Results for 'Kevin J. Fandl'

999 found
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  1. The communication structure of epistemic communities.Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2011 - In Alvin I. Goldman & Dennis Whitcomb (eds.), Social Epistemology: Essential Readings. New York: Oxford University Press.
     
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  2.  68
    The Scientific Ponzi Scheme.Kevin J. S. Zollman - unknown
    Fraud and misleading research represent serious impediments to scientific progress. We must uncover the causes of fraud in order to understand how science functions and in order to develop strategies for combating epistemically detrimental behavior. This paper investigates how the incentive to commit fraud is enhanced by the structure of the scientific reward system. Science is an "accumulation process:" success begets resources which begets more success. Through a simplified mathematical model, I argue that this cyclic relationship enhances the appeal of (...)
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  3.  30
    Between cheap and costly signals: the evolution of partially honest communication.Kevin J. S. Zollman, Carl T. Bergstrom & Simon M. Huttegger - unknown
    Costly signalling theory has become a common explanation for honest communication when interests conflict. In this paper, we provide an alternative explanation for partially honest communication that does not require significant signal costs. We show that this alternative is at least as plausible as traditional costly signalling, and we suggest a number of experiments that might be used to distinguish the two theories.
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  4. Compositionality in Perception: A Framework.Kevin J. Lande - forthcoming - WIREs Cognitive Science.
    Perception involves the processing of content or information about the world. In what form is this content represented? I argue that perception is widely compositional. The perceptual system represents many stimulus features (including shape, orientation, and motion) in terms of combinations of other features (such as shape parts, slant and tilt, common and residual motion vectors). But compositionality can take a variety of forms. The ways in which perceptual representations compose are markedly different from the ways in which sentences or (...)
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  5.  51
    Free agents: how evolution gave us free will.Kevin J. Mitchell - 2023 - Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    An evolutionary case for the existence of free will. Scientists are learning more and more about how brain activity controls behavior and how neural circuits weigh alternatives and initiate actions. As we probe ever deeper into the mechanics of decision making, many conclude that agency-or free will-is an illusion. In Free Agents, leading neuroscientist Kevin Mitchell presents a wealth of evidence to the contrary, arguing that we are not mere machines responding to physical forces but agents acting with purpose. (...)
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  6. The essence of lawyering in an atmosphere of faith.Kevin J. Worthen - 2009 - In Scott W. Cameron, Galen L. Fletcher & Jane H. Wise (eds.), Life in the Law: Service & Integrity. J. Reuben Clark Law Society, Brigham Young University Law School.
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  7. The Epistemic Benefit of Transient Diversity.Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2010 - Erkenntnis 72 (1):17-35.
    There is growing interest in understanding and eliciting division of labor within groups of scientists. This paper illustrates the need for this division of labor through a historical example, and a formal model is presented to better analyze situations of this type. Analysis of this model reveals that a division of labor can be maintained in two different ways: by limiting information or by endowing the scientists with extreme beliefs. If both features are present however, cognitive diversity is maintained indefinitely, (...)
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  8. The communication structure of epistemic communities.Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (5):574-587.
    Increasingly, epistemologists are becoming interested in social structures and their effect on epistemic enterprises, but little attention has been paid to the proper distribution of experimental results among scientists. This paper will analyze a model first suggested by two economists, which nicely captures one type of learning situation faced by scientists. The results of a computer simulation study of this model provide two interesting conclusions. First, in some contexts, a community of scientists is, as a whole, more reliable when its (...)
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  9. The Cambridge Companion to Postmodern Theology.Kevin J. Vanhoozer (ed.) - 2003 - Cambridge University Press.
    Postmodernity allows for no absolutes and no essence. Yet theology is concerned with the absolute, the essential. How then does theology sit within postmodernity? Is postmodern theology possible, or is such a concept a contradiction in terms? Should theology bother about postmodernism or just get on with its own thing? Can it? Theologians have responded in many different ways to the challenges posed by theories of postmodernity. In this introductory 2003 guide to a complex area, editor Kevin J. Vanhoozer (...)
     
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  10.  27
    Theological method and Gordon Kaufman: KEVIN J. SHARPE.Kevin J. Sharpe - 1979 - Religious Studies 15 (2):173-190.
