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Prof. Dr. Klaus Hentschel
Universität Stuttgart
  1.  7
    Interpretationen und Fehlinterpretationen der speziellen und der allgemein Relativitätstheorie durch Zeitgenossen Albert Einsteins.Klaus Hentschel - 2012 - Birkhäuser Basel.
    Die Relativitatstheorien (RT) Einsteins gehoren zu den meistdiskutierten Theorien der Physik des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts. Nach der Formulie­ rung der sog. 'speziellen Relativitatstheorie' (SRT) im Jahr 1905 nah­ men zunachst nur einige Spezialisten von ihr Kenntnis, bis mit ungefiihr fiinf Jahren Verspatung dann auch zunehmend Nicht-Physiker sich mit ihr zu beschaftigen begannen, angeregt durch populiirwissenschaftliche, all­ gemeinverstiindliche 'Einfiihrungen' von Kollegen Einsteins wie z. B. Paul Langevin in Frankreich oder Max von Laue in Deutschland. Diese Pha­ senverschiebung zwischen fachwissenschaftlichem Ausbau der Theorie (...)
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  2.  32
    Compendium of Quantum Physics: Concepts, Experiments, History and Philosophy.Daniel Greenberger, Klaus Hentschel & Friedel Weinert (eds.) - 2009 - Springer.
    Concepts, Experiments, History and Philosophy Daniel Greenberger, Klaus Hentschel, Friedel Weinert. 5. W. Hittorf, Ueber die Elektricit ̈atsleitung der Gase , Annalen der Physik 136, 1–31, 197–234 (1869); Engl. transl. On the Conduction of ...
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  3.  11
    Photons: The History and Mental Models of Light Quanta.Klaus Hentschel - 2018 - Cham: Springer Verlag.
    This book focuses on the gradual formation of the concept of ‘light quanta’ or ‘photons’, as they have usually been called in English since 1926. The great number of synonyms that have been used by physicists to denote this concept indicates that there are many different mental models of what ‘light quanta’ are: simply finite, ‘quantized packages of energy’ or ‘bullets of light’? ‘Atoms of light’ or ‘molecules of light’? ‘Light corpuscles’ or ‘quantized waves’? Singularities of the field or spatially (...)
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  4.  54
    Einstein's attitude towards experiments: Testing relativity theory 1907–1927.Klaus Hentschel - 1991 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 23 (4):593-624.
  5.  22
    Die Korrespondenz Einstein-Schlick: Zum Verhältnis der Physik zur Philosophie.Klaus Hentschel - 1986 - Annals of Science 43 (5):475-488.
    ZusammenfassungEs wird die wechselseitige Beeinflussung Einsteins und Schlicks anhand ihrer ab 1915 erhaltenen Korrespondenz in vier Schwerpunkten untersucht. Schlicks Selbstverständnis als Philosoph wie auch einzelne Themata seines Denkens (wie etwa das der Einfachheit) bildeten sich mit seiner Auseinandersetzung um die Relativitätstheorie Einsteins heraus, deren systematische Explikation durch Schlick auf Einsteins Beifall stieß. Als die Ursache für das Auseinanderdriften beider Denker nach 1925 werden fundamentale Differenzen im Wirklichkeitsverständnis und in der Interpretation des Kausalitätsprinzips aufgewiesen, die beide auch zu komplementären Formen der (...)
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  6.  64
    On Feyerabend's Version of 'Mach's Theory of Research and its Relation to Einstein'.Klaus Hentschel - 1985 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 16 (4):387.
  7.  6
    Erwin Finlay Freundlich and Testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity.Klaus Hentschel - 1994 - Archive for History of Exact Sciences 47 (2):143-201.
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  8.  16
    Grebe/Bachems photometrische Analyse der Linienprofile und die Gravitations-Rotverschiebung: 1919 bis 1922.Klaus Hentschel - 1992 - Annals of Science 49 (1):21-46.
