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  1.  1
    The Psychology of Proof: Deductive Reasoning in Human Thinking.Lance J. Rips - 1994 - MIT Press.
    In this provocative book, Lance Rips describes a unified theory of natural deductive reasoning and fashions a working model of deduction, with strong experimental support, that is capable of playing a central role in mental life.Rips argues that certain inference principles are so central to our notion of intelligence and rationality that they deserve serious psychological investigation to determine their role in individuals' beliefs and conjectures. Asserting that cognitive scientists should consider deductive reasoning as a basis for thinking, Rips develops (...)
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  2.  10
    Cognitive Processes in Propositional Reasoning.Lance J. Rips - 1983 - Psychological Review 90 (1):38-71.
  3.  21
    Structure and Process in Semantic Memory: A Featural Model for Semantic Decisions.Edward E. Smith, Edward J. Shoben & Lance J. Rips - 1974 - Psychological Review 81 (3):214-241.
  4.  15
    Folk Psychology of Mental Activities.Lance J. Rips & Frederick G. Conrad - 1989 - Psychological Review 96 (2):187-207.
    A central aspect of people's beliefs about the mind is that mental activities—for example, thinking, reasoning, and problem solving—are interrelated, with some activities being kinds or parts of others. In common-sense psychology, reasoning is a kind of thinking and reasoning is part of problem solving. People's conceptions of these mental kinds and parts can furnish clues to the ordinary meaning of these terms and to the differences between folk and scientific psychology. In this article, we use a new technique for (...)
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  5. From Numerical Concepts to Concepts of Number.Lance J. Rips, Amber Bloomfield & Jennifer Asmuth - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (6):623-642.
    Many experiments with infants suggest that they possess quantitative abilities, and many experimentalists believe that these abilities set the stage for later mathematics: natural numbers and arithmetic. However, the connection between these early and later skills is far from obvious. We evaluate two possible routes to mathematics and argue that neither is sufficient: (1) We first sketch what we think is the most likely model for infant abilities in this domain, and we examine proposals for extrapolating the natural number concept (...)
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  6.  24
    Inductive Judgments About Natural Categories.Lance J. Rips - 1975 - Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 14 (6):665-681.
    The present study examined the effects of semantic structure on simple inductive judgments about category members. For a particular category, subjects were told that one of the species had a given property and were asked to estimate the proportion of instances in the other species that possessed the property. The results indicated that category structure—in particular, the typicality of the species—influenced subjects' judgments. These results were interpreted by models based on the following assumption: When little is known about the underlying (...)
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  7.  14
    The Psychology of Knights and Knaves.Lance J. Rips - 1989 - Cognition 31 (2):85-116.
  8.  36
    Combining Prototypes: A Selective Modification Model.Edward E. Smith, Daniel N. Osherson, Lance J. Rips & Margaret Keane - 1988 - Cognitive Science 12 (4):485-527.
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  9.  32
    Tracing the Identity of Objects.Lance J. Rips, Sergey Blok & George Newman - 2006 - Psychological Review 113 (1):1-30.
    This article considers how people judge the identity of objects (e.g., how people decide that a description of an object at one time, t₀, belongs to the same object as a description of it at another time, t₁). The authors propose a causal continuer model for these judgments, based on an earlier theory by Nozick (1981). According to this model, the 2 descriptions belong to the same object if (a) the object at t₁ is among those that are causally close (...)
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  10. Conditionals, Context, and the Suppression Effect.Fabrizio Cariani & Lance J. Rips - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (3):540-589.
    Modus ponens is the argument from premises of the form If A, then B and A to the conclusion B. Nearly all participants agree that the modus ponens conclusion logically follows when the argument appears in this Basic form. However, adding a further premise can lower participants’ rate of agreement—an effect called suppression. We propose a theory of suppression that draws on contemporary ideas about conditional sentences in linguistics and philosophy. Semantically, the theory assumes that people interpret an indicative conditional (...)
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  11.  16
    Lines of Thought: Central Concepts in Cognitive Psychology.Lance J. Rips - 2011 - Oup Usa.
    Lines of Thought addresses how we are able to think about abstract possibilities: How can we think about math, despite the immateriality of numbers, sets, and other mathematical entities? How are we able to think about what might have happened if history had taken a different turn? Questions like these turn up in nearly every part of cognitive science, and they are central to our human position of having only limited knowledge concerning what is or might be true.
