In this paper, DSEK model with fractional derivatives of the Atangana-Baleanu Caputo is proposed. This paper gives a brief overview of the ABC fractional derivative and its attributes. Fixed point theory has been used to establish the uniqueness and existence of solutions for the fractional DSEK model. According to this theory, we will define two operators based on Lipschitzian and prove that they are contraction mapping and relatively compact. Ulam-Hyers stability theorem is implemented to prove the fractional DSEK model’s stability (...) in Banach space. Also, fractional Euler’s numerical method is derived for initial value problems with ABC fractional derivative and implemented on fractional DSEK model. The symmetric properties contribute to determining the appropriate method for finding the correct solution to fractional differential equations. The numerical solutions generated using fractional Euler’s method have been plotted for different values of α where α ∈ 0,1 and different step sizes h. Result discussion will be given, describing the changes that occur due to the step size h. (shrink)
Hadith is the precious talk, discussion and conversation of the Holy Prophet, indirect revelation and is the authentic commentary of the Holy Quran. From the beginning of the history of Islam after the Holy Prophet Muhammad, Muslim ummah: including gents and ladies has been making efforts to save Prophet Muhammad's Hadiths. Because Hadith is the authentic exaggeration of the Holy Quran. Without hadith one cannot understand the correct meaning of the Holy Quran. If we take a glance on the history (...) of Islam, we can observe that with gents side by side ladies took effective part in taking of hadith and its spread. Due to acknowledgement of these services of women of Islam, Muslim Ulema have been writing various books and also gave them various scholarly titles, like Syda, Musnada, shykha and likewise. In current age there are a lot of books and articles were written, like "Ai-ala mun-nisa, Alddurrulmanthur, Almaratul Muslima etc, but all were in Arabic language. In Urdu there is a shortage of books and also articles in this topic. That is why this article is being presented as a prolongation of series of acknowledgement of the Services of Muslim Women's effort in the field of hadith in Urdu. (shrink)
This study uncovers a new finding on the impact of CEO tenure on corporate social and environmental performance in coastal and non-coastal areas of China using fixed-effect panel data regression models. The Two-Stage Least Squares instrumental panel regression is used to validate the veracity of the empirical results. To this end, we extract data from all non-financial Chinese listed firms for the period of 2009 to 2015. By applying the multivariant framework, the findings of the study exhibit a negative and (...) significant effect of CEO tenure on CS&EP. Moreover, this study shows that firms with head offices in coastal areas of China tend to weaken the negative impact of CEO tenure on CS&EP, indicating that CS&EP is more focused in coastal areas of China than non-coastal ones. The findings suggest that the increase in CEOs’ CS&EP in the early years of their service tenure tends to increase their compensation packages. This study is useful for policymakers to link CS&EP with firm economic practices to attain sustainable development objectives. (shrink)
The phenomenological goal of grounding the content of conceptual thought in the background understanding of everyday, skillful coping was approached using evolutionary autonomous agent methodology. The behavior of an EAA evolved to perform a specified motor task was identified with skillful coping. Changes in the dynamics of the EAA controller occurred when the EAA encountered an unexpected obstacle with loss of longer time scale components in its hierarchical temporal organization. These temporal changes are consistent with the phenomenological changes which we (...) experience with breakdown during equipment use with our adoption of a more immediate, determinate stance. Since this latter experience is the basis of conceptual thought, the EAA paradigm goes some way in providing a naturalized explanation for the grounding of the content of conceptual thought in everyday, skillful coping in a manner that is physiologically plausible and phenomenologically accurate. (shrink)
In this research work, we have explored the physical and topological properties of the crystal structure of metal-insulator transition superlattice. In recent times, two-dimensional substantial have enamored comprehensive considerations owing to their novel ophthalmic and mechanical properties for anticipated employment. Recently, some researchers put their interest in modifying this material into useful forms in human life. Also, Metal-Insulator Transition Superlattice is useful in form of a thin film to utilize as two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Moreover, we have defined the computed-based (...) bond properties such as the degree constructed topological indices and their heat of formation for single crystal and monolayered structure of Ge-Sb-Te. Also, this structure is one of the most interesting composites in modern resources of science. (shrink)
Being building block of data sciences, link prediction plays a vital role in revealing the hidden mechanisms that lead the networking dynamics. Since many techniques depending in vertex similarity and edge features were put forward to rule out many well-known link prediction challenges, many problems are still there just because of unique formulation characteristics of sparse networks. In this study, we applied some graph transformations and several inequalities to determine the greatest value of first and second Zagreb invariant, S K (...) and S K 1 invariants, for acyclic connected structures of given order, diameter, and pendant vertices. Also, we determined the corresponding extremal acyclic connected structures for these topological indices and provide an ordering giving a sequence of acyclic connected structures having these indices from greatest in decreasing order. (shrink)
Errors have been the concern of providers and consumers of health care services. However, consumers' perception of medical errors in developing countries is rarely explored. The aim of this study is to assess community members' perceptions about medical errors and to analyse the factors affecting this perception in one Middle East country, Oman.