    An effort of proponents of relativity theory to find evidence for the so-called gravitational red-shift of spectral lines as one of the experimental consequences of Einstein's generalized theory of relativity is reconsidered with reference to hitherto unpublished documents. It is shown how much interest Albert Einstein in fact took, around 1920, in the data analysis of Leonhard Grebe and Albert Bachem, who tried to explain why most earlier efforts to find the gravitational red-shift had failed. They carefully measured the line (...)
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  9.  9
    A periodization of research technologies and of the emergency of genericity.Klaus Hentschel - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 52 (Part B):223-233.
  10.  8
    Von der Werkstoffforschung zur Materials Science.Klaus Hentschel - 2011 - NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin 19 (1):5-40.
    The manipulation of materials, and to some extent also their systematic classification, form an integral part of the skills and culture of all societies. Yet it took long for proper sciences to develop out of many processing procedures, tapping the accumulated knowledge about specific material characteristics. In the late 20th century an overarching science of workable materials emerged: materials science. This concept and term originated from major boosts in materials research during WWII and the Cold War, first financed by the (...)
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  11.  29
    Die Korrespondenz Duhem-Mach: Zur ‘Modellbeladenheit’ von Wissenschaftsgeschichte.Klaus Hentschel - 1988 - Annals of Science 45 (1):73-91.
    Die Korrespondenz der beiden Physiker und Wissenschaftshistoriker Ernst Mach und Pierre Duhem ist weitgehend, vielleicht mit Ausnahme nur eines Briefes, erhalten. Neben der Dokumentation dieser historischen Zeugnisse setzt sich der Autor in diesem Aufsatz zum Ziel, die jeweiligen Motive, die Mach resp. Duhem zur Beschäftigung mit Wissenschaftsgeschichte führten und die damit verbundenen Modelle der Wissenschaftsgeschichtsentwicklung beider gegeneinander abzugrenzen. Dazu wurden insb. die in der bisher vorliegenden Sekundärliteratur zu Mach und Duhem überhaupt nicht berücksichtigte Buchbesprechung der Machschen Mechanik durch Duhem sowie (...)
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  12.  13
    The Conversion of St. John: A Case Study on the Interplay of Theory and Experiment.Klaus Hentschel - 1993 - Science in Context 6 (1):137-194.
    The ArgumentGravitational redshift of spectral lines as one of the three early-known experimental implications of Einstein's general theory of relativity and gravitation was intensively searched for by researchers all over the world, but around 1920 most of the contemporary evidence in the sun's Fraunhofer-spectrum conflicted with the predictions of relativity theory.In 1923 the American astrophysicist Charles Edward St. John announced that his own solar spectroscopic data would force him to retreat from his former skepticism concerning the existence of gravitational redshift. (...)
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  13. The Interplay of Instrumentation, Experiment, and Theory: Patterns Emerging from Case Studies on Solar Redshift, 1890–1960.Klaus Hentschel - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (4):64.
    This paper discusses a series of case studies on observations, experiments, and the theoretical interpretation between 1890 and 1960 of a shift of dark Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum. I argue for the use of flow charts to analyze interconnections and to identify sequences of research strategies. Also I advocate using a newly-developed tool called "block diagram" representation of experimental systems as an appropriate method to identify recurrent patterns in the interplay of instrumentation, experiment, and theory in research episodes.
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  14.  11
    Der neue Weg“: Mit „interatomarer Energie“ zum „Herrn der Welt“ werden“Inneratomic Energy” as the “New Path” Towards Becoming “Master of the World.Klaus Hentschel - 2020 - NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin 28 (2):121-147.
    ZusammenfassungBei der Durchsicht des Nachlasses von Rudolf Tomaschek fand ich ein 30 Seiten umfassendes Typoskript seines damaligen Assistenten Hugo Watzlawek aus dem Jahr 1944 mit dem Titel „Interatomare Energie“. Heute würde man eher von „inneratomarer Energie“, oder von „Kernenergie“ sprechen, da der Inhalt des Typoskripts „technische Kernphysik“ einschließlich ihrer potentiellen militärischen Anwendungen betrifft. Der Text bietet einen ungefilterten, erstaunlich kenntnisreichen, aber in vielem auch erschreckenden Einblick in die technokratische Gedankenwelt sowie den Wissensstand und Anwendungshorizont eines „technischen Kernphysikers“ im „Dritten Reich“, (...)
