Results for 'Lars Oystein Ursin'

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  1.  56
    Privacy and property in the biobank context.Lars Oystein Ursin - 2010 - HEC Forum 22 (3):211-224.
    A research biobank is a collection of personal health and lifestyle information, including genetic samples of yet unknown but possibly large information potential about the participant. For the participants, the risk of taking part is not bodily harm but infringements of their privacy and the harmful consequences such infringements might have. But what do we mean by privacy? Which harms are we talking about? To address such questions we need to get a grip on what privacy is all about and (...)
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  2.  42
    Withholding and Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Treatment: Ethically Equivalent?Lars Øystein Ursin - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (3):10-20.
    Withholding and withdrawing treatment are widely regarded as ethically equivalent in medical guidelines and ethics literature. Health care personnel, however, widely perceive moral differences between withholding and withdrawing. The proponents of equivalence argue that any perceived difference can be explained in terms of cognitive biases and flawed reasoning. Thus, policymakers should clear away any resistance to accept the equivalence stance by moral education. To embark on such a campaign of changing attitudes, we need to be convinced that the ethical analysis (...)
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  3.  14
    Postponed Withholding: Balanced Decision-Making at the Margins of Viability.Janicke Syltern, Lars Ursin, Berge Solberg & Ragnhild Støen - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (11):15-26.
    Advances in neonatology have led to improved survival for periviable infants. Immaturity still carries a high risk of short- and long-term harms, and uncertainty turns provision of life support int...
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  4.  87
    Personal autonomy and informed consent.Lars Øystein Ursin - 2009 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (1):17-24.
    Two ways of understanding the notion of autonomy are outlined and discussed in this article, in order to clarify how and if informed consent requirements in biotechnological research are to be justified by the promotion of personal autonomy: A proceduralist conception linking autonomy with authenticity, and a substantivist conception linking autonomy with control. The importance of distinguishing autonomy from liberty is emphasised, which opens for a possible conflict between respecting the freedom and the autonomy of research participants. It is argued (...)
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  5. Biobank research and the right to privacy.Lars Øystein Ursin - 2008 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 29 (4):267-285.
    What is privacy? What does privacy mean in relation to biobanking, in what way do the participants have an interest in privacy, (why) is there a right to privacy, and how should the privacy issue be regulated when it comes to biobank research? A relational view of privacy is argued for in this article, which takes as its basis a general discussion of several concepts of privacy and attempts at grounding privacy rights. In promoting and protecting the rights that participants (...)
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  6.  18
    «If you give them your little finger, they’ll tear off your entire arm»: losing trust in biobank research.Lars Ursin, Borgunn Ytterhus, Erik Christensen & John-Arne Skolbekken - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (4):565-576.
    Why do some people withdraw from biobank studies? To our knowledge, very few studies have been done on the reflections of biobank ex-participants. In this article, we report from such a study. 16 years ago, we did focus group interviews with biobank participants and ex-participants. We found that the two groups interestingly shared worries concerning the risks involved in possible novel uses of their biobank material, even though they drew opposite conclusions from their worries. Revisiting these interviews today reveals a (...)
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  7.  37
    The Ethics of the Meat Paradox.Lars Ursin - 2016 - Environmental Ethics 38 (2):131-144.
  8.  42
    We’re not in it for the money—lay people’s moral intuitions on commercial use of ‘their’ biobank.Kristin Solum Steinsbekk, Lars Øystein Ursin, John-Arne Skolbekken & Berge Solberg - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (2):151-162.
    Great hope has been placed on biobank research as a strategy to improve diagnostics, therapeutics and prevention. It seems to be a common opinion that these goals cannot be reached without the participation of commercial actors. However, commercial use of biobanks is considered morally problematic and the commercialisation of human biological materials is regulated internationally by policy documents, conventions and laws. For instance, the Council of Europe recommends that: “Biological materials should not, as such, give rise to financial gain”. Similarly, (...)
