22 found
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  1.  35
    Translational Neuroethics: A Vision for a More Integrated, Inclusive, and Impactful Field.Anna Wexler & Laura Specker Sullivan - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (4):388-399.
    As early-career neuroethicists, we come to the field of neuroethics at a unique moment: we are well-situated to consider nearly two decades of neuroethics scholarship and identify challenges that have persisted across time. But we are also looking squarely ahead, embarking on the next generation of exciting and productive neuroethics scholarship. In this article, we both reflect backwards and turn our gaze forward. First, we highlight criticisms of neuroethics, both from scholars within the field and outside it, that have focused (...)
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  2. Trust, Risk, and Race in American Medicine.Laura Specker Sullivan - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (1):18-26.
    Trust is a core feature of the physician-patient relationship, and risk is central to trust. Patients take risks when they trust their providers to care for them effectively and appropriately. Not all patients take these risks: some medical relationships are marked by mistrust and suspicion. Empirical evidence suggests that some patients and families of color in the United States may be more likely to mistrust their providers and to be suspicious of specific medical practices and institutions. Given both historical and (...)
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  3.  11
    Climates of Distrust in Medicine.Laura Specker Sullivan - 2023 - Hastings Center Report 53 (S2):33-38.
    Trust in medicine is often conceived of on an individual level, with respect to how people rely on particular clinicians or institutions. Yet as discussions of trust during the Covid‐19 pandemic highlighted, trust decisions are not always as individual or interpersonal as this conception suggests. Rather, individual instances of trusting behavior are related to social trust, which is conceived as a willingness to be vulnerable to people in general, based on a sense of shared norms. In this essay, I propose (...)
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  4.  73
    Relational Autonomy, Paternalism, and Maternalism.Laura Specker Sullivan & Fay Niker - 2018 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 21 (3):649-667.
    The concept of paternalism is intricately tied to the concept of autonomy. It is commonly assumed that when paternalistic interventions are wrong, they are wrong because they impede individuals’ autonomy. Our aim in this paper is to show that the recent shift towards conceiving of autonomy relationally highlights a separate conceptual space for a nonpaternalistic kind of interpersonal intervention termed maternalism. We argue that maternalism makes a twofold contribution to the debate over the ethics of interpersonal action and decision-making. Descriptively, (...)
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  5. Insight and the no‐self in deep brain stimulation.Laura Specker Sullivan - 2018 - Bioethics 33 (4):487-494.
    Ethical analyses of the effects of neural interventions commonly focus on changes to personality and behavior, interpreting these changes in terms of authenticity and identity. These phenomena have led to debate among ethicists about the meaning of these terms for ethical analysis of such interventions. While these theoretical approaches have different criteria for ethical significance, they agree that patients’ reports are concerning because a sense of self is valuable. In this paper, I question this assumption. I propose that the Buddhist (...)
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  6.  56
    Trusting Relationships and the Ethics of Interpersonal Action.Fay Niker & Laura Specker Sullivan - 2018 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 26 (2):173-186.
    Trust has generally been understood as an intentional mental phenomenon that one party has towards another party with respect to some object of value for the truster. In the landmark work of Annette Baier, this trust is described as a three-place predicate: A entrusts B with the care of C, such that B has discretionary powers in caring for C. In this paper we propose that, within the context of thick interpersonal relationships, trust manifests in a different way: as a (...)
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  7.  45
    Keeping Disability in Mind: A Case Study in Implantable Brain–Computer Interface Research.Laura Specker Sullivan, Eran Klein, Tim Brown, Matthew Sample, Michelle Pham, Paul Tubig, Raney Folland, Anjali Truitt & Sara Goering - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (2):479-504.
    Brain–Computer Interface research is an interdisciplinary area of study within Neural Engineering. Recent interest in end-user perspectives has led to an intersection with user-centered design. The goal of user-centered design is to reduce the translational gap between researchers and potential end users. However, while qualitative studies have been conducted with end users of BCI technology, little is known about individual BCI researchers’ experience with and attitudes towards UCD. Given the scientific, financial, and ethical imperatives of UCD, we sought to gain (...)
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  8.  20
    Introduction to the Special Section: Feminist Approaches to Neurotechnologies.Sara Goering & Laura Specker Sullivan - 2020 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 13 (1):89-97.
    Bioethics has already had a rich interaction with the relatively new field of neurotechnology. Scholars have wondered whether neurotechnological interventions, such as deep brain stimulation, are threats to personal identity, lead to alienation or create dilemmas between authenticity and autonomy, impact autonomy, detract from agency, or lead to self-estrangement. Many of these ethical investigations are concerned not with the targeted health benefits of neurotechnology but with whether and how they fit into users' lives in more personal and profound ways.In some (...)
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  9.  37
    Relational Autonomy, Maternalism, and the Nocebo Effect.Laura Specker Sullivan & Fay Niker - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (6):52-54.
    Fortunato and colleagues' target article extends both the ethical analysis and the clinical practice of nondisclosure by focusing on nocebo effects (Fortunato, Wasserman, and Menkes 2017). Instance...
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  10.  10
    Comparative Philosophy and Practical Applied Ethics.Laura Specker Sullivan - 2024 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 51 (1):44-53.
    Comparative philosophy is gaining traction in professional academic philosophy, with specialist journals, organizations, books, and public campaigns. These inroads have been made in canonical areas of philosophy, including epistemology, metaphysics, logic, and value theory. Yet comparative philosophy still plays little role in practical applied ethics, an interdisciplinary research area in which work with practice and policy implications are dominated by the anglophone world. In this article, I explain why comparative work might be especially difficult in this type of applied ethics, (...)