The expropriation of marginalized women’s labor is a key issue in business ethics in these times of global outsourcing and informal work arrangements. This has led to a transnational advocacy movement for securing the labor rights of homeworkers, who are poor women working on piece-rate contracts out of their homes. Drawing on materialist feminism, our paper critically explores the homeworker network in Pakistan, that was set up as part of a global push by international institutions and networks to localize the (...) issue across geographies. Our focus is the national women’s NGO that leads advocacy efforts on the issue in the country and its relationship with other actors. Through fieldwork spanning 3 years we find that the network employs a top-down ‘us versus them’ approach in advocacy and mobilization. The race-to-the-bottom between the network’s national and district-level actors for donor funding further undermines prospects for developing indigenous narratives of resistance. The network, while mission bound to enhance the collective agency of its constituency, has depoliticized what should have been a class-based feminist struggle. From a materialist perspective, we conclude that the NGOized network rests upon and feeds off of its constituency, creating an additional layer of primitive accumulation over the workers it represents. (shrink)
After his refutation of the doubts concerning Proposition I.7, Ibn al-Haytham mentions three possible ways in which circles may intersect, submitting them to the following “intuitive” argument: one part of one of the two circles is situated inside of the other circle, and its other part is situated outside of it. One is therefore tempted to believe that the commentator accepts the principle of continuity in the case of circles, since his argument has the following meaning: if a circle is (...) divisible into two parts, one of which is situated inside the other circle, and the other outside of it, then the two circles cut one another. The author of this article proposes to establish the limits of this belief, on the basis of the following reflections: 1). It will be noted first of all that what could be called the ‘principle of the intersection of circles’ does not constitute ipso facto a principle in the mind of Ibn al-Haytham: no allusion is made to it in the commentary on Proposition I.1, among others. 2) It will be established later on that if one accepts that a line is the result of the movement of a point, the principle of continuity should be considered by him as something which is obvious by itself, without being stated. This conclusion will be based on an analysis of the notion of continuity in its classical meaning, and on Ibn al-Haytham’s commentary on Proposition X.1. 3) On the other hand, we should note the presence of a ‘sketch’ of topological language, which Ibn al-Haytham develops for the notion of a circle : one could say in this context that his reflection constitutes an important, if not principal, stage in the process which was to lead to the explicit formulation of the principle of continuity. (shrink)
When considering a paradigm shift in higher education, it is imperative to focus on removing obstacles against maintaining integrity in academia. One such obstacle is contract cheating sites that have mushroomed disproportionately during the 18 months of emergency distance learning threatening graduate quality and university reputations. It was sharply brought to focus in 2015 due to a mass-scale scandal involving 16 universities and more than 1000 students leading to a subsequent law making such services illegal in Australia. Contract cheating is (...) a mushrooming industry that is constantly targeting often unsuspecting students under the guise of legitimate help. Moreover, these services in turn began black mailing students after delivering services. It is therefore vital to explore the existence and number of such websites that target students in UAE, sometimes using university logos to show legitimacy to understand the extent of the problem. This is primarily because an accurate measure of the extent does not currently exist. Curtis et al. have reported on self-reported cases from students which can be varied and often under-reported. This study is an attempt at using Boolean search technique to count unique and organic websites that have manifested. Coded analysis was used to collate the websites and count the total number