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  9.  21
    Withholding Versus Withdrawing Treatment: Why Medical Guidelines Should Omit “Theoretical Equivalence”.Lars Øystein Ursin - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (6):W5-W9.
    Volume 19, Issue 6, June 2019, Page W5-W9.
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  10.  30
    Being Polite: Why Biobank Consent Comprehension Is Neither a Requirement nor an Aspiration.Berge Solberg & Lars Ursin - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (5):31-33.
    Volume 19, Issue 5, May 2019, Page 31-33.
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  11.  24
    Ethics of dead participants: policy recommendations for biobank research.Lars Ursin & Maria Stuifbergen - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (10):695-699.
    Respecting people’s consent choices for use of their material and data is a cornerstone of biobank ethics. Participation in biobanks is characteristically based on broad consent that presupposes an ongoing possibility of informing and interacting with participants over time. The death of a participant means the end of any interaction, but usually not the end of participation. Research on causes of death makes biobank material from deceased participants extremely valuable. But as new research questions and methods develop over time, the (...)
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  12.  32
    Think Global, Buy National: CSR, Cooperatives and Consumer Concerns in the Norwegian Food Value Chain.Lars Ursin, Bjørn Kåre Myskja & Siri Granum Carson - 2016 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 29 (3):387-405.
    In a world where issues of food safety and food security are increasingly important, the social responsibility of central actors in the food chain—producers and the main grocery chains—becomes more pressing. As a response, these actors move from implicitly assuming social responsibilities implied in laws, regulations and ethical customs, towards explicitly expressing social responsibilities. In this paper, we discuss the ethical values relevant for the social responsibility of central food producers and retailers in Norway, one of the most subsidized and (...)
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  13.  20
    When is normative recruitment legitimate?Lars Øystein Ursin & Berge Solberg - 2008 - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 2 (2):93-113.
    Rosamond Rhodes and John Harris have both recently argued that we all have a general moral duty to participate in medical research. However, neither Rhodes' nor Harris' arguments in support of this obligation stand up to scrutiny, and severe and convincing criticism has been levelled against their case. Still, to refute their arguments is not to refute the conclusion. There seems to be some truth in the view that when people are asked to take part in medical research, their choice (...)
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  14.  8
    The normative dimensions of new technologies.Lars Ursin, Per-Erling Movik & Allen Alvarez - 2015 - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 1 (1):1-4.
    This special issue of Etikk i praksis features papers that articulate and discuss approaches and methodology that seek to make normative research activity and research output productive in contexts of ongoing societal and technological decision-making. The articles in various ways and to a varying degree exemplify and reflect on the methodology of the study of normativity in innovation.
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  15.  1
    Wyller orienterer.Lars Øystein Ursin - 2007 - Norsk Filosofisk Tidsskrift 42 (4):316-317.
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  16. When is a Techno-Fix Legitimate? The Case of Viticultural Climate Resilience.Rune Nydal, Giovanni De Grandis & Lars Ursin - 2023 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 36 (1):1-17.
    Climate change is an existential risk reinforced by ordinary actions in afuent societies—often silently present in comfortable and enjoyable habits. This silence is sometimes broken, presenting itself as a nagging reminder of how our habits fuel a catastrophe. As a case in point, global warming has created a state of urgency among wine makers in Spain, as the alcohol level has risen to a point where it jeopardises wine quality and thereby Spanish viticulture. Eforts are currently being made to solve (...)
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  17.  15
    The Responsibility of Farmers, Public Authorities and Consumers for Safeguarding Bees Against Harmful Pesticides.Anna Birgitte Milford, Bjørn Arild Hatteland & Lars Øystein Ursin - 2022 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 35 (3):1-22.
    The worldwide decline in bees and other pollinating insects is a threat to biodiversity and food security, and urgent action must be taken to stop and then reverse this decline. An established cause of the insect decline is the use of harmful pesticides in agriculture. This case study focuses on the use of pesticides in Norwegian apple production and considers who among farmers, consumers and public authorities is most responsible for protecting bees against harmful pesticides. The extent to which these (...)
