John Lachs has been one of the most interesting American philosophers for nearly sixty years. His philosophical, educational, and public activity has been an attempt to show the relevance of philosophy to life. This is the first book dedicated to his thought.
Values, Valuations, and Axiological Norms in Richard Rorty's Neopragmatism sympathetically discusses Richard Rorty's neopragmatist philosophy. This book brings together a range of interpretations and possibilities on a variety of humanistic topics, including philosophy, literature, culture, film, economics, social issues, politics, and more. Skowroński involves the work of philosophers such as Kant, Dewey, Santayana, and Kołakowski as he delves into various philosophical problems using the lens of Rorty’s neopragmatist thought.
The Flame of Eternity provides a reexamination and new interpretation of Nietzsche's philosophy and the central role that the concepts of eternity and time, as he understood them, played in it. According to Krzysztof Michalski, Nietzsche's reflections on human life are inextricably linked to time, which in turn cannot be conceived of without eternity. Eternity is a measure of time, but also, Michalski argues, something Nietzsche viewed first and foremost as a physiological concept having to do with the body. (...) The body ages and decays, involving us in a confrontation with our eventual death. It is in relation to this brute fact that we come to understand eternity and the finitude of time. Nietzsche argues that humanity has long regarded the impermanence of our life as an illness in need of curing. It is this "pathology" that Nietzsche called nihilism. Arguing that this insight lies at the core of Nietzsche's philosophy as a whole, Michalski seeks to explain and reinterpret Nietzsche's thought in light of it. Michalski maintains that many of Nietzsche's main ideas--including his views on love, morality (beyond good and evil), the will to power, overcoming, the suprahuman (or the overman, as it is infamously referred to), the Death of God, and the myth of the eternal return--take on new meaning and significance when viewed through the prism of eternity. (shrink)
The purpose of _Towards a Revival of Analytical Philosophy of History: Around Paul A. Roth's Vision of Historical Sciences_ is to discuss the revival of analytical philosophy of history proposed by Paul A. Roth. The authors characterize the status of philosophy of history and discuss its ontological, epistemological and explanatory dimensions.
The present paper deals with the problem of the digital-culture-public-philosophy as a possible response of those philosophers who see the need to face the challenges of the Internet and the visual culture that constitutes an important part of the Internet cultural space. It claims that this type of philosophy would have to, among many other things, modify and broaden philosophers’ traditional mode of communication. It would have to expand its textual, or mainly text-related, communication mode into the aesthetic and visual (...) communication mode. More precisely, philosophers would have to learn how to aestheticize and visualize their ethical narratives by using some digital tools – YouTube clips for example. (shrink)
We expose the main ideas, concepts and results about Jaśkowski's discussive logic, and apply that logic to the concept of pragmatic truth and to the Dalla Chiara-di Francia view of the foundations of physics.
In this paper, I present main theses of Aquinas Way to God: The Proof in the De Ente et Essentia by Gaven Kerr. The book in question is a contemporary interpretation and defence of Thomas Aquinas’s argument for the existence of God, based on the real distinction between the essence of the thing and its act of being. I stress the fact that Kerr underlines the metaphysical character of Thomas’s argument and the role of participation in Aquinas’s understanding of the (...) act of being. In the last part of the article, I discuss Kerr’s interpretation of Aquinas’s argument for the real distinction between essence and an act of being, as well as Kerr’s own argument. These arguments are of particular importance since they provide metaphysical presuppositions for the argument for God’s existence considered in Kerr’s book. As for the first argument, I argue that the first part of Aquinas’s argumentation pertains to the real order rather than conceptual. Concerning the second argument, I attempt to highlight the difficulties of Kerr’s understanding of Thomist esse as a principle of the existence of a thing. (shrink)
This article considers the role of the spectator's imagination in their engagement with the sensory world of cinema. I argue that the spectator's mental images, far from being overwhelmed by those on the screen, are an important element of a complex interaction with the sensations offered and indicated by the film. I develop these ideas through a reading of Krzysztof Kieślowski's Trois Couleurs: Blanc, in which hairdresser Karol is himself unusually dependent on the mental image. This preoccupation of the (...) film directs us to question the parallel images generated by the spectator, and the ways in which they both alienate us from his subjective experience and provoke our sympathies. (shrink)
The aim of the article is the discussion on similarities between Popperian philosophy of science and French conventionalism. I start with describing Popper's view on Duhem's and Poincaré's philosophy, and I point mistakes in interpretation committed by author of Logik der Forschung. The general conclusion from this study consists in drawing attention to significant similarity between Popperian and classical conventionalism ideal of scientific knowledge. The main difference I see in Popper's paradoxical stance on the problem of existence of experimentum crucis.
