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Kok-Chor Tan
University of Pennsylvania
  1. An Ethical Framework for Global Vaccine Allocation.Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Govind Persad, Adam Kern, Allen E. Buchanan, Cecile Fabre, Daniel Halliday, Joseph Heath, Lisa M. Herzog, R. J. Leland, Ephrem T. Lemango, Florencia Luna, Matthew McCoy, Ole F. Norheim, Trygve Ottersen, G. Owen Schaefer, Kok-Chor Tan, Christopher Heath Wellman, Jonathan Wolff & Henry S. Richardson - 2020 - Science 1:DOI: 10.1126/science.abe2803.
    In this article, we propose the Fair Priority Model for COVID-19 vaccine distribution, and emphasize three fundamental values we believe should be considered when distributing a COVID-19 vaccine among countries: Benefiting people and limiting harm, prioritizing the disadvantaged, and equal moral concern for all individuals. The Priority Model addresses these values by focusing on mitigating three types of harms caused by COVID-19: death and permanent organ damage, indirect health consequences, such as health care system strain and stress, as well as (...)
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  2. Justice Without Borders: Cosmopolitanism, Nationalism, and Patriotism.Kok-Chor Tan - 2004 - Cambridge University Press.
    The cosmopolitan idea of justice is commonly accused of not taking seriously the special ties and commitments of nationality and patriotism. This is because the ideal of impartial egalitarianism, which is central to the cosmopolitan view, seems to be directly opposed to the moral partiality inherent to nationalism and patriotism. In this book, Kok-Chor Tan argues that cosmopolitan justice, properly understood, can accommodate and appreciate nationalist and patriotic commitments, setting limits for these commitments without denying their moral significance. This book (...)
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  3. A Defense of Luck Egalitarianism.Kok-Chor Tan - 2008 - Journal of Philosophy 105 (11):665-690.
  4.  72
    Justice, Institutions, and Luck: The Site, Ground, and Scope of Equality.Kok-Chor Tan - 2012 - Oxford University Press.
    Kok-Chor Tan addresses three key questions in political philosophy: Where does distributive equality matter? Why does it matter? And among whom does it matter? He argues for an institutional site for egalitarian justice, a luck-egalitarian ideal of why equality matters, and a global scope for distributive justice.
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  5.  81
    Justice and Personal Pursuits.Kok-Chor Tan - 2004 - Journal of Philosophy 101 (7):331-362.
  6.  10
    On the Ethics of Vaccine Nationalism: The Case for the Fair Priority for Residents Framework.Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Allen Buchanan, Shuk Ying Chan, Cécile Fabre, Daniel Halliday, R. J. Leland, Florencia Luna, Matthew S. McCoy, Ole F. Norheim, G. Owen Schaefer, Kok-Chor Tan & Christopher Heath Wellman - 2021 - Ethics and International Affairs 35 (4):543-562.
    COVID-19 vaccines are likely to be scarce for years to come. Many countries, from India to the U.K., have demonstrated vaccine nationalism. What are the ethical limits to this vaccine nationalism? Neither extreme nationalism nor extreme cosmopolitanism is ethically justifiable. Instead, we propose the fair priority for residents framework, in which governments can retain COVID-19 vaccine doses for their residents only to the extent that they are needed to maintain a noncrisis level of mortality while they are implementing reasonable public (...)
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  7. The Duty to Protect.Kok-Chor Tan - 2006 - In Terry Nardin & Melissa Williams (eds.), Humanitarian Intervention. New York University Press.
    Debates on humanitarian intervention have focused on the permissibility question. In this paper, I ask whether intervention can be a moral duty, and if it is a moral duty, how this duty is to be distributed and assigned. With respect to the first question, I contemplate whether an intervention that has met the "permissibility" condition is also for this reason necessary and obligatory. If so, the gap between permission and obligation closes in the case of humanitarian intervention. On the second (...)