    Gordon Kaufman is a theologian who wrestles with essential theological issues. In a recent amplification of his position, An Essay on Theological Method , 1 he makes an honest attempt to describe the method by which a self-critical theologian might work. This paper sets out a critique of the method Kaufman proposes and from that delineates a path which theologians might choose to follow.
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  11.  40
    Stanley L. Jaki's Critique of Physics: KEVIN J. SHARPE.Kevin J. Sharpe - 1982 - Religious Studies 18 (1):55-75.
    Disorder and suffering are increasing significantly in our society. Violent crime, unemployment, escape through drug-taking are all on the increase. It is apparent, also, that much of this disorder and suffering, and the anxiety it fosters, is rooted in science and its technological off-spring. The un-employment produced by a micro-technology is only one small example. It is also apparent that one of the principal foundation stones for the scientific enterprise was Christianity.
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  12. The Credit Economy and the Economic Rationality of Science.Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2018 - Journal of Philosophy 115 (1):5-33.
    Theories of scientific rationality typically pertain to belief. In this paper, the author argues that we should expand our focus to include motivations as well as belief. An economic model is used to evaluate whether science is best served by scientists motivated only by truth, only by credit, or by both truth and credit. In many, but not all, situations, scientists motivated by both truth and credit should be judged as the most rational scientists.
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  13. The Perspectival Character of Perception.Kevin J. Lande - 2018 - Journal of Philosophy 115 (4):187-214.
    You can perceive things, in many respects, as they really are. For example, you can correctly see a coin as circular from most angles. Nonetheless, your perception of the world is perspectival. The coin looks different when slanted than when head-on, and there is some respect in which the slanted coin looks similar to a head-on ellipse. Many hold that perception is perspectival because you perceive certain properties that correspond to the “looks” of things. I argue that this view is (...)
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  14. Network Epistemology: Communication in Epistemic Communities.Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2013 - Philosophy Compass 8 (1):15-27.
    Much of contemporary knowledge is generated by groups not single individuals. A natural question to ask is, what features make groups better or worse at generating knowledge? This paper surveys research that spans several disciplines which focuses on one aspect of epistemic communities: the way they communicate internally. This research has revealed that a wide number of different communication structures are best, but what is best in a given situation depends on particular details of the problem being confronted by the (...)
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  15. Physical persons and postmortem survival without temporal gaps.Kevin J. Corcoran - 2001 - In Kevin Corcoran (ed.), Soul, body, and survival: essays on the metaphysics of human persons. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  16.  10
    David Bohm's World: New Physics and New Religion.Kevin J. Sharpe - 1993 - Kendall Hunt.
    David Bohm is a physicist with a broad range of other interests including religion, philosophy, education, art, and linguistics. This book surveys Bohm's physical theories including the quantum potential theory and the implicate order or holomovement theory.
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  17.  9
    Perimeter: A Contemporary Portrait of Lake Michigan.Kevin J. Miyazaki - 2014 - Wisconsin Historical Society Press.
    Commissioned by the Haggerty Museum of Art at Marquette University to create an artwork reflecting on the importance of freshwater, Milwaukee-based photographer Kevin J. Miyazaki embarked on a two-week, 1,800-mile drive around Lake Michigan. He traveled its perimeter, through Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, and Michigan, to produce what he calls “a contemporary portrait of Lake Michigan.” Miyazaki set up his portable studio on beaches, in parks, on boat docks, and in backyards, photographing those he met along the way. From residents, (...)
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  18. Mental Structures.Kevin J. Lande - 2020 - Noûs (3):649-677.
    An ongoing philosophical discussion concerns how various types of mental states fall within broad representational genera—for example, whether perceptual states are “iconic” or “sentential,” “analog” or “digital,” and so on. Here, I examine the grounds for making much more specific claims about how mental states are structured from constituent parts. For example, the state I am in when I perceive the shape of a mountain ridge may have as constituent parts my representations of the shapes of each peak and saddle (...)
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  19. Contours of Vision: Towards a Compositional Semantics of Perception.Kevin J. Lande - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Mental capacities for perceiving, remembering, thinking, and planning involve the processing of structured mental representations. A compositional semantics of such representations would explain how the content of any given representation is determined by the contents of its constituents and their mode of combination. While many have argued that semantic theories of mental representations would have broad value for understanding the mind, there have been few attempts to develop such theories in a systematic and empirically constrained way. This paper contributes to (...)
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  20.  87
    Modeling the social consequences of testimonial norms.Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (9):2371-2383.