of searches. For a total of 34 unique and organic websites, 29 showed a z score higher than the mean value 2.94, at standard deviation of 1.89, positing that the probability of appearance of these 29 websites across different search engines, different browsers and across separate search keywords was significant. This demonstrates the aggressive nature of these sites and their considerable efforts to offer a service that is harmful and detrimental to the students and education sector. This study is a milestone towards developing a nation-wide understanding of contract cheating in the UAE. It is also positioned as a proposal for higher education sustainability in the nation to look to ban services that offer to write assignments for students with or without a fee as a top-down approach to tackling the issue. (shrink)
Workplace incivility has gotten a lot of attention in recent decades. Researchers have looked at many forms of aggressive conduct in the workplace and their negative impacts on individuals and businesses. The goal of this study was to see how incivility among supervisors leads to work withdrawal and when this link might be mitigated. We argued that supervisor incivility indirectly influences work withdrawal behavior through job insecurity, and that emotional intelligence moderates this connection. This study attempted to evaluate the influence (...) of supervisor incivility on the job withdrawal behavior of personnel working in several banks Lahore by drawing on affective events theory and conservation of resource theory. Data were gathered from 350 workers of banks in Lahore, Gujranwala, and Sheikhupura to test our assumptions, and SPSS 24 was used to generate and analyze data with Hayes Process. The findings revealed a strong link between supervisor incivility and job insecurity but no link between supervisor incivility and work withdrawal behavior. The idea of moderation was validated, since emotional intelligence moderates the relationship between job insecurity and job withdrawal behavior. There are also suggestions for more empirical studies and theoretical and practical ramifications. (shrink)
This article examines the different versions of the Treaty which Khālid b. al-Wālid granted to the people of Damascus and notes the variations and textual discrepancies between them by examining both Muslim and non-Muslim sources. We demonstrate how the accounts share a common historical memory in recalling the issuance of treaties in the era of ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb. We argue that the original Treaty with the People of Damascus represented in all likelihood the template for all other treaties given to (...) the inhabitants of Greater Syria, Jordan and Palestine, whose echoes can also be found resonating in Egypt and Iraq. Most important of all, by navigating through the competing and shared historical memories, we conclude that the original Treaty stipulated that the indigenous population’s churches neither be destroyed nor inhabited. We conclude by proposing that this standard policy was not just based on mere pragmatism, but also on some sort of written ordinance that originated with the Prophet Muḥammad. (shrink)
Ayub Khan Era played a significant role in Pakistan political and constitutional history. He introduced Elective Bodies Disqualification Order and Public Offices Disqualification Order to contain the corruption and nepotism. He also introduced basic democracy system to transfer of power at grass root level. The main objective this study is to evaluate regime of Ayub Khan and impact of Pakistani society. He introduced the Basic Democratic System the purpose of this form of government were to elect the president (...) and the member of parliament through electoral system. In 1964 the presidential election were held by the government unfortunately conspiracy against Muhtarma Fatima Jinnah was not won and she lost the seat. The era of Gen. Ayub Khan confronts the Indo-Pak war in 1965 which ends thorough the declaration of Tashkent, a peace agreement on 10th January 1966. The regime of Ayub Khan in was known as golden economic era because his economic growth, prosperity and the growing status of Pakistan on superior level on world's stage in his regime although politically he faced failure due to the inferiority of Eastern Pakistan, sheikh Mujeeb-ur-Rehman presented six points which was formal as a conspiracy to break the country. In Agar Tala conspiracy case Mujeeb-ur-Rehman was arrested and put in prison, due to the situation in East Pakistan got worse and finally, General Ayub Khan said good bye and instead of handing over to the public representatives, it. (shrink)