In the present paper, the author looks at the political dimension of some trends in the visual arts within twentieth-century avant-garde groups through George Santayana’s idea of vital liberty. Santayana accused the avant-gardists of social and political escapism, and of becoming unintentionally involved in secondary issues. In his view, the emphasis they placed on the medium and on treating it as an aim in itself, not, as it should be, as a transmitter through which a stimulating relationship with the environment (...) can be had, was accompanied by a focus on fragments of life and on parts of existence, and, on the other hand, by a de facto rejection of ontology and cosmology as being crucial to understanding life and the place of human beings in the universe. The avant-gardists became involved in political life by responding excessively to the events of the time, instead of to the everlasting problems that are the human lot. (shrink)
Nelson Goodman’s theory of symbol systems expounded in his Languages of Art has been frequently criticized on many counts. Yet it exerts a strong influence and is treated as one of the major twentieth-century theories on the subject.While many of Goodman’s controversial theses are criticized, the technical notions he used to formulate them seem to have been treated as neutral tools. One such technical notion is that of the density of symbol systems. This serves to distinguish linguistic symbols from pictorial (...) representations and is a crucial part of Goodman’s explanation of what constitutes aesthetic experience. Thus its significance for Goodman’s theory is fundamental.The aim of this paper is a detailed, logical analysis of this notion. It turns out that Goodman’s definition is highly problematic and cannot be applied to symbol systems in the way Goodman envisaged. To conclude, Goodman’s theory is problematic not just because of its controversial theses but also because of logical problems with the technical notions used at its very core. Hence the controversial claims are not simply contestable, but inaccurately expressed. (shrink)
Elementy prawa Thomasa Hobbesa a jego zarzuty trzecie do Medytacji Kartezjusza W niniejszym artykule staram się przedstawić oś sporu pomiędzy Hobbesem i Descartesem na gruncie Medytacji, oraz jego najważniejsze momenty. Skupiam się przede wszystkim na analizie najważniejszych postawionych przez Hobbesa zarzutów i rekonstrukcji wybranych jego poglądów, które wówczas można było odnaleźć jedynie w The Elements of Law, Natural and Politic. Dzieło to było jego pierwszą większą i spójną próbą wypowiedzi na zagadnienia teoriopoznawcze i społeczne; staram się bronić tezy, że zrozumienie (...) treści Zarzutów wymaga znajomości owego dzieła. Dojrzała forma dzieła świadczy o tym, że Anglik już wówczas miał swoje poglądy przemyślane i mógł czuć się dość pewnie formułując z ich perspektywy uwagi krytyczne względem filozofii Descartes’a, której jak się wydaje mógł on niejedno zawdzięczać. (shrink)
In The Inoperative Community Jean-Luc Nancy suggests that his conception of speech as the cornerstone of community can be likened to the image of two Inuit women engaging in traditional vocal games (katajjaq). This article (1) elucidates this connection through the analysis of ethnographic and ethnomusicological data on katajjaq; (2) shows how the similarity of this image to that of two resonating lyres present in the works of the Renaissance philosopher Marsilio Ficino can be used to understand Nancy’s political philosophy (...) as a discussion with the (neo)platonic tradition of harmony, to which Nancy opposes his own concept of resonance. (shrink)
Bright-spot amplitude anomalies have been an attractive exploration target in the Niger Delta since the early 1970s, and the bright-spot play can now be considered mature. There is a need to extend the bright-spot exploration success to include other types of direct hydrocarbon indicators such as dim spots or polarity reversals. Several true dim spots have been identified in the basin, calibrated with well data and characterized in detail to enable a systematic analysis of the geologic factors that produce the (...) dim-spot response. Dim spots in deeper stratigraphic intervals reflect a high degree of compaction and quartz cementation and are characterized by minimal fluid signal and commonly very low detectability. Robust and detectable dim spots have been identified in shallow marine/deltaic systems in the Niger Delta in shallower stratigraphic intervals with a relatively strong fluid signal. The key factor promoting a robust dim-spot response is the presence of acoustically soft, clay-rich shales as the bounding lithology. The variability of the bounding shales in the Niger Delta is stratigraphically constrained and, to some degree, predictable. The change from hard mudstones to soft claystones, which can be recognized in seismic data, may result in a transition from bright to dim spots, possibly taking place within the same stratigraphic interval and over short distances. Many clastic basins globally follow a similar stratigraphic and diagenetic evolution; thus, the Niger Delta example may be a good analog for dim-spot plays elsewhere. (shrink)