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  12.  30
    Psychological Connectedness and Intertemporal Choice.Daniel M. Bartels & Lance J. Rips - 2010 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 139 (1):49-69.
  13. Reasoning: Studies of Human Inference and its Foundations.Jonathan E. Adler & Lance J. Rips (eds.) - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    This interdisciplinary work is a collection of major essays on reasoning: deductive, inductive, abductive, belief revision, defeasible, cross cultural, conversational, and argumentative. They are each oriented toward contemporary empirical studies. The book focuses on foundational issues, including paradoxes, fallacies, and debates about the nature of rationality, the traditional modes of reasoning, as well as counterfactual and causal reasoning. It also includes chapters on the interface between reasoning and other forms of thought. In general, this last set of essays represents growth (...)
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  14.  43
    Two Causal Theories of Counterfactual Conditionals.Lance J. Rips - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (2):175-221.
    Bayes nets are formal representations of causal systems that many psychologists have claimed as plausible mental representations. One purported advantage of Bayes nets is that they may provide a theory of counterfactual conditionals, such as If Calvin had been at the party, Miriam would have left early. This article compares two proposed Bayes net theories as models of people's understanding of counterfactuals. Experiments 1-3 show that neither theory makes correct predictions about backtracking counterfactuals (in which the event of the if-clause (...)
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  15.  56
    The Current Status of Research on Concept Combination.Lance J. Rips - 1995 - Mind and Language 10 (1-2):72-104.
  16.  32
    Explanation and Evidence in Informal Argument.Sarah K. Brem & Lance J. Rips - 2000 - Cognitive Science 24 (4):573-604.
    A substantial body of evidence shows that people tend to rely too heavily on explanations when trying to justify an opinion. Some research suggests these errors may arise from an inability to distinguish between explanations and the evidence that bears upon them. We examine an alternative account, that many people do distinguish between explanations and evidence, but rely more heavily on unsubstantiated explanations when evidence is scarce or absent. We examine the philosophical and psychological distinctions between explanation and evidence, and (...)
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  17.  23
    Giving the Boot to the Bootstrap: How Not to Learn the Natural Numbers.Lance J. Rips, Jennifer Asmuth & Amber Bloomfield - 2006 - Cognition 101 (3):B51-B60.
  18.  26
    Circular Reasoning.Lance J. Rips - 2002 - Cognitive Science 26 (6):767-795.
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  19.  47
    Inference and Explanation in Counterfactual Reasoning.Lance J. Rips & Brian J. Edwards - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (6):1107-1135.
    This article reports results from two studies of how people answer counterfactual questions about simple machines. Participants learned about devices that have a specific configuration of components, and they answered questions of the form “If component X had not operated [failed], would component Y have operated?” The data from these studies indicate that participants were sensitive to the way in which the antecedent state is described—whether component X “had not operated” or “had failed.” Answers also depended on whether the device (...)
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  20. Reasoning.Lance J. Rips - 2002 - In J. Wixted & H. Pashler (eds.), Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology. Wiley.
  21.  23
    Do Children Learn the Integers by Induction?Lance J. Rips, Jennifer Asmuth & Amber Bloomfield - 2008 - Cognition 106 (2):940-951.
  22.  14
    Similarity as an Explanatory Construct.Steven A. Sloman & Lance J. Rips - 1998 - Cognition 65 (2-3):87-101.
  23.  77
    Identity, Causality, and Pronoun Ambiguity.Eyal Sagi & Lance J. Rips - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (4):663-680.
    This article looks at the way people determine the antecedent of a pronoun in sentence pairs, such as: Albert invited Ron to dinner. He spent hours cleaning the house. The experiment reported here is motivated by the idea that such judgments depend on reasoning about identity . Because the identity of an individual over time depends on the causal-historical path connecting the stages of the individual, the correct antecedent will also depend on causal connections. The experiment varied how likely it (...)
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  24.  6
    Reasoning and Conversation.Lance J. Rips - 1998 - Psychological Review 105 (3):411-441.
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  25.  49
    Concepts and Categories: Memory, Meaning, and Metaphysics.Douglas L. Medin & Lance J. Rips - 2005 - In K. Holyoak & B. Morrison (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning. Cambridge University Press. pp. 37--72.
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  26.  29
    Identifying and Counting Objects: The Role of Sortal Concepts.Nick Leonard & Lance J. Rips - 2015 - Cognition 145:89-103.