    This paper approaches the problem of testimony from a new direction. Rather than focusing on the epistemic grounds for testimony, it considers the problem from the perspective of an individual who must choose whom to trust from a population of many would-be testifiers. A computer simulation is presented which illustrates that in many plausible situations, those who trust without attempting to judge the reliability of testifiers outperform those who attempt to seek out the more reliable members of the community. In (...)
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  21.  50
    Hermeneutics at the Crossroads.Kevin J. Vanhoozer, James K. A. Smith & Bruce Ellis Benson (eds.) - 2006 - Indiana University Press.
    In this multi-faceted volume, Christian and other religiously committed theorists find themselves at an uneasy point in history—between premodernity, modernity, and postmodernity—where disciplines and methods, cultural and linguistic traditions, and religious commitments tangle and cross. Here, leading theorists explore the state of the art of the contemporary hermeneutical terrain. As they address the work of Gadamer, Ricoeur, and Derrida, the essays collected in this wide-ranging work engage key themes in philosophical hermeneutics, hermeneutics and religion, hermeneutics and the other arts, hermeneutics (...)
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  22.  25
    Remythologizing theology: divine action, passion, and authorship.Kevin J. Vanhoozer - 2010 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    The rise of modern science and the proclaimed 'death' of God in the nineteenth century led to a radical questioning of divine action and authorship - Bultmann's celebrated 'demythologizing'. Remythologizing Theology moves in another direction that begins by taking seriously the biblical accounts of God's speaking. It establishes divine communicative action as the formal and material principle of theology, and suggests that interpersonal dialogue, rather than impersonal causality, is the keystone of God's relationship with the world. This original contribution to (...)
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  23.  9
    From Science to an Adequate Mythology.Kevin J. Sharpe - 1984 - Auckland, N.Z. : Interface Press.
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  24. Religiously affiliated law schools: An added dimension.Kevin J. Worthen - 2009 - In Scott W. Cameron, Galen L. Fletcher & Jane H. Wise (eds.), Life in the Law: Service & Integrity. J. Reuben Clark Law Society, Brigham Young University Law School.
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  25. The ontological argument from Descartes to Hegel.Kevin J. Harrelson - 2009 - Amherst, N.Y.: Humanity Books.
    Proof and perception : the context of the argumentum cartesianum -- Refutations of atheism : ontological arguments in English philosophy, 1652-1705 -- Being and intuition : Malebranche's appropriation of the argument -- An adequate conception : the argument in Spinoza's philosophy -- Ontological arguments in Leibniz and the German enlightenment -- Kant's systematic critique of the ontological argument -- Hegel's reconstruction of the argument.
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  26.  44
    MicroRNAs and metazoan macroevolution: insights into canalization, complexity, and the Cambrian explosion.Kevin J. Peterson, Michael R. Dietrich & Mark A. McPeek - 2009 - Bioessays 31 (7):736-747.
    One of the most interesting challenges facing paleobiologists is explaining the Cambrian explosion, the dramatic appearance of most metazoan animal phyla in the Early Cambrian, and the subsequent stability of these body plans over the ensuing 530 million years. We propose that because phenotypic variation decreases through geologic time, because microRNAs (miRNAs) increase genic precision, by turning an imprecise number of mRNA transcripts into a more precise number of protein molecules, and because miRNAs are continuously being added to metazoan genomes (...)
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  27. Separating Directives and Assertions Using Simple Signaling Games.Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2011 - Journal of Philosophy 108 (3):158-169.
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  28.  22
    Methodology, Reformulation, and Underdetermination: Essays on Realism and Interpretation in Foundational Physics.Kevin J. Coffey - 2011 - Dissertation, University of Michigan
    Many scientific theories purport to describe empirically inaccessible aspects of the world. The agenda of foundational physics is more ambitious still: to characterize the world at the level of 'primitive ontology'. In this pursuit it often posits new and peculiar physical features, a proclivity aided by the abstract, mathematical way in which foundational theories are framed. But how do we decipher their physical content, and in particular the accounts of primitive ontology they offer, and why think that content is true? (...)
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  29. Simulation from schematics: dorsal stream processing and the perception of implied motion.Kevin J. Holmes & Phillip Wolff - 2010 - In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society. pp. 2704--2709.
     
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  30. Newton's laws beyond the classroom walls.Kevin J. Pugh - 2004 - Science Education 88 (2):182-196.