The proposal that probabilistic inference and unconscious hypothesis testing are central to information processing in the brain has been steadily gaining ground in cognitive neuroscience and associated fields. One popular version of this proposal is the new theoretical framework of predictive processing or prediction error minimization, which couples unconscious hypothesis testing with the idea of ‘active inference’ and claims to offer a unified account of perception and action. Here we will consider one outstanding issue that still looms large at the (...) core of the PEM framework: the lack of a clear criterion for distinguishing conscious states from unconscious ones. In order to fulfill the promise of becoming a unifying framework for describing and modeling cognition, PEM needs to be able to differentiate between conscious and unconscious mental states or processes. We will argue that one currently popular view, that the contents of conscious experience are determined by the ‘winning hypothesis’, falls short of fully accounting for conscious experience. It ignores the possibility that some states of a system can control that system’s behavior even though they are apparently not conscious. What follows from this is that the ‘winning hypothesis’ view does not provide a complete account of the difference between conscious and unconscious states in the probabilistic brain. We show how this problem for the received view can be resolved by augmenting PEM with Daniel Dennett’s multiple drafts model of consciousness. This move is warranted by the similar roles that attention and internal competition play in both the PEM framework and the multiple drafts model. (shrink)
One position on the interpretation of purposefulness adopted by Neo-Thomists says that the principle of purposefulness has universal significance, because it concerns every entity that can be defined by the term “action”: i.e. every entity which exists and can only be known through some form of action. Entities work to preserve their existence, and their pursuit of survival seems to be the purpose of their actions. So, if entities are already working, then they must also be working purposefully. We can (...) encounter philosophers who hold that every action is purposeful in the representatives of the Lublin School, such as M.A. Krąpiec OP, A. Maryniarczyk, S. Mazierski. All three of these have based their views about purposefulness on Aristotle’s teleological considerations. The present article will examine how the views of the abovementioned scholars on teleology, based on Aristotle’s philosophy of purposefulness from 2000 years ago, explain reality. (shrink)
My paper is a reaction to polemic of Tomasz Sieczkowski "Discrimination nonetheless. A reply to Krzysztof Saja” [ICF "Diametros" (36) 2013] that he wrote against my paper "Discrimination against same-sex couples" [ICF “Diametros" (34) 2012]. The purpose of the paper is to refute Sieczkowski’s objections that rely on wrong interpretation of the structure of my main argument. I will describe the proper course of the reasoning that I have expressed in the first article and undermine the Sieczkowski’s proposal to (...) justify gay marriages by referring to values such as dignity, freedom and equality. (shrink)
Artykuł ma na celu przedstawienie poglądów Kartezjusza dotyczących związków między postrzeżeniami zmysłowymi a ideami nabytymi. W związku z tym, że zagadnienia te były przez autora Medytacji opracowywane przez wiele lat i ujmowane z odmiennych perspektyw, zestawiam tutaj poszczególne ich ujęcia z najważniejszych pism. Analizy przeprowadzone są zgodnie z chronologią powstawania dzieł, dlatego autor rozpoczyna je od pism fizykalnych, przez metafizyczne i dotyczące anatomii człowieka, by skończyć na psychologicznych. Takie ujęcie tematu pozwala ukazać zmianę podejścia Kartezjusza do omawianego problemu od jego (...) naturalistycznego stanowiska do immanentyzmu. A jednocześnie umożliwia zasygnalizowanie istnienia nieusuwalnego na gruncie jego filozofii rozdarcia między opisywanym przezeń rozciągłym fizykalnym światem a treścią umysłu. (shrink)
Hobson & Friston (2014) outline a synthesis of Hobson's work on dreaming and consciousness with Friston’s work on the free energy principle and predictive coding. Whilst we are sympathetic with their claims about the function of dreaming and its relationship to consciousness, we argue that their endorsement of the Cartesian theatre metaphor is neither necessary nor desirable. Furthermore, if it were necessary then this endorsement would undermine their positive claims, as the Cartesian theatre metaphor is widely regarded as unsustainable. We (...) demonstrate this point and then develop an alternative formulation of their position that does not require the Cartesian theatre metaphor. Our positive goal is to clarify Hobson & Friston’s confusing usage of philosophical terminology, replacing it where possible with the more transparent language of the forward models framework. This will require some modifications to their account, which as it stands is philosophically and empirically unsustainable. (shrink)
Skorulski fut un des plus eminents professeurs de philosophie a l'Academie de Vihia au XVIIIe siecle et auteur de deux ouvrages philosophiques. Plus tard, il fut recteur de trois colleges des jesuites, provincial des jesuites en Lituanie et ensuite recteur de l'Academie de Viina. Cette dissertation constitue une breve monographie de Skorulski en tant que philosophe. Elle contient sa biographie, la description de ses ouvrages et la caracteristique de sa philosophie. La brochure contient en particuher: Conceptions philosophiques: Logique. Metaphysique. Physique (...) generale. Physique particulifere. Psychologie. Rapport au cartesianisme. Rapport a l'heliocentrisme. Conclusion. Supplements: 1. Lettre d'Antoine Skorulski au roi Stanislas Auguste Poniatowski, 1773. 2. Reponse du roi Stanislas Auguste Poniatowski. 3. Fragments du livre Commentariolum philosophiae, traduits en polonais. (shrink)
In this article, I discuss the nature, causes and effects of the crisis of civilization which we can observe for over forty years. This crisis affects social order, with its economic, institutional and demographic dimensions, as well as the culture and the social structure. Here, I am particularly dealing with the question of human person and their relations with others, as well as the humanities. I show globalization, the growth of cancerous mass culture and secularization as a background of the (...) crisis of civilization. In this context, I try to show the importance of Chiara Lubich and her work. (shrink)