Not only in philosophy but in religion as well, concepts such as God, World and Man are discussed quite considerably. Nevertheless, an understanding of these concepts requires careful, detailed and systematic analyses. One of the methods of achieving the same is to use a comparative framework. Within Islam, Wahdatul-Wujud is an important mystical and philosophical perspective that has witnessed a tumultuous journey. It has however played a dominant role in Islamic thought. Within Indian philosophy, Vedānta has played a very influential (...) role. Visistādvaita as a school of thought has also played a great role to interpret core philosophical concepts of Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita and Brahma Sutras. In this research paper, we attempt to provide a comparative analysis of Visistādvaita and Wahdatul-Wujud marking out the aspects of similarity and departures. What stands out as relevant and insightful as an implication of the comparative method is an understanding of these two approaches. Wahdatul-Wujud is redefined as a panentheistic philosophy which believes that God exists inside of everything, but is at the same time, transcendent of everything. In this type ofbelief, God is seen as an eternal spark of all things, the Prime Mover. Quite similarly, Visistādvaita, on the other hand is conceived as a Qualified Non- dualistic philosophy which believes in subsuming every diverse phenomena and experience under an underlying unity. (shrink)
Our world has seen enormous improvements in mobile telephony, the internet, and ebusiness. Information and Communication Technology play a critical and core role in today’s society. All over the world nations have recognized information and communication Technology as a powerful tool in accelerating the economic activity, efficient governance and developing human resources. Whether it’s the electronic form of conducting business or social/professional networking over the World Wide Web, ICT has proved that it is a basic requirement for social and economic (...) development. To increase the flow of Information and improving communications and to increase possibilities and opportunities, ICT infrastructure is a rudimentary need. ICT has proved that it is one of the major difference between developed and developing countries. Take for example India. India has achieved the status of the world’s 4th biggest economy, major fraction of which is basically IT driven. The information and communication technology could be used to empower the Women in Pakistan by making the resources available to them at home, where a nearby area / residential based environment could be created for working at home where they could fulfill their home based liabilities as well. (shrink)
Bhāṭṭatantrarahasyam: The Bhāṭṭatantrarahasya of Khaṇḍadeva with the Sāraprakāśikā Commentary by N. S. Ramanuja Tatacharya. By N. S. Ramanuja Tatacharya. Regards sur l’Asie du Sud/South Asian Perspective, no. 4. Pondichéry: Institut FrançaIs de Pondichéry, 2015. Pp. xxi + 664. Rs. 1200, €52.
The Belt and Road initiative was announced in 2013 under the administration of China’s President, Xi Jinping. It was designed to fulfill the aim of interconnecting Asia, Europe, and Africa through reliable connectivity networks. In reaction to it, the 47th summit of G7 in June 2021 has given a response to this Chinese Initiative with the idea of Build Back Better World. G7 tried to show that the world can have an alternative to BRI. The main objective of the study (...) was to compare the feasibility of these two massive infrastructural projects. It is a qualitative document analysis of the previously published material on the related theme, that highlighted a competition of economic supremacy between the US and China. The research found that BRI was gaining enough popularity as compared to B3W in the eyes of the world specifically in connecting different regions. (shrink)
In an attempt to re-envision economics, the paper analyses Robert Heilbroner’s philosophy of economics through the lens of Max Weber’s philosophy of science. Specifically, Heilbroner’s position on vision, ideology and value-freedom is examined by contextualising it within a framework of … More ›.