     
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  31.  87
    Talking to neighbors: The evolution of regional meaning.Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (1):69-85.
    In seeking to explain the evolution of social cooperation, many scholars are using increasingly complex game-theoretic models. These complexities often model readily observable features of human and animal populations. In the case of previous games analyzed in the literature, these modifications have had radical effects on the stability and efficiency properties of the models. We will analyze the effect of adding spatial structure to two communication games: the Lewis Sender-Receiver game and a modified Stag Hunt game. For the Stag Hunt, (...)
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  32.  50
    Social network structure and the achievement of consensus.Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2012 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 11 (1):26-44.
    It is widely believed that bringing parties with differing opinions together to discuss their differences will help both in securing consensus and also in ensuring that this consensus closely approximates the truth. This paper investigates this presumption using two mathematical and computer simulation models. Ultimately, these models show that increased contact can be useful in securing both consensus and truth, but it is not always beneficial in this way. This suggests one should not, without qualification, support policies which increase interpersonal (...)
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  33.  8
    An Exposition of Augustine's Theodicy: From Its Influences to Its Modern Application.Kevin J. Gray - unknown
    This paper delineates the thrust of Augustine's theodicy against the broader background of his Christian Neoplatonic outlook. We examine Augustine's initial Manichean influences and see how these beliefs carry over to his mature thought, which is evident in the seventh book of the Confessions. After Augustine's time with the Manicheans, we look at how he was so influenced by the books of the Platonists (libri platonicorum). Although Augustine's position regarding the problem of evil shifts, his idea of the primacy of (...)
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  34.  56
    The Development of a Virtue Ethics Scale.Kevin J. Shanahan & Michael R. Hyman - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 42 (2):197 - 208.
    Drawing on conceptual works by Murphy (1999) and Solomon (1999), we develop a virtue ethics scale. Other ethics scales, which are grounded in deontological and teleological principles, may be used to classify people according to their beliefs about (1) the criteria they use to make ethical decisions, or (2) the ethicality of those decisions. We suggest augmenting these scales with our virtue ethics scale, which may be used to classify people according to their beliefs about the virtuous qualities of businesspeople.
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  35. Pictorial Syntax.Kevin J. Lande - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
    It is commonly assumed that images, whether in the world or in the head, do not have a privileged analysis into constituent parts. They are thought to lack the sort of syntactic structure necessary for representing complex contents and entering into sophisticated patterns of inference. I reject this assumption. “Image grammars” are models in computer vision that articulate systematic principles governing the form and content of images. These models are empirically credible and can be construed as literal grammars for images. (...)
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  36.  28
    Habits without values.Kevin J. Miller, Amitai Shenhav & Elliot A. Ludvig - 2019 - Psychological Review 126 (2):292-311.
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  37.  44
    Between Ecological Psychology and Enactivism: Is There Resonance?Kevin J. Ryan & Shaun Gallagher - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Ecological psychologists and enactivists agree that the best explanation for a large share of cognition is nonrepresentational in kind. In both ecological psychology and enactivist philosophy, then, the task is to offer an explanans that does not rely on representations. Different theorists within these camps have contrasting notions of what the best kind of nonrepresentational explanation will look like, yet they agree on one central point: instead of focusing solely on factors interior to an agent, an important aspect of cognition (...)
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  38.  17
    Painful husbandry procedures in livestock and poultry.Kevin J. Stafford & David J. Mellor - 2010 - In Temple Grandin (ed.), Improving animal welfare: a practical approach. Cambridge, MA: CAB International. pp. 88--114.
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  39.  65
    Explaining fairness in complex environments.Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2008 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 7 (1):81-97.
    This article presents the evolutionary dynamics of three games: the Nash bargaining game, the ultimatum game, and a hybrid of the two. One might expect that the probability that some behavior evolves in an environment with two games would be near the probability that the same behavior evolves in either game alone. This is not the case for the ultimatum and Nash bargaining games. Fair behavior is more likely to evolve in a combined game than in either game taken individually. (...)
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  40. Compositionality and Context in Perception (draft).Kevin J. Lande - manuscript
    A compositional theory of perceptual representations would explain how the accuracy conditions of a given type of perceptual state depend on the contents of constituent perceptual representations and the way those constituents are structurally related. Such a theory would offer a basic framework for understanding the nature, grounds, and epistemic significance of perception. But an adequate semantics of perceptual representations must accommodate the holistic nature of perception. In particular, perception is replete with context effects, in which the way one perceptually (...)