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  8.  29
    Toleration, Diversity, and Global Justice.Kok-Chor Tan - 2000 - Pennsylvania State University Press.
    The "comprehensive liberalism" defended in this book offers an alternative to the narrower "political liberalism" associated with the writings of John Rawls. By arguing against making tolerance as fundamental a value as individual autonomy, and extending the reach of liberalism to global society, it opens the way for dealing more adequately with problems of human rights and economic inequality in a world of cultural pluralism.
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  9. Colonialism, Reparations and Global Justice.Kok-Chor Tan - 2007 - In Jon Miller & Rahul Kumar (eds.), Reparations: Interdisciplinary Inquiries. Oxford University Press. pp. 280--306.
  10.  32
    Crisis Nationalism: To What Degree Is National Partiality Justifiable During a Global Pandemic?Eilidh Beaton, Mike Gadomski, Dylan Manson & Kok-Chor Tan - 2021 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 24 (1):285-300.
    Are countries especially entitled, if not obliged, to prioritize the interests or well-being of their own citizens during a global crisis, such as a global pandemic? We call this partiality for compatriots in times of crisis “crisis nationalism”. Vaccine nationalism is one vivid example of crisis nationalism during the COVID-19 pandemic; so is the case of the US government’s purchasing a 3-month supply of the global stock of the antiviral Remdesivir for domestic use. Is crisis nationalism justifiable at all, and, (...)
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  11.  99
    Liberal Toleration in Rawls's Law of Peoples.Kok-Chor Tan - 1998 - Ethics 108 (2):276-295.
  12. What Are the Obligations of Pharmaceutical Companies in a Global Health Emergency?Ezekiel Emanuel, Allen Buchanan, Shuk Ying Chan, Fabre Cecile, Daniel Halliday, Joseph Heath, Lisa Maria Herzog, R. J. Leland, Matthew McCoy, Ole F. Norheim, Carla Saenz, G. Owen Schaefer, Kok-Chor Tan, Christopher Heath Wellman, Jonathan Wolff & Govind Persad - 2021 - Lancet 398 (10304):1015–1020.
    All parties involved in researching, developing, manufacturing, and distributing COVID-19 vaccines need guidance on their ethical obligations. We focus on pharmaceutical companies' obligations because their capacities to research, develop, manufacture, and distribute vaccines make them uniquely placed for stemming the pandemic. We argue that an ethical approach to COVID-19 vaccine production and distribution should satisfy four uncontroversial principles: optimising vaccine production, including development, testing, and manufacturing; fair distribution; sustainability; and accountability. All parties' obligations should be coordinated and mutually consistent. For (...)
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  13. Luck, Institutions, and Global Distributive Justice.Kok-Chor Tan - 2011 - European Journal of Political Theory 10 (3):394-421.
    Luck egalitarianism provides one powerful way of defending global egalitarianism. The basic luck egalitarian idea that persons ought not to be disadvantaged compared to others on account of his or her bad luck seems to extend naturally to the global arena, where random factors such as persons’ place of birth and the natural distribution of the world’s resources do affect differentially their life chances. Yet luck egalitarianism as an ideal, as well as its global application, has come under severe criticisms (...)
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  14. Liberal Nationalism and Cosmopolitan Justice.Kok-Chor Tan - 2002 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 5 (4):431-461.
    Many liberals have argued that a cosmopolitan perspective on global justice follows from the basic liberal principles of justice. Yet, increasingly, it is also said that intrinsic to liberalism is a doctrine of nationalism. This raises a potential problem for the liberal defense of cosmopolitan justice as it is commonly believed that nationalism and cosmopolitanism are conflicting ideals. If this is correct, there appears to be a serious tension within liberal philosophy itself, between its cosmopolitan aspiration on the one hand, (...)
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  15. The Problem of Decent Peoples.Kok-Chor Tan - 2006 - In Rex Martin & David Reidy (eds.), Rawls's Law of Peoples: A Realistic Utopia? Blackwell.
