35 found
Order:
  1. A Belmont Report for Animals?Hope Ferdowsian, L. Syd M. Johnson, Jane Johnson, Andrew Fenton, Adam Shriver & John Gluck - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (1):19-37.
    Abstract:Human and animal research both operate within established standards. In the United States, criticism of the human research environment and recorded abuses of human research subjects served as the impetus for the establishment of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, and the resulting Belmont Report. The Belmont Report established key ethical principles to which human research should adhere: respect for autonomy, obligations to beneficence and justice, and special protections for vulnerable individuals and (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   22 citations  
  2.  45
    Existing Ethical Tensions in Xenotransplantation.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2022 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 31 (3):355-367.
    The genetic modification of pigs as a source of transplantable organs is one of several possible solutions to the chronic organ shortage. This paper describes existing ethical tensions in xenotransplantation (XTx) that argue against pursuing it. Recommendations for lifelong infectious disease surveillance and notification of close contacts of recipients are in tension with the rights of human research subjects. Parental/guardian consent for pediatric xenograft recipients is in tension with a child’s right to an open future. Individual consent to transplant is (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  3. Chimpanzee Rights: The Philosophers' Brief.Kristin Andrews, Gary Comstock, G. K. D. Crozier, Sue Donaldson, Andrew Fenton, Tyler John, L. Syd M. Johnson, Robert Jones, Will Kymlicka, Letitia Meynell, Nathan Nobis, David M. Pena-Guzman & Jeff Sebo - 2018 - London: Routledge.
    In December 2013, the Nonhuman Rights Project (NhRP) filed a petition for a common law writ of habeas corpus in the New York State Supreme Court on behalf of Tommy, a chimpanzee living alone in a cage in a shed in rural New York (Barlow, 2017). Under animal welfare laws, Tommy’s owners, the Laverys, were doing nothing illegal by keeping him in those conditions. Nonetheless, the NhRP argued that given the cognitive, social, and emotional capacities of chimpanzees, Tommy’s confinement constituted (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  4.  32
    Inference and Inductive Risk in Disorders of Consciousness.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (1):35-43.
    Several types of inferences are employed in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with brain injuries and disorders of consciousness. These inferences introduce unavoidable uncertainty, and can be evaluated in light of inductive risk: the epistemic and nonepistemic risks of being wrong. This article considers several ethically significant inductive risks generated by and interacting with inferences about patients with disorders of consciousness, and argues for prescriptive measures to manage and mitigate inductive risk in the context of disorders of consciousness.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   19 citations  
  5. Toward an Anti-Maleficent Research Agenda.Hope Ferdowsian, Agustin Fuentes, L. Syd M. Johnson, Barbara J. King & Jessica Pierce - 2022 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 31 (1):54-58.
    Important advances in biomedical and behavioral research ethics have occurred over the past few decades, many of them centered on identifying and eliminating significant harms to human subjects of research. Comprehensive attention has not been paid to the totality of harms experienced by animal subjects, although scientific and moral progress require explicit appraisal of these harms. Science is a public good and the prioritizing within, conduct of, generation of, and application of research must soundly address questions about which research is (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  6.  42
    Neuroethics and Nonhuman Animals.L. Syd M. Johnson, Andrew Fenton & Adam Shriver (eds.) - 2020 - Springer.
    This edited volume represents a unique addition to the available literature on animal ethics, animal studies, and neuroethics. Its goal is to expand discussions on animal ethics and neuroethics by weaving together different threads: philosophy of mind and animal minds, neuroscientific study of animal minds, and animal ethics. Neuroethical questions concerning animals’ moral status, animal minds and consciousness, animal pain, and the adequacy of animal models for neuropsychiatric disease have long been topics of debate in philosophy and ethics, and more (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  7.  71
    The Case for Reasonable Accommodation of Conscientious Objections to Declarations of Brain Death.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2016 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 13 (1):105-115.