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  11. Uncovering Metaethical Assumptions in Bioethical Discourse across Cultures.Laura Specker Sullivan - 2016 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 26 (1):47-78.
    Bioethics seeks to answer questions and resolve problems that change along with developments in medicine and biology. Ethical justification plays a crucial role in bioethical analysis by clarifying the reasons that support complex judgments about particular actions and general policies.1 It helps bioethicists to determine what to allow, forbid, support, and minimize. When there is disagreement, it can also aid understanding of competing positions. However, at times, disagreement on particular issues becomes so entrenched that understanding seems impossible. In such circumstances, (...)
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  12.  53
    What Does a Definition of Death Do?Laura Specker Sullivan - 2018 - Diametros 55:63-67.
    In his article, “Defining Death: Beyond Biology,” John Lizza argues in favor of a civil definition of death, according to which the potential for consciousness and social interaction marks us as the “kind of being that we are.” In this commentary, I critically discuss this approach to the bioethical debate on the definition of death. I question whether Lizza’s account is based on a full recognition of the “practical, moral, religious, philosophical, and cultural considerations” at play in this debate. I (...)
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  13. Motivated Reasoning and Research Ethics Guidelines.Laura Specker Sullivan - 2022 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 39 (3):519-535.
    The creation of guidelines has long been a popular means of conveying normative requirements in scientific and medical research. The recent case of He Jiankui, whose research flouted both widely accepted ethical standards and a set of field-specific guidelines he co-authored, raises the question of whether guidelines are an effective means of preventing misconduct. This paper advances the theory that guidelines can facilitate moral rationalization, a form of motivated reasoning. Moral rationalization in research occurs when individuals justify their actions with (...)
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  14.  5
    Who does Neuroethics Scholarship Address, and What Does it Recommend? A Content Analysis of Selected Abstracts from the International Neuroethics Society Annual Meetings.Nina Yichen Wei, Rebekah J. Choi, Laura Specker Sullivan & Anna Wexler - 2024 - Neuroethics 17 (2):1-10.
    Much neuroethics literature concludes with a set of normative recommendations. While these recommendations can be a helpful way of summarizing a proposal for a future direction, some have recently argued that ethics scholarship has devoted insufficient attention to considerations of audience and real-world applications. To date, however, while scholars have conducted topic analyses of neuroethics literature, to our knowledge no study has evaluated who neuroethics scholarship addresses and what it recommends. The objective of the present study therefore was to provide (...)
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  15.  10
    Situated Personhood: Insights from Caregivers of Minimally Communicative Individuals.Johnny Brennan, Molly Kelleher, Rossio Motta-Ochoa, Stefanie Blain-Moraes & Laura Specker Sullivan - 2023 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 16 (2):64-94.
    For caregivers of minimally communicative individuals, providing support in the absence of clearly meaningful responses is ethically fraught. We conducted a secondary analysis of qualitative data from caregivers of individuals who are minimally communicative, including persons with advanced dementia and individuals in disorders of consciousness. Our analysis led to two central claims: (1) Personhood is a threshold concept that is situated, relational, and dynamic and (2) in circumstances in which personhood is difficult to judge, caregivers can “fill the gap” to (...)
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  16.  15
    INTRODUCTION: Race and Ethnicity in 21st Century Health Care.Laura Specker Sullivan & Robert M. Sade - 2021 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 49 (2):165-167.
  17.  39
    Pilgrimages to the Ancient Temples in Nara [Koji junrei] by Watsuji Tetsurō.Laura Specker Sullivan - 2014 - Philosophy East and West 64 (3):821-822.
  18.  14
    The Hang Up.Laura Specker Sullivan - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (3):15-16.
    Over the past year, our ethics service has had numerous consultations involving patients who use the emergency department for regular dialysis. Sometimes, they have access to outpatient hemodialysis that they forgo; other times, they've been “fired” from this kind of outpatient facility, and so the ED is their last option. In most of these cases, we're called because the patient is disruptive once admitted to the ICU and behavior plans haven't helped. But the call from a resident this March 2020 (...)
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  19.  32
    The Self-Contradictory Identity of the Personal Self: Nishida’s Argument against Kantian Pure Practical Reason.Laura Specker Sullivan - 2014 - Journal of Japanese Philosophy 2 (1):33-56.
    Throughout his entire career, Nishida Kitarō was, arguably, interested in challenging Immanuel Kant’s formulation of the moral will. In his first work, An Inquiry into the Good, he criticizes Kant’s pure practical reason as idealistic, arguing that the good should be understood not in terms of an abstract, formal relation of reason with itself, but in terms of personality as a single, unique, unifying power that is the true reality of the self. He echoes this language in his last work, (...)
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  20.  12
    The Third Mind: American Artists Contemplate Asia, 1860–1989 ed. by Alexandra Munroe.Laura Specker Sullivan - 2014 - Philosophy East and West 64 (3):820-821.
  21.  19
    Valuing Diversity: Buddhist Reflection on Realizing a More Equitable Global Future by Peter D. Hershock.Laura Specker Sullivan - 2014 - Philosophy East and West 64 (4):1069-1075.
  22.  22
    Ethics Embodied: Rethinking Selfhood through Continental, Japanese, and Feminist Philosophies.Laura Specker Sullivan - 2013 - Philosophy East and West 63 (1):101-105.