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  16. The Contours of Toleration: A Relational Account.Kok-Chor Tan - 2018 - In Nurdane Şimsek, Stephen Snyder & Manuel Knoll (eds.), New Perspectives on Distributive Justice: Deep Disagreements, Pluralism, and the Problem of Consensus. De Gruyter. pp. 385-402.
    I outline what I call a relational account of toleration. This relational account helps explain the apparent paradox of toleration in that it involves two competing moral stances, of acceptance and disapproval, towards the tolerated. It also helps clarify the way toleration is a normative ideal, and not a position one is forced into out of the practical need to accommodate or accept. Specifically, toleration is recommended out of respect for that which the tolerant agent also disapproves of. This combination (...)
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  17. Kantian Ethics and Global Justice.Kok-Chor Tan - 1997 - Social Theory and Practice 23 (1):53-73.
    Kant divides moral duties into duties of virtue and duties of justice. Duties of virtue are imperfect duties, the fulfillment of which is left to agent discretion and so cannot be externally demanded of one. Duties of justice, while perfect, seem to be restricted to negative duties (of nondeception and noncoercion). It may seem then that Kant's moral philosophy cannot meet the demands of global justice. I argue, however, that Kantian justice when applied to the social and historical realities of (...)
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  18.  85
    National Responsibility, Reparations and Distributive Justice.Kok-Chor Tan - 2008 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 11 (4):449-464.
  19. Rights, Harm, and Institutions.Kok-Chor Tan - 2010 - In Alison M. Jaggar (ed.), Thomas Pogge and His Critics. Polity.
  20.  25
    Obligations in a Global Health Emergency - Authors’ Reply.Ezekiel Emanuel, Cecile Fabre, Lisa M. Herzog, Ole F. Norheim, Govind Persad, G. Owen Schaefer & Kok-Chor Tan - 2021 - Lancet 398 (10316):2072.
  21. The Demands of Justice and National Allegiances.Kok-Chor Tan - 2005 - In Gillian Brock & Harry Brighouse (eds.), The Political Philosophy of Cosmopolitanism. Cambridge University Press.
     
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  22.  35
    Boundary Making and Equal Concern.Kok-Chor Tan - 2005 - Metaphilosophy 36 (1‐2):50-67.
  23.  28
    The Law of Peoples: With the 'Idea of Public Reason Revisited'.Kok-Chor Tan - 2001 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 31 (1):113-132.
  24.  13
    What is This Thing Called Global Justice?Kok-Chor Tan - 2017 - Routledge.
    _What is this thing called Global Justice?_ explores the core topics covered on the increasingly popular undergraduate modules on global justice including: world poverty economic inequality nationalism human rights humanitarian intervention immigration global democracy and governance climate change international justice. Centered on real world problems, this textbook helps students to understand that global justice is not only a field of philosophical inquiry but also of practical importance. Each chapter concludes with a helpful summary of the main ideas discussed, study questions (...)
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  25. The Boundary of Justice and The Justice of Boundaries.Kok-Chor Tan - 2006 - Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence 29 (2):319-344.
    Two classes of arguments are often deployed by the anti-global egalitarians against attempts to universalize the demands of distributive equality. One are arguments attempting to show that global egalitarians have misconstrued the reasons for why equality matters domestically, and hence have wrongly extended these reasons to the global arena. These arguments hold that the boundary of distributive justice is effectively coextensive with the boundaries of state. The other are arguments that attempt to show that membership in political societies generates special (...)
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  26. International Toleration: Rawlsian Versus Cosmopolitan.Kok-Chor Tan - 2005 - Leiden Journal of International Law 18 (4):685-710.
  27.  17
    Nationalisme libéral et internationalisme égalitaire.Kok-Chor Tan - 2007 - Philosophiques 34 (1):113-131.