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  15.  7
    „Der neue Weg“: Mit „interatomarer Energie“ zum „Herrn der Welt“ werden: Zu einem bislang unbekannten Typoskript vom Oktober 1944.Klaus Hentschel - 2020 - NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin 28 (2):121-147.
    ZusammenfassungBei der Durchsicht des Nachlasses von Rudolf Tomaschek (1895–1966) fand ich ein 30 Seiten umfassendes Typoskript seines damaligen Assistenten Hugo Watzlawek (1912–1995) aus dem Jahr 1944 mit dem Titel „Interatomare Energie“. Heute würde man eher von „inneratomarer Energie“, oder von „Kernenergie“ sprechen, da der Inhalt des Typoskripts „technische Kernphysik“ einschließlich ihrer potentiellen militärischen Anwendungen betrifft. Der Text bietet einen ungefilterten, erstaunlich kenntnisreichen, aber in vielem auch erschreckenden Einblick in die technokratische Gedankenwelt sowie den Wissensstand und Anwendungshorizont eines „technischen Kernphysikers“ im (...)
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  16.  16
    Einstein, Neokantianismus und Theorienholismus.Klaus Hentschel - 1987 - Kant Studien 78 (1-4):459-470.
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  17.  6
    Entkernung – Erwartungen und Befürchtungen zur Zukunft der Wissenschaftsgeschichte.Klaus Hentschel - 2018 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 41 (4):367-370.
    Loss of the Inner Core: Expectations and Fears for the Future of the History of Science. In this paper, I discuss the current state of history of science in Germany, a combination of strong interest in the field from various neighboring fields (including cultural history, media history, history of art, visual studies) and increasing fragmentation. Powerful institutions such as the Max Planck Institute for History of Science rather encourage this tendency to lose the inner core of the field, a kind (...)
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  18.  9
    Translating in the History of Science: A Concerted Effort.Ann M. Hentschel & Klaus Hentschel - 2018 - Isis 109 (4):760-766.
    A translator and her science consultant, who have worked together on many books, consider the problems of translating primary and secondary texts in science. Various problems encountered in translating an ongoing documentary edition in the history of science are discussed using the collected works of Albert Einstein as a test case. For instance, each language has its own preferred sentence structure; moreover, not every historical term finds a perfect equivalent in modern usage, and historical accuracy is contextually bounded.
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  19. Ernst Mach Als Aussenseiter Machs Briefwechsel Über Philosophie Und Relativitätstheorie Mit Persönlichkeiten Seiner Zeit.Ernst Mach, John T. Blackmore & Klaus Hentschel - 1985
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  20.  36
    Der Vergleich als Brücke zwischen Wissenschaftsgeschichte und Wissenschaftstheorie.Klaus Hentschel - 2003 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 34 (2):251-275.
    Comparisons as a Bridge between History and Philosophy of Science. Both in history and philosophy of science, comparisons are looked upon with considerable skepticism. A widespread syndrome of casuitis, i.e., the tendency of historians of science to produce extremely narrow and local studies that do not present a case for any broader thesis of interest to philosophers, has widened the gulf between history and philosophy of science.This may be somewhat surprising to sociologists, philosophers, or general,legal and cultural historians, who have (...)
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  21.  29
    Philosophical Interpretations of Relativity Theory: 1910-1930.Klaus Hentschel - 1990 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:169 - 179.
    The paper (given in the section on "Recent work in the History of Philosophy of Science) discusses the method and some of the results of the doctoral dissertation on philosophical interpretations of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity, submitted to the Dept. for History of Science, Univ. of Hamburg, in 1989, also published by Birkhauser, Basel, in 1990. It is claimed that many of the gross oversimplifications, misunderstandings and misinterpretations occurring in more than 2500 texts about the theories of (...)