    Sortal terms, such as table or horse, are count nouns (akin to a basic-level terms). According to some theories, the meaning of sortals provides conditions for telling objects apart (individuating objects, e.g., telling one table from a second) and for identifying objects over time (e.g., determining that a particular horse at one time is the same horse at another). A number of psychologists have proposed that sortal concepts likewise provide psychologically real conditions for individuating and identifying things. However, this paper (...)
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  27.  28
    Can Statistical Learning Bootstrap the Integers?Lance J. Rips, Jennifer Asmuth & Amber Bloomfield - 2013 - Cognition 128 (3):320-330.
  28.  4
    Necessity and Natural Categories.Lance J. Rips - 2001 - Psychological Bulletin 127:827-852.
    Our knowledge of natural categories includes beliefs not only about what is true of them but also about what would be true if the categories had properties other than (or in addition to) their actual ones. Evidence about these beliefs comes from three lines of research: experiments on category-based induction, on hypothetical transformations of category members, and on definitions of kind terms. The 1st part of this article examines results and theories arising from each of these research streams. The 2nd (...)
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  29.  23
    Core Cognition and its Aftermath.Lance J. Rips - 2017 - Philosophical Topics 45 (1):157-179.
    A current and very influential theory in psychology holds that infants have innate, perceptually informed systems that endow them with surprisingly high-level concepts—for example, concepts of cardinality and causality. Proponents of core cognition hold that these initial concepts then provide the building blocks for later adult ideas within these domains. This paper reviews the evidence for core cognition and argues that these systems aren’t sufficient to explain how children learn their way to adult thoughts about language, number, or cause.
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  30.  11
    Categories and Resemblance.Lance J. Rips & Allan Collins - 1993 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 122 (4):468.
  31.  20
    Out of Sorts? Some Remedies for Theories of Object Concepts: A Reply to Rhemtulla and Xu.Sergey V. Blok, George E. Newman & Lance J. Rips - 2007 - Psychological Review 114 (4):1096-1102.
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  32.  42
    Rebooting the Bootstrap Argument: Two Puzzles for Bootstrap Theories of Concept Development.Lance J. Rips, Susan J. Hespos & Susan Carey - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (3):145.
    The Origin of Concepts sets out an impressive defense of the view that children construct entirely new systems of concepts. We offer here two questions about this theory. First, why doesn't the bootstrapping process provide a pattern for translating between the old and new systems, contradicting their claimed incommensurability? Second, can the bootstrapping process properly distinguish meaning change from belief change?
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  33.  21
    Qualities and Relations in Folk Theories of Mind.Lance J. Rips - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):75-76.
  34.  22
    Split Identity: Intransitive Judgments of the Identity of Objects.Lance J. Rips - 2011 - Cognition 119 (3):356-373.
    Identity is a transitive relation, according to all standard accounts. Necessarily, if x = y and y = z, then x = z. However, people sometimes say that two objects, x and z, are the same as a third, y, even when x and z have different properties (thus, x = y and y = z, but x ≠ z). In the present experiments, participants read stories about an iceberg that breaks into two icebergs, one to the east and the (...)
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  35.  42
    Goals for a Theory of Deduction: Reply to Johnson-Laird. [REVIEW]Lance J. Rips - 1997 - Minds and Machines 7 (3):409-424.
  36. Experimenting with (Conditional) Perfection.Fabrizio Cariani & Lance J. Rips - forthcoming - In Stefan Kaufmann, David Over & Ghanshyam Sharma (eds.), Conditionals: Logic, Semantics, Psychology.
    Conditional perfection is the phenomenon in which conditionals are strengthened to biconditionals. In some contexts, “If A, B” is understood as if it meant “A if and only if B.” We present and discuss a series of experiments designed to test one of the most promising pragmatic accounts of conditional perfection. This is the idea that conditional perfection is a form of exhaustification—that is a strengthening to an exhaustive reading, triggered by a question that the conditional answers. If a speaker (...)
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  37.  9
    Set-Theoretic and Network Models Reconsidered: A Comment on Hollan's "Features and Semantic Memory.".Lance J. Rips, Edward E. Smith & Edward J. Shoben - 1975 - Psychological Review 82 (2):156-157.
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  38.  8
    Paralogical Reasoning: Evans, Johnson-Laird, and Byrne on Liar and Truth-Teller Puzzles.Lance J. Rips - 1990 - Cognition 36 (3):291-314.