    Since its inception in 1968, the concept of whole-brain death has been contentious, and four decades on, controversy concerning the validity and coherence of whole-brain death continues unabated. Although whole-brain death is legally recognized and medically entrenched in the United States and elsewhere, there is reasonable disagreement among physicians, philosophers, and the public concerning whether brain death is really equivalent to death as it has been traditionally understood. A handful of states have acknowledged this plurality of viewpoints and enacted “conscience (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  8.  26
    The Sources of Uncertainty in Disorders of Consciousness.L. Syd M. Johnson & Christos Lazaridis - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 9 (2):76-82.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  9.  30
    The Ethics of Uncertainty: Entangled Ethical and Epistemic Risks in Disorders of Consciousness.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2021 - New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
    Disorders of Consciousness (DoCs) raise difficult and complex questions about the value of life for persons with impaired consciousness, the rights of persons unable to make medical decisions, and our social, medical, and ethical obligations to patients whose personhood has frequently been challenged and neglected. Recent neuroscientific discoveries have led to enhanced understanding of the heterogeneity of these disorders, and focused renewed attention on the medical and ethical problem of misdiagnosis. -/- This book examines the entanglement of epistemic and ethical (...)
  10. Paper: The right to die in the minimally conscious state.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (3):175-178.
    The right to die has for decades been recognised for persons in a vegetative state, but there remains controversy about ending life-sustaining medical treatment for persons in the minimally conscious state. The controversy is rooted in assumptions about the moral significance of consciousness, and the value of life for patients who are conscious and not terminally ill. This paper evaluates these assumptions in light of evidence that generates concerns about quality of life in the MCS. It is argued that surrogates (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  11.  28
    Restoring Trust and Requiring Consent in Death by Neurological Criteria.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (6):33-35.
    Volume 20, Issue 6, June 2020, Page 33-35.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  12.  19
    The Road Not Mapped: The Neuroethics Roadmap on Research with Nonhuman Primates.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 11 (3):176-183.
    We have arrived at an inflection point, a moment in history when the sentience, conscious- ness, intelligence, agency, and even the moral agency of many nonhuman animals can no longer be questioned without ignoring centuries of accumulated scientific knowledge. Nowhere is this more true than in our understanding of nonhuman primates (NHPs). A neu- roethics committed to probing the ethical implications of brain research must be able to respond to and anticipate the challenges ahead as brain projects globally prepare to (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  13.  41
    DCD Donors Are Dying, but Not Dead.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (2):28-30.
    As usually understood, the Dead Donor Rule (DDR) for organ donation requires either that (1) the donor is already dead (which legally occurs when death is determined by neurological criteria), and/or that (2) organ procurement does not cause the donor’s death.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  14.  9
    The Routledge Handbook of Neuroethics.L. Syd M. Johnson & Karen S. Rommelfanger (eds.) - 2017 - Routledge.
    _The Routledge Handbook of Neuroethics_ offers the reader an informed view of how the brain sciences are being used to approach, understand, and reinvigorate traditional philosophical questions, as well as how those questions, with the grounding influence of neuroscience, are being revisited beyond clinical and research domains. It also examines how contemporary neuroscience research might ultimately impact our understanding of relationships, flourishing, and human nature. The _Handbook_ features easy-to-follow chapters that appear here for the first time in print and—written by (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  15.  18
    Neuroethics of the Nonhuman.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (3):111-113.
    The Emerging Issues Task Force (Kellmeyer et al. 2019) identifies several important trends and concerns that neuroethics will encounter and grapple with in the com- ing decades. Among these are ethical issues related to the creation of new nonhuman entities, such as artificial intelligence systems, and human origin entities like brain organoids. The task force briefly mentions animal minds and animal rights, to which neuroethics to date has paid scant attention (Buller et al. 2014). As neuroscientific knowledge and knowledge from (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  16. Shifting the Moral Burden: Expanding Moral Status and Moral Agency.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2021 - Health and Human Rights Journal 2 (23):63-73.
    Two problems are considered here. One relates to who has moral status, and the other relates to who has moral responsibility. The criteria for mattering morally have long been disputed, and many humans and nonhuman animals have been considered “marginal cases,” on the contested edges of moral considerability and concern. The marginalization of humans and other species is frequently the pretext for denying their rights, including the rights to health care, to reproductive freedom, and to bodily autonomy. There is broad (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  17.  35
    A Legal Fiction with Real Consequences.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (8):34-36.
  18.  80
    The Impact of American Tackle Football-Related Concussion in Youth Athletes.Frédéric Gilbert & L. Syd M. Johnson - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 2 (4):48-59.