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  22.  4
    Spectroscopic Portraiture.Klaus Hentschel - 2002 - Annals of Science 59 (1):57-82.
    This paper describes a now widely forgotten tradition in the nineteenth century which - to borrow a simile used or implied by the actors themselves - may be described as 'spectroscopic portraiture'. Quite unlike the later obsession with numerical precision in wavelength measurement, and also in stark contrast to the contemporary vogue of photographic mapping which presumptuously claimed 'mechanical objectivity', that is avoidance of any human intervention in the recorded data, there was among some spectroscopists a much greater preoccupation with (...)
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  23.  35
    Why not one more imponderable? John William Draper's tithonic rays.Klaus Hentschel - 2002 - Foundations of Chemistry 4 (1):5-59.
    This paper reconstructs what may have led the American professorof chemistry andnatural philosophy John William Draper to introduce a new kind ofradiation, whichhe dubbed `Tithonic rays''. After presenting his and earlierempirical findings onthe chemical action of light in Section 3, I analyze his pertinentpapers in Section 4with the aim of identifying the various types of argumentshe raised infavor of this new actinic entity (or more precisely, this newnatural kind of raybesides optical, thermal and perhaps also phosphorogenic rays).From a modernperspective, all (...)
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  24.  19
    DSI: The Stuttgart Database of Scientific Illustrators 1450–1950.Klaus Hentschel - 2012 - Spontaneous Generations 6 (1):182-191.
    The main features of a new online database of scientific illustrators are portrayed. We list illustrators of scientific publications of all genres (especially atlases, articles, textbooks) who were active between 1450 and 1950, thus excluding illuminators of medieval manuscripts as well as illustrators still active. Currently (Sept. 26, 2012), we already have more than 3,461 entries, with particular emphasis on anatomy, dermatology, botany, zoology, mineralogy, astronomy, and general natural history. Access to the database with its 20 search fields is free (...)
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  25.  10
    The Stuttgart Database of Scientific Illustrators 1450–1950: Making the Invisible Hands Visible.Klaus Hentschel - 2012 - Spontaneous Generations 6 (1):182-191.
    The main features of a new online database of scientific illustrators are portrayed. We list illustrators of scientific publications of all genres (especially atlases, articles, textbooks) who were active between 1450 and 1950, thus excluding illuminators of medieval manuscripts as well as illustrators still active. Currently (Sept. 26, 2012), we already have more than 3,461 entries, with particular emphasis on anatomy, dermatology, botany, zoology, mineralogy, astronomy, and general natural history. Access to the database with its 20 search fields is free (...)
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  26.  13
    A breakdown of intersubjective measurement: The case of solar-rotation measurements in the early 20th century.Klaus Hentschel - 1998 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 29 (4):473-507.
  27.  4
    A Breakdown of Intersubjective Measurement: The Case of Solar-Rotation Measurements in the Early 20th Century.Klaus Hentschel - 1998 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 29 (4):473-507.
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  28.  5
    Aufrecht im Sturm der Zeit. Der Physiker James Franck 1882–1964.Klaus Hentschel - 2009 - Annals of Science 66 (4):578-580.
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  29.  4
    An unwelcome discovery: The pole effect in the electric arc, a threat to early 20th century precision spectrometry.Klaus Hentschel - 1997 - Archive for History of Exact Sciences 51 (3):199-271.
    In late 1912, Fritz Goos at the Hamburg Physikalisches Staatslaboratorium discovered a systematic dependency of arc-spectra wavelengths on the length of the electric arc used and on its electric parameters, such as, for instance, the current employed. In early 1913, at Heinrich Kayser's better-equipped physical laboratory in Bonn, Goos was able to confirm these effects using a large concave Rowland grating. He was able to establish that variations of between 3 mm and 10 mm in the length of the arc (...)