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  18.  18
    European Electronic Personal Health Records initiatives and vulnerable migrants: A need for greater ethical, legal and social safeguards.Oliver Feeney, Gabriele Werner‐Felmayer, Helena Siipi, Markus Frischhut, Silvia Zullo, Ursela Barteczko, Lars Øystein Ursin, Shai Linn, Heike Felzmann, Dušanka Krajnović, John Saunders & Vojin Rakić - 2020 - Developing World Bioethics 20 (1):27-37.
    The effective collection and management of personal data of rapidly migrating populations is important for ensuring adequate healthcare and monitoring of a displaced peoples’ health status. With developments in ICT data sharing capabilities, electronic personal health records (ePHRs) are increasingly replacing less transportable paper records. ePHRs offer further advantages of improving accuracy and completeness of information and seem tailored for rapidly displaced and mobile populations. Various emerging initiatives in Europe are seeking to develop migrant‐centric ePHR responses. This paper highlights their (...)
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  19.  47
    Explicability of artificial intelligence in radiology: Is a fifth bioethical principle conceptually necessary?Frank Ursin, Cristian Timmermann & Florian Steger - 2022 - Bioethics 36 (2):143-153.
    Recent years have witnessed intensive efforts to specify which requirements ethical artificial intelligence (AI) must meet. General guidelines for ethical AI consider a varying number of principles important. A frequent novel element in these guidelines, that we have bundled together under the term explicability, aims to reduce the black-box character of machine learning algorithms. The centrality of this element invites reflection on the conceptual relation between explicability and the four bioethical principles. This is important because the application of general ethical (...)
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  20. Ethical Implications of Alzheimer’s Disease Prediction in Asymptomatic Individuals Through Artificial Intelligence.Frank Ursin, Cristian Timmermann & Florian Steger - 2021 - Diagnostics 11 (3):440.
    Biomarker-based predictive tests for subjectively asymptomatic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are utilized in research today. Novel applications of artificial intelligence (AI) promise to predict the onset of AD several years in advance without determining biomarker thresholds. Until now, little attention has been paid to the new ethical challenges that AI brings to the early diagnosis in asymptomatic individuals, beyond contributing to research purposes, when we still lack adequate treatment. The aim of this paper is to explore the ethical arguments put forward (...)
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  21.  13
    The Exact Sciences in Antiquity.Oystein Ore - 1959 - Philosophy of Science 26 (2):155-155.
  22. Eliminating Group Agency.Lars J. K. Moen - 2023 - Economics and Philosophy 39 (1):43-66.
    Aggregating individuals’ consistent attitudes might produce inconsistent collective attitudes. Some groups therefore need the capacity to form attitudes that are irreducible to those of their members. Such groups, group-agent realists argue, are agents in control of their own attitude formation. In this paper, however, I show how group-agent realism overlooks the important fact that groups consist of strategically interacting agents. Only by eliminating group agency from our social explanations can we see how individuals vote strategically to gain control of their (...)
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  23. Diagnosing Diabetic Retinopathy With Artificial Intelligence: What Information Should Be Included to Ensure Ethical Informed Consent?Frank Ursin, Cristian Timmermann, Marcin Orzechowski & Florian Steger - 2021 - Frontiers in Medicine 8:695217.
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  24.  28
    More on Simpson’s paradox and the analysis of memory retrieval.Lars Nyberg - 1993 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 31 (4):326-328.
    A common way of analyzing the statistical relation between two tests of memory is to use contingency analyses. A potential problem with such analyses is known as Simpson’s paradox. The paradox is that collapsing two or more contingency tables may have the effect that the relationship expressed in the overall contingency table differs from the relationships expressed in the original tables. The paradox arises when covariates are correlated with each of the tests. It has been claimed that the paradox has (...)