    Postmortem research on the brains of American tackle football players has revealed the presence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a degenerative brain disease caused by repeated head trauma. Repeated concussion is a risk factor for CTE, raising ethical concerns about the long-term effects of concussion on athletes at risk for football-related concussion. Of equal concern is that youth athletes are at increased risk for lasting neurocognitive and developmental deficits that can result in behavioral disturbances and diminished academic performance. In this (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  19.  15
    The Routledge Handbook of Neuroethics.L. Syd M. Johnson & Karen S. Rommelfanger (eds.) - 2017 - Routledge.
    _The Routledge Handbook of Neuroethics_ offers the reader an informed view of how the brain sciences are being used to approach, understand, and reinvigorate traditional philosophical questions, as well as how those questions, with the grounding influence of neuroscience, are being revisited beyond clinical and research domains. It also examines how contemporary neuroscience research might ultimately impact our understanding of relationships, flourishing, and human nature. The _Handbook_ features easy-to-follow chapters that appear here for the first time in print and—written by (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  20. Can they suffer? The ethical priority of quality of life research in disorders of consciousness.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2013 - Bioethica Forum 6 (4):129-136.
    There is ongoing ethical and legal debate about withdrawing life sup- port for patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs). Frequently fu- eling the debate are implicit assumptions about the value of life in a state of impaired consciousness, and persistent uncertainty about the quality of life (QoL) of these persons. Yet there are no validated methods for assessing QoL in this population, and a significant obstacle to doing so is their inability to communicate. Recent neuroscientific discoveries might circumvent that problem (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  21.  66
    The Philosophers’ Brief on Elephant Personhood.Gary Comstock, G. K. D. Crozier, Andrew Fenton, Tyler John, L. Syd M. Johnson, Robert C. Jones, Nathan Nobis, David M. Peña-Guzmán, James Rocha, Bernard E. Rollin & Jeff Sebo - 2020 - New York State Appellate Court.
    We submit this brief in support of the Nonhuman Rights Project’s efforts to secure habeas corpus relief for the elephant named Happy. We reject arbitrary distinctions that deny adequate protections to other animals who share with protected humans relevantly similar vulnerabilities to harms and relevantly similar interests in avoiding such harms. We strongly urge this Court, in keeping with the best philosophical standards of rational judgment and ethical standards of justice, to recognize that, as a nonhuman person, Happy should be (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  22.  60
    Sport-related neurotrauma and neuroprotection: Are Return-to-play protocols justified by paternalism?L. Syd M. Johnson - 2014 - Neuroethics 1 (8):15-26.
    Sport-related neurotrauma annually affects millions of athletes worldwide. The return-to-play protocol (RTP) is the dominant strategy adopted by sports leagues and organizations to manage one type of sport-related neurotrauma: concussions. RTPs establish guidelines for when athletes with concussions are to be removed from competition or practice, and when they can return. RTPs are intended to be neuroprotective, and to protect athletes from some of the harms of sport-related concussions, but there is athlete resistance to and noncompliance with RTPs. This prompts (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  23.  42
    Framing the Debate: Concussion and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.L. Syd M. Johnson, Brad Partridge & Frédéric Gilbert - 2014 - Neuroethics 8 (1):1-4.
    Concussion and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury affect millions of people worldwide. mTBI has been called the “signature injury” of the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, affecting thousands of active duty service men and women, and veterans. Sport-related concussion represents a significant public health problem, with elite and professional athletes, and millions of youth and amateur athletes worldwide suffering concussions annually. These brain injuries have received scant attention from neuroethicists, and the focus of this special issue is on defining the (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  24.  32
    Stable value sets, psychological well-being, and the disability paradox: ramifications for assessing decision making capacity.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 4 (4):24-25.
    The phenomenon whereby severely disabled persons self-report a higher than expected level of subjective well-being is called the “disability paradox.” One explanation for the paradox among brain injury survivors is “response shift,” an adjustment of one’s values, expectations, and perspective in the aftermath of a life-altering, disabling injury. The high level of subjective well-being appears paradoxical when viewed from the perspective of the non-disabled, who presume that those with severe disabilities experience a quality of life so poor that it might (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  25. Developing an objective measure of knowledge of factory farming.Adam Feltz, Jacob N. Caton, Zac Cogley, Mylan Engel, Silke Feltz, Ramona Ilea, L. Syd M. Johnson & Tom Offer-Westort - 2022 - Philosophical Psychology 37 (2).