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  30.  5
    Bildpraxis in historischer Perspektive: Neue Bücher zur wissenschaftlichen Bilderzeugung, -bearbeitung und -verwendung.Klaus Hentschel - 2011 - NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin 19 (4):413-424.
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  31.  6
    Commerce and early-modern visual representations in natural history and medicine: Daniel Margócsy: Commercial visions: science, trade and visual culture in the Dutch golden age. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014, 319 pp, $40, £28 Cloth.Klaus Hentschel - 2015 - Metascience 24 (3):425-427.
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  32.  5
    Die allmähliche Herausbildung des Konzepts,Lichtquanten‘.Klaus Hentschel - 2015 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 38 (2):121-139.
    The Gradual Formation of the Concept of ‘Light Quanta’. The complex concept of ‘light quanta’ which made its first appearance in Albert Einstein’s 1905 paper on a “heuristic point of view” to cope with the photoelectric effect and other forms of interaction of light and matter, has a rich history both before and after 1905. Some of its semantic layers lead as far back as Newton and Kepler, others are only fully espoused several decades later, yet others initially increased, then (...)
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  33.  2
    Das Brechungsgesetz in der Fassung von Snellius : Rekonstruktion seines Entdeckungspfades und eine Übersetzung seines lateinischen Manuskriptes sowie ergänzender Dokumente.Klaus Hentschel - 2001 - Archive for History of Exact Sciences 55 (4):297-344.
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  34.  5
    Die Korrespondenz Petzoldt--Reichenbach: zur Entwicklung der "wissenschaftlichen Philosophie" in Berlin.Klaus Hentschel - 1990 - Berlin: SIGMA. Edited by Hans Reichenbach & Joseph Petzoldt.
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  35.  26
    Die vergessene rezension der “allgemeinen erkenntnislehre” Moritz schlicks durch Hans Reichenbach-ein stück philosophiegeschichte.Klaus Hentschel - 1991 - Erkenntnis 35 (1-3):11-28.
    Despite a renewed interest in the philosophical prehistory of logical empiricism, several texts by prominent figures such as, e.g., Moritz Schlick and Hans Reichenbach, published in non-standard journals, have escaped the notice of scholars. Here, a hitherto virtually unknown but significant review of Moritz Schlick's influential book Allgemeine Erkenntnislehre [1st ed. 1918] written by Hans Reichenbach in 1919/20 is reprinted together with comments about its background and the later development, relying on and citing from the unpublished correspondence between Schlick and (...)
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  36. Essay Review Einsteinian Fixations.Klaus Hentschel - 1992 - Annals of Science 49:577-583.
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  37. Einstein und seine Exegeten: Inanspruchnahme und Deformation der Relativitätstheorie durch ihre frühen Verteidiger.Klaus Hentschel - 2007 - In Philipp W. Balsiger & Rudolf Kötter (eds.), Die Kultur Moderner Wissenschaft Am Beispiel Albert Einstein. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag. pp. 69.
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  38.  17
    Friedrich Hund zum 100. Geburtstag.Klaus Hentschel & Renate Tobies - 1996 - NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin 4 (1):1-18.
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  39.  9
    Gauss, Meyerstein and Hanoverian Metrology.Klaus Hentschel - 2007 - Annals of Science 64 (1):41-75.
    Summary The growing need for standardized units of measure led to major metrological reforms in the mid-nineteenth century. This paper focusses on their implementation in the Kingdom of Hanover and the involvement of C.F. Gauss. His papers reveal how much the success of his precision measurements hinged on the skill of his mechanic M. Meyerstein. A discussion of the regional weights and measures and the standardization procedure is followed by a description of various precision balances and the weighing methods employed (...)
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  40.  1
    Letters to the Editor.Klaus Hentschel - 1990 - Isis 81:279-280.
  41.  3
    Letters to the Editor.Klaus Hentschel - 1990 - Isis 81 (2):279-280.