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  25. On Witness-Discernibility of Elementary Particles.Oystein Linnebo & F. A. Muller - 2013 - Erkenntnis 78 (5):1133-1142.
    In the context of discussions about the nature of ‘identical particles’ and the status of Leibniz’s Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles in Quantum Mechanics, a novel kind of physical discernibility has recently been proposed, which we call witness-discernibility. We inquire into how witness-discernibility relates to known kinds of discernibility. Our conclusion will be that for a wide variety of cases, including the intended quantum-mechanical ones, witness-discernibility collapses extensionally to absolute discernibility, that is, to discernibility by properties.
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  26.  14
    Alētheia in Gorgias of Leontini. An Excerpt from the History of Truth.Lars Leeten - 2023 - Peitho 13 (1):45-64.
    It is often assumed that the concept of alētheia, or ‘truth’, in Gorgias of Leontini belongs to the art of rhetoric. Along these lines, it is usually understood as an aesthetic concept or even a mere ‘adornment’ of speech. In this paper, it is argued, by contrast, that Gorgianic alētheia is a definable criterion of speech figuring in the practice of moral educa­tion. While the ‘truth’ of a logos indeed has to be assessed on aesthetic grounds, the underlying concept of (...)
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  27. Underdetermination of Physical Theory.Lars Bergström - 2006 - In Roger F. Gibson (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Quine. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 91--114.
  28.  8
    Makten över journalistiken.Lars Furhoff - 1986 - [Stockholm]: Natur och Kultur.
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  29.  9
    Some problems in logical model-theory.Lars Svenonius - 1960 - Lund,: CWK Gleerup.
    This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity has a copyright on the body of the work. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and (...)
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  30. Groups as fictional agents.Lars J. K. Moen - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    Can groups really be agents or is group agency just a fiction? Christian List and Philip Pettit argue influentially for group-agent realism by showing how certain groups form and act on attitudes in ways they take to be unexplainable at the level of the individual agents constituting them. Group agency is therefore considered not a fiction or a metaphor but a reality we must account for in explanations of certain social phenomena. In this paper, I challenge this defence of group-agent (...)
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  31. Levels of explicability for medical artificial intelligence: What do we normatively need and what can we technically reach?Frank Ursin, Felix Lindner, Timo Ropinski, Sabine Salloch & Cristian Timmermann - 2023 - Ethik in der Medizin 35 (2):173-199.
    Definition of the problem The umbrella term “explicability” refers to the reduction of opacity of artificial intelligence (AI) systems. These efforts are challenging for medical AI applications because higher accuracy often comes at the cost of increased opacity. This entails ethical tensions because physicians and patients desire to trace how results are produced without compromising the performance of AI systems. The centrality of explicability within the informed consent process for medical AI systems compels an ethical reflection on the trade-offs. Which (...)
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  32. Conflicting Aims and Values in the Application of Smart Sensors in Geriatric Rehabilitation: Ethical Analysis.Christopher Predel, Cristian Timmermann, Frank Ursin, Marcin Orzechowski, Timo Ropinski & Florian Steger - 2022 - JMIR mHealth and uHealth 10 (6):e32910.
    Background: Smart sensors have been developed as diagnostic tools for rehabilitation to cover an increasing number of geriatric patients. They promise to enable an objective assessment of complex movement patterns. -/- Objective: This research aimed to identify and analyze the conflicting ethical values associated with smart sensors in geriatric rehabilitation and provide ethical guidance on the best use of smart sensors to all stakeholders, including technology developers, health professionals, patients, and health authorities. -/- Methods: On the basis of a systematic (...)
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  33.  8
    There Is No Theory of Everything: A Physics Perspective on Emergence.Lars Q. English - 2017 - Cham: Imprint: Springer.
    The main purpose of this book is to introduce a broader audience to emergence by illustrating how discoveries in the physical sciences have informed the ways we think about it. In a nutshell, emergence asserts that non-reductive behavior arises at higher levels of organization and complexity. As physicist Philip Anderson put it, "more is different." Along the text's conversational tour through the terrain of quantum physics, phase transitions, nonlinear and statistical physics, networks and complexity, the author highlights the various philosophical (...)
