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  1.  76
    Substituted decision making and the dispositional choice account.Anna-Karin Margareta Andersson & Kjell Arne Johansson - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (10):703.1-709.
    There are two main ways of understanding the function of surrogate decision making in a legal context: the Best Interests Standard and the Substituted Judgment Standard. First, we will argue that the Best Interests Standard is difficult to apply to unconscious patients. Application is difficult regardless of whether they have ever been conscious. Second, we will argue that if we accept the least problematic explanation of how unconscious patients can have interests, we are also obliged to accept that the Substituted (...)
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  2.  17
    Problems With Prioritization: Exploring Ethical Solutions to Inequalities in HIV Care.Kjell Arne Johansson & Ole Frithjof Norheim - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (12):32-40.
    Enormous gaps between HIV burden and health care availability in low-income countries raise severe ethical problems. This article analyzes four HIV-priority dilemmas with interest across contexts and health systems. We explore principled distributive conflicts and use the Atkinson index to make explicit trade-offs between health maximization and equality in health. We find that societies need a relatively low aversion to inequality to favor treatment for children, even with large weights assigned to extending the lives of adults: higher inequality aversion is (...)
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  3.  27
    HIV priorities and health distributions in a rural region in Tanzania: a qualitative study.Kjell Arne Johansson, Ingrid Miljeteig, Hamisi Kigwangalla & Ole Frithjof Norheim - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (4):221-226.
    Next SectionBackground International and national agencies play a major role in setting HIV care-and-treatment priorities in low-income-countries. Little is known about priority setting at lower health-system levels. The objective of this article is to explore experiences of HIV priority decisions, at what levels these decisions are made and how they might influence the distribution of health benefits in a high-endemic region in Tanzania. Methods This is a qualitative study using observations, key documents and semistructured focus-group and individual interviews (43) with (...)
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  4.  39
    Hiv testing of pregnant women: An ethical analysis.Kjell Arne Johansson, Kirsten Bjerkreim Pedersen & Anna-Karin Andersson - 2011 - Developing World Bioethics 11 (3):109-119.
    Recent global advances in available technology to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission necessitate a rethinking of contemporary and previous ethical debates on HIV testing as a means to preventing vertical transmission. In this paper, we will provide an ethical analysis of HIV-testing strategies of pregnant women. First, we argue that provider-initiated opt-out HIV testing seems to be the most effective HIV test strategy. The flip-side of an opt-out strategy is that it may end up as involuntary testing in a clinical setting. (...)
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  5.  76
    Priority rules as solutions to conflicting health care rights.Anna-Karin Andersson, Frode Lindemark & Kjell Arne Johansson - 2017 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 20 (1):67-76.
    Recent health legislation in Norway significantly increases access to specialist care within a legally binding time frame. The paper describes the contents of the new legislation and introduces some of the challenges with proliferations of rights to health care. The paper describes some of the challenges associated with the proliferation of legal rights to health care. It explains the benefits of assessing the new law in the light of a rights framework. It then analyses the problematic aspects of establishing additional (...)
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