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  28.  90
    Patriotic Obligations.Kok-Chor Tan - 2003 - The Monist 86 (3):434-453.
    It is commonly believed that people have special obligations to their compatriots that are both distinct from and stronger than the general duties they owe to individuals at large. Thus, it is often thought that these special obligations may legitimately limit what global distributive justice can demand of people, including those from well-off countries. Henceforth by special obligations, I mean specifically special obligations to com- patriots, which I will also call patriotic obligations, or patriotism for short.
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  29.  20
    Equality and Special Concern.Kok-Chor Tan - 2010 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 40 (S1):73-98.
  30.  20
    Justice Between Sites of Justice.Kok-Chor Tan - 2016 - Law and Philosophy 35 (3):291-311.
    Michael Blake argues that states are the primary sites of justice for persons and that the function of international justice is to ensure that states interact with each other in ways that preserve the capacity of each to realize justice for their own members. This paper will argue that justice among states requires more of states than that they preserve and maintain each other's capacity as primary sites of justice. Justice among states will require some justification, as well, of the (...)
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  31.  67
    Why Global Justice Matters.Kok-Chor Tan - 2014 - Journal of Global Ethics 10 (2):128-134.
    Why does global justice as a philosophical inquiry matter? We know that the world is plainly unjust in many ways and we know that something ought to be done about this without, it seems, the need of a theory of global justice. Accordingly, philosophical inquiry into global justice comes across to some as an intellectual luxury that seems disconnected from the real world. I want to suggest, however, that philosophical inquiry into global justice is necessary if we want to address (...)
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  32.  52
    Cosmopolitan Impartiality and Patriotic Partiality.Kok-Chor Tan - 2005 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 35 (sup1):165-192.
  33. Enforcing Cosmopolitan Justice: The Problem of Intervention.Kok-Chor Tan - 2010 - In Roland Pierik & Wouter Werner (eds.), Cosmopolitanism in Context. Cambridge University Press.
  34.  18
    Just Conservation: The Question of Justice in Global Wildlife Conservation.Kok-Chor Tan - 2021 - Philosophy Compass 16 (2):e12720.
    While there is a significant amount of discussion in philosophy on the ethics of wildlife conservation, there is relatively less discussion on the justice of conservation. By the “justice of conservation”, I mean the question of what we owe to fellow human beings with respect to conservation goals and practices. The goal of this paper is two-fold: first to highlight the justice-gap in the morality of wildlife conservation and, second, to frame and propose two dimensions of global conservational justice for (...)
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  35.  18
    Sufficiency, Equality and the Consequences of Global Coercion.Kok-Chor Tan - unknown
    In some discussions on global distributive justice, it is argued that the factthat the state exercises coercive authority over its own citizens explains whythe state has egalitarian distributive obligations to its own but not to otherindividuals in the world at large. Two recent works make the case that the globalorder is indeed coercive in a morally significant way for generating certainglobal distributive obligations. Nicole Hassoun argues that the coercivecharacter of the global order gives rise to global duties of humanitarian aid.Laura (...)
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  36.  95
    Two Conceptions of Liberal Global Toleration.Kok-Chor Tan - 2011 - The Monist 94 (4):489-505.
  37. Kantian Ethics and Global Justice.Kok-Chor Tan - 1997 - Social Theory and Practice 23 (1):53-73.
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  38. Global Democracy: International, Not Cosmopolitan.Kok-Chor Tan - 2008 - In Deen Chatterjee (ed.), Democracy in a Global World. Rowman&Littlefield.
  39. A Reply to Halliday.Kok-Chor Tan - 2013 - Utilitas 25 (1):133-135.
    ExtractI must first thank Daniel Halliday for his incisive but fair review essay of my book. Regretfully, I can only consider, and only in outline at that, some of his well-taken questions.Send article to KindleTo send this article to your Kindle, first ensure [email protected] is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. (...)