    Knowledge of human uses of animals is an important, but understudied, aspect of how humans treat animals. We developed a measure of one kind of knowledge of human uses of animals – knowledge of factory farming. Studies 1 (N = 270) and 2 (N = 270) tested an initial battery of objective, true or false statements about factory farming using Item Response Theory. Studies 3 (N = 241) and 4 (N = 278) provided evidence that responses to a 10-item Knowledge (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  26.  17
    Concussion and youth hockey: It’s time to break the cycle.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2011 - Canadian Medical Association Journal 183:921-924.
    Concussion is a common, serious injury in youth ice hockey, affecting up to 25% of players per season by one estimate. • Bodychecking is a major cause of injury and concussion in hockey, yet some Canadian provinces allow players as young as nine years to engage in bodychecking. • Reducing rates of concussion requires eliminating bodychecking for all except elite hockey players aged 16 years and older, as per the recommendations of the Canadian Academy of Sports and Exercise Medicine.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  27. The Philosophers' Brief on Chimpanzee Personhood.Kristin Andrews, Gary Comstock, Gillian Crozier, Sue Donaldson, Andrew Fenton, Tyler John, L. Syd M. Johnson, Robert Jones, Will Kymlicka, Letitia Meynell, Nathan Nobis, David Pena-Guzman, James Rocha, Bernard Rollin, Jeff Sebo, Adam Shriver & Rebecca Walker - 2018 - Proposed Brief by Amici Curiae Philosophers in Support of the Petitioner-Appelllant Court of Appeals, State of New York,.
    In this brief, we argue that there is a diversity of ways in which humans (Homo sapiens) are ‘persons’ and there are no non-arbitrary conceptions of ‘personhood’ that can include all humans and exclude all nonhuman animals. To do so we describe and assess the four most prominent conceptions of ‘personhood’ that can be found in the rulings concerning Kiko and Tommy, with particular focus on the most recent decision, Nonhuman Rights Project, Inc v Lavery.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  28. Implications of recent neuroscientific findings in patients with disorders of consciousness.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2010 - Neuroethics 3 (2):185-196.
    A pressing issue in neuroscience is the high rate of misdiagnosis of disorders of consciousness. As new research on patients with disorders of consciousness has revealed surprising and previously unknown cognitive capacities, the need to develop better and more reliable methods of diagnosing these disorders becomes more urgent. So too the need to expand our ethical and social frameworks for thinking about these patients, to accommodate new concerns that will accompany new revelations. A recent study on trace conditioning and learning (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  29.  23
    Known Unknowns: Diagnosis and Prognosis in Disorders of Consciousness.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 8 (3):145-146.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  30. The Philosophers' Brief in Support of Happy's Appeal.Gary Comstock, Sue Donaldson, Andrew Fenton, Tyler M. John, L. Syd M. Johnson, Robert C. Jones, Will Kymlicka, Letitia M. Meynell, Nathan Nobis, David M. Peña-Guzmán, James Rocha, Bernard Rollin, Jeff Sebo & Adam Shriver - 2021 - New York State Appellate Court.
    We submit this brief in support of the Nonhuman Rights Project’s efforts to secure habeas corpus relief for the elephant named Happy. The Supreme Court, Bronx County, declined to grant habeas corpus relief and order Happy’s transfer to an elephant sanctuary, relying, in part, on previous decisions that denied habeas relief for the NhRP’s chimpanzee clients, Kiko and Tommy. Those decisions use incompatible conceptions of ‘person’ which, when properly understood, are either philosophically inadequate or, in fact, compatible with Happy’s personhood.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  31.  30
    All things considered: Surrogate decision-making on behalf of patients in the minimally conscious state.L. Syd M. Johnson & Kathy L. Cerminara - 2020 - Clinical Ethics 15 (3):111-119.
    The minimally conscious state presents unique ethical, legal, and decision-making challenges because of the combination of diminished awareness, phenomenal experience, and diminished or absent comm...
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32.  73
    Breeders: A Subclass of Women?L. Syd M. Johnson - 2014 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 7 (2):248-253.
  33. Encyclopedia of Bioethics: Abortion II: Contemporary Ethical and Legal Aspects: A. Ethical Perspectives.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2004 - Gale Cengage Learning.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  34.  10
    What Lies Ahead for Neuroethics Scholarship and Education in Light of the Human Brain Projects?Karen S. Rommelfanger & L. Syd M. Johnson - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 6 (1):1-3.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35.  45
    The Ethically Dubious Practice of Thwarting the Redemption of the Condemned.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (10):9 - 10.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 10, Page 9-10, October 2011.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark