ and respond to Harris's criticism that this would threaten individual freedom and autonomy. I argue that although some pharmaceutical and neuro‐scientific interventions may influence behaviour and emotions in ways that we may be inclined to evaluate positively, describing this as ‘moral enhancement’ presupposes a particular, contested account, of what it is to act morally (...)
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  30. Egalitarianism and Moral Bioenhancement.Robert Sparrow - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (4):20-28.
    A number of philosophers working in applied ethics and bioethics are now earnestly debating the ethics of what they term “moral bioenhancement.” I argue that the society-wide program of biological manipulations required to achieve the purported goals of moral bioenhancement would necessarily implicate the state in a controversial moral perfectionism. Moreover, the prospect of being able to reliably identify some people as, by biological constitution, significantly and consistently more moral than others would seem to pose a profound challenge to egalitarian (...)
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  31.  82
    Lamarckism and Epigenetic Inheritance: A Clarification.Laurent Loison - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (3-4):29.
    Since the 1990s, the terms “Lamarckism” and “Lamarckian” have seen a significant resurgence in biological publications. The discovery of new molecular mechanisms have been interpreted as evidence supporting the reality and efficiency of the inheritance of acquired characters, and thus the revival of Lamarckism. The present paper aims at giving a critical evaluation of such interpretations. I argue that two types of arguments allow to draw a clear distinction between the genuine Lamarckian concept of inheritance of acquired characters and transgenerational (...)
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  32.  79
    Right of the Living Dead? Consent to Experimental Surgery in the Event of Cortical Death.Robert Sparrow - 2006 - Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (10):601-605.
    Ravelingien et al have suggested that early human xenotransplantation trials should be carried out on patients who are in a permanent vegetative state (PVS) and who have previously granted their consent to the use of their bodies in such research in the event of their cortical death. Unfortunately, their philosophical defence of this suggestion is unsatisfactory in its current formulation, as it equivocates on the key question of the status of patients who are in a PVS. The solution proposed by (...)
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  33.  9
    Sparrows, Bedbugs, and Body Shadows: A Memoir.Sheldon Lou - 2013 - Philosophy East and West 63 (2).
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  34.  98
    Scale Relativity and Fractal Space-Time: Theory and Applications. [REVIEW]Laurent Nottale - 2010 - Foundations of Science 15 (2):101-152.
    In the first part of this contribution, we review the development of the theory of scale relativity and its geometric framework constructed in terms of a fractal and nondifferentiable continuous space-time. This theory leads (i) to a generalization of possible physically relevant fractal laws, written as partial differential equation acting in the space of scales, and (ii) to a new geometric foundation of quantum mechanics and gauge field theories and their possible generalisations. In the second part, we discuss some examples (...)
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  35.  89
    The Competition of Ideas: Market or Garden?Robert Sparrow & Robert E. Goodin - 2001 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 4 (2):45-58.
    The ‘marketplace of ideas’ is an influential metaphor with widespread currency in debates about freedom of speech. We explore a number of ways competition between ideas might be described as occurring in a marketplace and find that none support the use of the metaphor. We suggest that an alternative metaphor, that of the ‘garden of ideas’, may offer more productive insights into issues surrounding the regulation of speech.
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  36.  74
    Not Dead Yet: Controlled Non-Heart-Beating Organ Donation, Consent, and the Dead Donor Rule.Dale Gardiner & Robert Sparrow - 2010 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 19 (1):17.
    The emergence of controlled, Maastricht Category III, non-heart-beating organ donation programs has the potential to greatly increase the supply of donor solid organs by increasing the number of potential donors. Category III donation involves unconscious and dying intensive care patients whose organs become available for transplant after life-sustaining treatments are withdrawn, usually on grounds of futility. The shortfall in organs from heart-beating organ donation following brain death has prompted a surge of interest in NHBD. In a recent editorial, the British (...)
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  37.  25
    Pragmatic Regimes Governing the Engagement with the World.Laurent Thévenot - 2001 - In Theodore R. Schatzki, K. Knorr-Cetina & Eike von Savigny (eds.), The Practice Turn in Contemporary Theory. Routledge. pp. 56--73.
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  38.  50
    La dialectique, entre logique et rhétorique.Laurent Keiff - 2010 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 66 (2):149-178.
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  39.  51
    Robots and Respect: Assessing the Case Against Autonomous Weapon Systems.Robert Sparrow - 2016 - Ethics and International Affairs 30 (1):93-116.
    There is increasing speculation within military and policy circles that the future of armed conflict is likely to include extensive deployment of robots designed to identify targets and destroy them without the direct oversight of a human operator. My aim in this paper is twofold. First, I will argue that the ethical case for allowing autonomous targeting, at least in specific restricted domains, is stronger than critics have acknowledged. Second, I will attempt to uncover, explicate, and defend the intuition that (...)
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  40.  28
    Tom Sparrow: The End of Phenomenology: Metaphysics and the New Realism: Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2014, Xvi + 197 Pp, $34.95 , ISBN: 9780748684830. [REVIEW]Denis Džanić - 2016 - Continental Philosophy Review 49 (4):559-565.
  41. On Justification: Economies of Worth.Luc Boltanski & Laurent Thévenot - 2006 - Princeton University Press.
    A vital and underappreciated dimension of social interaction is the way individuals justify their actions to others, instinctively drawing on their experience to appeal to principles they hope will command respect. Individuals, however, often misread situations, and many disagreements can be explained by people appealing, knowingly and unknowingly, to different principles. On Justification is the first English translation of Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot's ambitious theoretical examination of these phenomena, a book that has already had a huge impact on (...)
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  42.  18
    Forms of Presentism in the History of Science. Rethinking the Project of Historical Epistemology.Laurent Loison - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 60:29-37.
  43.  19
    Fear of the Known: Semantic Generalisation of Fear Conditioning Across Languages in Bilinguals.Laurent Grégoire & Steven G. Greening - 2019 - Cognition and Emotion 34 (2):352-358.
    While modern theories of emotion emphasize the role of higher-order cognitive processes such as semantics in human emotion, much research into emotional learning has ignored the potential contribut...
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  44. Robots in Aged Care: A Dystopian Future.Robert Sparrow - 2016 - AI and Society 31 (4):1-10.
    In this paper I describe a future in which persons in advanced old age are cared for entirely by robots and suggest that this would be a dystopia, which we would be well advised to avoid if we can. Paying attention to the objective elements of welfare rather than to people’s happiness reveals the central importance of respect and recognition, which robots cannot provide, to the practice of aged care. A realistic appreciation of the current economics of the aged care (...)
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  45. Sparrow's 2012 Argument That Robotic Weapons Are Desastrous for Peace.Michael H. G. Hoffmann - forthcoming - .
    This argument map represents the argumentation of Sparrow, R. . "Just say No" to Drones. IEEE Technology and Society Magazine, M 1932-4529/12, 56-63. doi: 10.1109/MTS.2012.2185275. The argument map is open for debate in AGORA-net, search for map ID 9712.
     
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  46.  4
    The Plurality of Cognitive Formats and Engagements: Moving Between the Familiar and the Public.Laurent Thévenot - 2007 - European Journal of Social Theory 10 (3):409-423.
    Cognitive forms vary considerably as a human being detaches herself from what is closest and most personal and moves to communicate — in the broad sense of taking part in a common matter — across increasing relational distances. The article proposes to deal with the variety of cognitive formats which cannot `commonize' cognition to an equal degree, relating them to a set of regimes of engagement with the world that are identified in terms of the dependency between the human agent (...)
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  47. Two Sparrows for a Farthing.The Editor The Editor - 1945 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 26 (4):341.
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  48.  93
    Imposing Genetic Diversity.Robert Sparrow - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (6):2-10.
    The idea that a world in which everyone was born “perfect” would be a world in which something valuable was missing often comes up in debates about the ethics of technologies of prenatal testing and preimplantation genetic diagnosis . This thought plays an important role in the “disability critique” of prenatal testing. However, the idea that human genetic variation is an important good with significant benefits for society at large is also embraced by a wide range of figures writing in (...)
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  49. A Not‐So‐New Eugenics.Robert Sparrow - 2011 - Hastings Center Report 41 (1):32-42.
    In Enhancing Evolution: The Ethical Case for Making Better People (2007), John Harris argues that a proper concern for the welfare of future human beings implies that we are morally obligated to pursue enhancements. Similarly, in “Procreative Beneficience: Why We Should Select The Best Children” (2001) and in a number of subsequent publications, Julian Savulescu has suggested that we are morally obligated to use genetic (and other) technologies to produce the best children possible. In this paper I argue that if (...)
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  50.  8
    Opening the Reconsolidation Window Using the Mind’s Eye: Extinction Training During Reconsolidation Disrupts Fear Memory Expression Following Mental Imagery Reactivation.Laurent Grégoire & Steven G. Greening - 2019 - Cognition 183:277-281.
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