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  40. Poverty and Global Distributive Justice.Kok-Chor Tan - 2010 - In Duncan Bell (ed.), Ethics and World Politics. Oxford University Press. pp. 256--73.
     
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  41.  6
    Global Ethics or Universal Ethics?Kok-Chor Tan, Steve Coutinho, Zachary Penman, Saranindranath Tagore & Inés Valdez - 2021 - Journal of World Philosophies 6 (1):99-138.
    Kok-Chor Tan argues that cosmopolitan liberalism can serve as a means to implement the ideal of moral universalism, if one sufficiently distinguishes non-toleration from intervention and moral universalism from dogmatism. In a further move, Tan claims that such an understanding of cosmopolitan liberalism can work to mutually regulate the behavior of states in the global arena. Tan’s co-panelists engage different aspects of his vision. Steve Coutinho underscores that changes within cultures do not typically result from a dialogue across cultures but (...)
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  42. The Demands of Global Justice.Kok-Chor Tan - 2013 - Oeconomia 13 (4):665-679.
    This review essay discusses recent books by Nicole Hassoun, Laura Valentini and Pablo Gilabert. Topics I examine that are stimulated by these books include the distinction between global egalitarian obligation and humanitarian duties, the role of coercion in justifying global obligations, and the possibility of a third position that falls between humanitarianism and cosmopolitan egalitarianism.
     
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  43. Liberal Equality : What, Where, and Why.Kok-Chor Tan - 2008 - In Cheryl Misak (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of American Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
  44.  56
    Human Rights and Human Well-Being.Kok-Chor Tan - 2012 - Philosophical Review 121 (4):630-633.
  45.  59
    Global Justice and Global Relations.Kok-Chor Tan - 2010 - Social Theory and Practice 36 (3):499-514.
    In Globalizing Justice, Richard Miller offers a novel understanding of the grounds and scope of the demands of global justice. Miller argues that our duties to the global poor should be conceived relationally, that is, as deriving from the very complex and substantial relationships that we, members of rich countries, have with members of poor countries. In this review essay, I ask whether a relational approach to justice is necessary for the kinds of global duties Miller wishes to advance (that (...)
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  46. Democracy in a Global World: Human Rights and Political Participation in the 21st Century.David A. Crocker, Carol C. Gould, James Nickel, David Reidy, Martha C. Nussbaum, Andrew Oldenquist, Kok-Chor Tan, William McBride & Frank Cunningham (eds.) - 2007 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    The chapters in this volume deal with timely issues regarding democracy in theory and in practice in today's globalized world. Authored by leading political philosophers of our time, they appear here for the first time. The essays challenge and defend assumptions about the role of democracy as a viable political and legal institution in response to globalization, keeping in focus the role of rights at the normative foundations of democracy in a pluralistic world.
     
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  47. David Ingram, Group Rights: Reconciling Equality and Difference. [REVIEW]Kok-Chor Tan - 2000 - Philosophy in Review 20:418-420.
  48. Hent De Vries and Samuel Weber, Eds., Violence, Identity, and Self-Determination Reviewed By.Kok-Chor Tan - 1999 - Philosophy in Review 19 (1):9-11.
  49. Onora O'Neill, Bounds of Justice. [REVIEW]Kok-Chor Tan - 2001 - Philosophy in Review 21:366-368.
     
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  50. Reasonably Radical: Deliberative Liberalism and the Politics of Identity. [REVIEW]Kok-Chor Tan - 2003 - Dialogue 42 (2):403-404.
    In this well-written and carefully argued book, Anthony Simon Laden proposes a theory of “deliberative liberalism” that reconciles liberalism with the politics of identity. Liberalism is often presented as a “reasonable” theory that emphasizes reason, reform over revolution, a certain reverence for existing structure, and so on, whereas the politics of identity is “radical” in that it calls for fundamental structural changes and is usually suspicious of reason as “the hidden force of the authority of the status quo”. To that (...)
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