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  34. Vitenskap og verdensbilder.Lars Gule & Henning Laugerud (eds.) - 1989 - Bergen: Ariadne.
  35. Ontology and the concept of an object.Oystein Linnebo - manuscript
    When people deny that there are objects of a certain kind, they normally take this to be a reason to stop speaking as if such objects existed. For instance, when atheists deny the existence of God, they take this to be a reason to stop speaking about God’s will or His mercy. Or, to take a more mundane example, when people deny that there are round squares or that there are unicorns, they take this to be a reason to stop (...)
     
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  36. Science with Numbers: A Naturalistic Defense of Mathematical Platonism.Oystein Linnebo - 2002 - Dissertation, Harvard University
    My thesis discusses the unique challenge that platonistic mathematics poses to philosophical naturalism. It has two main parts. ;The first part discusses the three most important approaches to my problem found in the literature: First, W. V. Quine's holistic empiricist defense of mathematical platonism; then, the nominalists' argument that mathematical platonism is naturalistically unacceptable; and finally, a radical form of naturalism, due to John Burgess and Penelope Maddy, which dismisses any philosophical criticism of a successful science such as mathematics. I (...)
     
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  37. To be is to be an F 1. introduction.Oystein Linnebo - manuscript
    Is the natural number 3 identical with the Roman emperor Julius Caesar? In Grundlagen Frege raised some peculiar questions of this sort.1 There are two kinds of intuitions regarding such questions. On the one hand, these questions seem not only to be pointless but to be downright meaningless. Regardless of how much arithmetic one studies, no answer to the opening question will be forthcoming. Arithmetic tells us that 3 is the successor of 2 and that it is prime, but not (...)
     
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  38. Hobbes on civic liberty and the rule of law.Lars Vinx - 2012 - In David Dyzenhaus & Thomas Poole (eds.), Hobbes and the law. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  39.  40
    Theory of Equivalence Relations.Oystein Ore - 1943 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 8 (1):55-56.
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  40. Kurgular arası karşılaştırmalar ve anlam.Besim Karakadılar - 2010 - In Anlam Kavramı Üzerine Yeni Denemeler. İstanbul, Türkiye:
    Verili bir durumu anlamayı, onu bir bütün olarak kurgulamak olarak düşünelim. Kurgu basit bir gösterge de olabilir, karmaşık bir yapı da olabilir; belli belirsiz bir iz veya izler toplamı da olabilir. Kurgunun işlevini yerine getirmesini sağlayan gerek ve yeter koşul verili olan durum ile kendi yapısı arasında bir karşılaştırma olanağını sağlamasıdır. Nitekim, en bilindik anlamda bir durumu kurgulamak onu bir başka durumla karşılaştırmaktır. Bu yüzden de karşılaştırma yapmayı anlama yetimiz için ön dayanak olan bir alt-yeti olarak tanımlayabiliriz. Bu alt-yetinin edimsel (...)
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  41. A philosophy of evil.Lars Fr H. Svendsen - 2010 - Champaign, IL: Dalkey Archive Press.
    Introduction: What is evil and how can we understand it? -- The theology of evil -- Theodicies -- The privation theodicy -- The free will theodicy -- The Iraenean theodicy -- The totality theodicy -- History as secular theodicy -- Job's insight-the theodicy of the hereafter -- Anthropology of evil -- Are people good or evil? -- The typologies of evil -- Demonic evil -- Evil for evil's sake -- Evil's aesthetic seduction -- Sadism -- Schadenfreude -- Subjective and objective (...)
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  42. Professional codes in journalism.Lars Bruun (ed.) - 1979 - Chicago, Ill.: Imported Publications [distributor].