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  42.  1
    Letter To The Editor.Klaus Hentschel - 2003 - Isis 94:677-678.
  43.  26
    Macedonio Melloni über strahlende Wärme.Klaus Hentschel - 2005 - NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin 13 (4):216-237.
    For more than twenty years, Macedonio Melloni (1798–1854) experimented with radiant heat rays. Until 1841 he thought of them as ontologically different from light, but in 1842 he converted to the opposite view according to which they are similar in kind, but only differ in wavelength. In this article I analyze the arguments which induced him to change his interpretation of radiant heat and I describe the instruments with which he arrived at these insights.
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  44.  15
    Measurements of gravitational redshift between 1959 and 1971.Klaus Hentschel - 1996 - Annals of Science 53 (3):269-295.
    The paper presents and discusses measurements of gravitational redshift made between 1959 and 1971 by Pound and Rebka, Schiffer and Marshall, Brault, Blamont and Roddier, and finally by Snider. It emphasizes the importance of new measurement techniques such as wavelength modulation, electronic amplification, and scattering of atomic beams to the emergence of new tests of Einstein's GRS prediction, which were perceived by the scientific community as the first ‘clean’ verifications of GRS. In particular, the race to be the first to (...)
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  45.  1
    (Mis-)Interpretations of the Theory of Relativity – Considerations on How They Arise and How to Analyze Them.Klaus Hentschel - 2023 - In Chiara Russo Krauss & Luigi Laino (eds.), Philosophers and Einstein's Relativity: The Early Philosophical Reception of the Relativistic Revolution. Springer Verlag. pp. 1-33.
    During Einstein’s lifetime, the special and general theories of relativity were quite frequently interpreted by philosophers. Most of these interpretations actually were misinterpretations. Even today interpretative statements about relativity theory are often false or highly misleading. Why is this so? In my Ph.D. dissertation (Hentschel 1990a), I analyzed (mis)interpretations by 10 different philosophical schools active in the early twentieth century which widely differed in their approaches, emphasis and blind spots. Many of these interpreters – including philosophers of high standing such (...)
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  46.  12
    Objectivity - by Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison.Klaus Hentschel - 2008 - Centaurus 50 (4):329-330.
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  47. Physik, Astronomie und Architektur: der Einstein-Turm als.Klaus Hentschel - 1994 - In Stephen Everson (ed.), Language. Cambridge University Press.
  48.  4
    Proposal for a Complete Edition of Ernst Mach’s Correspondence.Klaus Hentschel - 2019 - In Friedrich Stadler (ed.), Ernst Mach – Life, Work, Influence. Springer Verlag. pp. 675-680.
    To compile a comprehensive edition of the correspondence of the world-famous physicist, physiologist, philosopher, and pioneer historian of science, Ernst Mach is an urgent desideratum. An estimated 5000 letters to and from Mach are kept in public and private archives worldwide. The largest part of this correspondence was formerly kept in the Ernst Mach Institut für Kurzzeitdynamik der Fraunhofergesellschaft in Freiburg/Breisgau and is now archived at the Deutsches Museum in Munich. A smaller partial estate, based on collections by Ernst Mach’s (...)
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  49.  13
    Philipp Fauth--Leben und Werk: Aus dem autobiographischen Nachlass zusammengestellt von Hermann Fauth. Philipp Fauth, Freddy Litten.Klaus Hentschel - 1995 - Isis 86 (3):519-520.
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  50.  1
    Philosophical Interpretations of Relativity Theory: 1910-1930.Klaus Hentschel - 1990 - PSA Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990 (2):169-179.
    This paper is a summary of my doctoral dissertation on philosophical interpretations of Einstein’s special and general theories of relativity, submitted to the Dept. for History of Science, Univ. of Hamburg, in 1989, which was recently published in the Series Science Networks at Birkäuser.2 After a brief overview of its content I will focus on a discussion of the method employed to analyse philosophical interpretations of a physical theory.My analysis is based- firstly on about 2500 contemporary published texts about the (...)
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