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  41. Philosophical antecedents to Ricoeur's Time and Narrative.Kevin J. Vanhoozer - 1991 - In David Wood (ed.), On Paul Ricoeur: Narrative and Interpretation. Routledge. pp. 34--54.
     
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  42.  61
    Plasticity and language: an example of the Baldwin effect?Kevin J. S. Zollman & Rory Smead - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 147 (1):7-21.
    In recent years, many scholars have suggested that the Baldwin effect may play an important role in the evolution of language. However, the Baldwin effect is a multifaceted and controversial process and the assessment of its connection with language is difficult without a formal model. This paper provides a first step in this direction. We examine a game-theoretic model of the interaction between plasticity and evolution in the context of a simple language game. Additionally, we describe three distinct aspects of (...)
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  43.  67
    Optimal Publishing Strategies.Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2009 - Episteme 6 (2):185-199.
    Journals regulate a significant portion of the communication between scientists. This paper devises an agent-based model of scientific practice and uses it to compare various strategies for selecting publications by journals. Surprisingly, it appears that the best selection method for journals is to publish relatively few papers and to select those papers it publishes at random from the available “above threshold” papers it receives. This strategy is most effective at maintaining an appropriate type of diversity that is needed to solve (...)
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  44.  5
    Rethinking practice, research and education: a philosophical inquiry.Kevin J. Flint - 2015 - New York: Bloomsbury Academic. Edited by Adam Barnard & Paul Gibbs.
    Rethinking Practice, Research and Education brings together philosophy with traditional methodological discourse, and opens a space for critical thinking in social and educational research. Drawing on the work of Heidegger, Derrida, Foucault and their descendants, this engaging critical examination of practice applies a deconstructive reading to the practices of research.Where is justice in the practice of research? How do paradigms for the production of knowledge shape what is given in the practice of research? What are the key issues involved in (...)
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  45. Finding Alternatives to Handicap Theory.Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2013 - Biological Theory 8 (2):127-132.
    The Handicap Principle represents a central theory in the biological understanding of signaling. This paper presents a number of alternative theories to the Handicap Principle and argues that some of these theories may provide a better explanation for the evolution and stability of honest communication.
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  46. The theory of games as a tool for the social epistemologist.Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 178 (4):1381-1401.
    Traditionally, epistemologists have distinguished between epistemic and pragmatic goals. In so doing, they presume that much of game theory is irrelevant to epistemic enterprises. I will show that this is a mistake. Even if we restrict attention to purely epistemic motivations, members of epistemic groups will face a multitude of strategic choices. I illustrate several contexts where individuals who are concerned solely with the discovery of truth will nonetheless face difficult game theoretic problems. Examples of purely epistemic coordination problems and (...)
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  47. Dictionary for Theological Interpretation of the Bible.Kevin J. Vanhoozer - 2005
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  48.  18
    Feature activation during word recognition: action, visual, and associative-semantic priming effects.Kevin J. Y. Lam, Ton Dijkstra & Shirley-Ann Rueschemeyer - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6:127413.
    Embodied theories of language postulate that language meaning is stored in modality-specific brain areas generally involved in perception and action in the real world. However, the temporal dynamics of the interaction between modality-specific information and lexical-semantic processing remain unclear. We investigated the relative timing at which two types of modality-specific information (action-based and visual-form information) contribute to lexical-semantic comprehension. To this end, we applied a behavioral priming paradigm in which prime and target words were related with respect to (1) action (...)
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  49.  45
    An Institutional Duty to Vote: Applying Role Morality in Representative Democracy.Kevin J. Elliott - forthcoming - Political Theory.
    Is voting a duty of democratic citizenship? This article advances a new argument for the existence of a duty to vote. It argues that every normative account of electoral representation requires universal turnout to function in line with its own internal normative logic. This generates a special obligation for citizens to vote in electoral representative contexts as a function of the role morality of democratic citizenship. Because voting uniquely authorizes office holding in representative democracies, and because universal turnout contributes powerfully (...)
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  50. William of Auvergne and St. Thomas Aquinas on the real distinction between being and essence.Kevin J. Caster - 2004 - In Jeremiah Hackett, William E. Murnion & Carl N. Still (eds.), Being and Thought in Aquinas. Global Academic.
     
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