    Introduction -- The history of written codes of ethics -- Contemporary codes -- Media councils in the Western Hemisphere -- Journalists' responsibility for the destiny of peace -- Towards an international code of ethics -- Journalistic ethics in Latin America -- The international ethics of journalists.
     
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  43.  29
    Ethical Conflicts in Prehospital Emergency Care.Lars Sandman & Anders Nordmark - 2006 - Nursing Ethics 13 (6):592-607.
    This article analyses and presents a survey of ethical conflicts in prehospital emergency care. The results are based on six focus group interviews with 29 registered nurses and paramedics working in prehospital emergency care at three different locations: a small town, a part of a major city and a sparsely populated area. Ethical conflict was found to arise in 10 different nodes of conflict: the patient/carer relationship, the patient’s self-determination, the patient’s best interest, the carer’s professional ideals, the carer’s professional (...)
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  44.  20
    Flight and defense in cats with septal lesions.H. Ursin, D. C. Blanchard, R. Blanchard & R. Ursin - 1981 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 17 (4):206-208.
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  45.  13
    A Philosophy of Evil.Lars Translated by Kerri A. Pierce Svendsen - 2010 - Champaign, IL: Columbia University Press.
    Despite the overuse of the word in movies, political speeches, and news reports, "evil" is generally seen as either flagrant rhetoric or else an outdated concept: a medieval holdover with no bearing on our complex everyday reality. In _A Philosophy of Evil_, however, acclaimed philosopher Lars Svendsen argues that evil remains a concrete moral problem: that we're all its victims, and all guilty of committing evil acts. "It's normal to be evil," he writes -- the problem is, we have (...)
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  46. Republicanism and moralised freedom.Lars J. K. Moen - 2023 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 22 (4):423-440.
    A moralised conception of freedom is based on a normative theory. Understanding it therefore requires an analysis of this theory. In this paper, I show how republican freedom as non-domination is moralised, and why analysing this concept therefore involves identifying the basic components of the republican theory of justice. One of these components is the non-moralised pure negative conception of freedom as non-interference. Republicans therefore cannot keep insisting that their freedom concept conflicts with, and is superior to, this more basic (...)
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  47.  15
    Does retrieval-induced forgetting occur for emotional stimuli?Lars Dehli & Tim Brennen - 2009 - Cognition and Emotion 23 (6):1056-1068.
  48.  23
    Arendt and Adorno: political and philosophical investigations.Lars Rensmann & Samir Gandesha (eds.) - 2012 - Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
    Hannah Arendt and Theodor W. Adorno, two of the most influential political philosophers and theorists of the twentieth century, were contemporaries with similar interests, backgrounds, and a shared experience of exile. Yet until now, no book has brought them together. In this first comparative study of their work, leading scholars discuss divergences, disclose surprising affinities, and find common ground between the two thinkers. This pioneering work recovers the relevance of Arendt and Adorno for contemporary political theory and philosophy and lays (...)
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  49. Collectivizing Public Reason.Lars J. K. Moen - 2024 - Social Theory and Practice 50 (2):285–306.
    Public reason liberals expect individuals to have justificatory reasons for their views of certain political issues. This paper considers how groups can, and whether they should, give collective public reasons for their political decisions. A problem is that aggregating individuals’ consistent judgments on reasons and a decision can produce inconsistent collective judgments. The group will then fail to give a reason for its decision. The paper considers various solutions to this problem and defends a deliberative procedure by showing how it (...)
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  50. Republicanism as Critique of Liberalism.Lars J. K. Moen - 2023 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 61 (2):308–324.
    The revival of republicanism was meant to challenge the hegemony of liberalism in contemporary political theory on the grounds that liberals show insufficient concern with institutional protection against political misrule. This article challenges this view by showing how neorepublicanism, particularly on Philip Pettit’s formulation, demands no greater institutional protection than does political liberalism. By identifying neutrality between conceptions of the good as the constraint on institutional requirements that forces neorepublicanism into the liberal framework, the article shows that neutrality is what (...)
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