  39.  7
    Parts of Activities: Reply to Fellbaum and Miller.Lance J. Rips & Frederick G. Conrad - 1990 - Psychological Review 97 (4):571-575.
    If people believe that one activity is a kind of another, they also tend to believe that the second activity is a part of the first. For example, they assert that deciding is a kind of thinking and that thinking is a part of deciding. C. Fellbaum and G. A. Miller's (see record 1991-03356-001) explanation for this phenomenon is based on the idea that people interpret part of in the domain of verbs as a type of logical entailment. Their explanation, (...)
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  40.  14
    Possible Objects: Topological Approaches to Individuation.Lance J. Rips - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (11).
    We think of the world around us as divided into physical objects like toasters and daisies, rather than solely as a smear of properties like yellow and smooth. How do we single out these objects? One theory of object concepts uses part‐of relations and relations of connectedness. According to this proposal, an object is a connected spatial item of maximal extent: Any other connected item that overlaps (i.e., shares a part with) the object must be a part of that object. (...)
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  41.  41
    Argumentative Thinking: An Introduction to the Special Issue on Psychology and Argumentation.Lance J. Rips - 2009 - Informal Logic 29 (4):327-336.
    This special issue of Informal Logic brings together a num-ber of traditions from the psychology and philosophy of argument. Psycho-logists’ interest in argument typically arises in understanding how indivi-duals form and change their beliefs. Thus, theories of argument can serve as models of the structure of justi-fications for belief, as methods of diagnosing errors in beliefs, and as prototypes for learning. The articles in this issue illustrate all three of these connections.
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  42. OCk, athryn, 163 Byrne, Ruth MJ, 61 Cosmides, Leda, 187 Garnham, Alan, 45, 117.P. N. Johnson-Laird, Jane Oakhill, Josef Perner, Massimo Piattelli-Palmarini, Lance J. Rips, Jennifer A. Sanderson, Michael Siegal & Yohtaro Takano - 1989 - Cognition 31:295.
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  43. LLI-PAL (Center for Cognitive Science.Lance J. Rips - 1989 - Cognition 31:293-294.
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  44.  45
    Dissonances in Theories of Number Understanding.Lance J. Rips, Amber Bloomfield & Jennifer Asmuth - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (6):671-687.
    Traditional theories of how children learn the positive integers start from infants' abilities in detecting the quantity of physical objects. Our target article examined this view and found no plausible accounts of such development. Most of our commentators appear to agree that no adequate developmental theory is presently available, but they attempt to hold onto a role for early enumeration. Although some defend the traditional theories, others introduce new basic quantitative abilities, new methods of transformation, or new types of end (...)
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  45.  16
    Five-Month-Old Infants Have Expectations for the Accumulation of Nonsolid Substances.Erin M. Anderson, Susan J. Hespos & Lance J. Rips - 2018 - Cognition 175:1-10.
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  46.  13
    Postscript: Sorting Out Object Persistence.Sergey V. Blok, George E. Newman & Lance J. Rips - 2007 - Psychological Review 114 (4):1103-1104.
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  47.  16
    Norms, Competence, and the Explanation of Reasoning.Gary S. Kahn & Lance J. Rips - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):501.
  48.  7
    Children's Understanding of the Natural Numbers’ Structure.Jennifer Asmuth, Emily M. Morson & Lance J. Rips - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):1945-1973.
    When young children attempt to locate numbers along a number line, they show logarithmic (or other compressive) placement. For example, the distance between “5” and “10” is larger than the distance between “75” and “80.” This has often been explained by assuming that children have a logarithmically scaled mental representation of number (e.g., Berteletti, Lucangeli, Piazza, Dehaene, & Zorzi, 2010; Siegler & Opfer, 2003). However, several investigators have questioned this argument (e.g., Barth & Paladino, 2011; Cantlon, Cordes, Libertus, & Brannon, (...)
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  49.  11
    Claim Strength and Burden of Proof.Jeremy Bailenson & Lance J. Rips - unknown
    In this paper, we report results from experiments in which people read conversational arguments and then judge the convincingness of each claim and the individual speakers' burden of proof. The results showed an "anti-primacy" effect: People judge the speaker who makes the first claim as having greater burden of proof. This effect persists even when each speaker's claims are rated equally convincing. We also find that people rate claims less convincing when they appear in the first part of an argument (...)
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