According to a widely credited model in the business ethics literature, ethical decisions are a function of two kinds of factors, personal and situational, and these factors interact with each other. According to a contrary view of decision making that is widely held in some areas of business research, individuals’ decisions about ethical issues are purely a function of their self-interest.The laboratory experiment reported in this paper provides a test of the person-situation interactionist model, using the general theoretical and experimental (...) framework used in the experimental economics literature. One individual and two situational factors relating to moral intensity were examined which may influence decisions to misrepresent information in the course of business activities.The individual and one situational variable were significantly related to participants’ actions. The interactions among individual andsituation variables were not individually significant, although the model including interactions had a much higher level of statistical significance. Gender was significant, both directly and in interaction with moral development, suggesting that it may be worthy of further examination. (shrink)
Music, according to Sufi teaching, is really a small expression of the overwhelming and perfect harmony of the whole universe--and that is the secret of its amazing power to move us. The Indian Sufi master Hazrat Inayat Khan (1882-1927), the first teacher to bring the Islamic mystical tradition to the West, was an accomplished musician himself. His lucid exposition of music's divine nature has become a modern classic, beloved only by those interested in Sufism but by musicians of all (...) kinds. (shrink)
Women are around 51% of the total population of Pakistan, and they can do miracles through their active participation in economic activities of the country. Empowering women means accrediting half of the population for sustainable development. The aim of this paper is to examine and analyze the impact of active women participation in the social enterprise sector for their empowerment, and its subsequent consequences in creation of social value in society. For this purpose, primary data has been collected through random (...) and snowball sampling to gain insight into female practitioner’s perspective. The paper highlights women empowerment as a multi-dimensional phenomenon based on four dimensions: psychological, social, economic and political empowerment. It prime focus on active participation in the social enterprise’s sector may lead to increase in enablement of women, the data shows that majority of female entrepreneur responded that they feel psychologically empowered and have financial contribution in household expenses and in community welfare. Secondly, the paper identifies the major challenges including concern of safety and security, lack of access to financial opportunities and social acceptance of the project that restrict women entrepreneurs from progress and creation of social value. Thirdly, it intends to construct framework for recommendations to promote women social enterprises in Pakistan for sustainable development as a whole. (shrink)
Changing global trends have made people more aware and conscious about their health and attainment of quality life by accessing healthcare services. But countries like Pakistan are not able to maintain quality healthcare services for common people. The healthcare service providers are not able to face challenges in this regard. The system of healthcare in Pakistan faces many issues and challenges of imbalance and insufficiency regarding deliverance and access to effective and quality healthcare services. The governments should develop an appropriate (...) health system whose mechanism can be easily accessible for people especially women. For this purpose data from public hospitals has been collected to analyze specific issues within the boundaries of a specific environment and situation, because proper and accurate data availability can assure the effective policy making mechanism. In this study data has been collected by semi-structured interview schedule. Three public hospitals were selected as a universe of the study, and the respondents were purposively selected for conducting interviews in detail. The findings of this study reveal that in developing countries like Pakistan the healthcare services are not provided adequately in the public sector. People do not have easy access to healthcare opportunities for many reasons among which one reason is poverty, which leads to ill health and low health status. This growing dissatisfaction leads to imbalance societal gap, which demands appropriate measures and policies by the government. Government hospitals have some women specific wards but public private partnership has not been very effective, despite the establishment of Act and collaborations in public-private domain. (shrink)
The purpose of this study is to examine the link between English foreign language teacher’s professional identity and employee success via mediating role of critical thinking. Further, we examined the moderating role of leader motivational language between employee professional identity and critical thing and also indirect effect on employee success via critical thinking. We collected data from Chinese MNC’s school by using time lagged study design. We used hierarchical linear regression for direct hypotheses and Hayes PROCESS model’s for mediation, moderation, (...) and mediation moderation analysis. The results show that there is positive relation between employee’s professional identity and teacher’s success. Further, critical thinking mediates the link between professional identity and employee success. The results of the moderated mediation analysis show that critical thinking mediated the interaction of employee’s professional identity and leader’s motivational language on teacher’s success. (shrink)