33 found
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  1.  48
    Compression and communication in the cultural evolution of linguistic structure.Simon Kirby, Monica Tamariz, Hannah Cornish & Kenny Smith - 2015 - Cognition 141 (C):87-102.
  2.  31
    Eliminating unpredictable variation through iterated learning.Kenny Smith & Elizabeth Wonnacott - 2010 - Cognition 116 (3):444-449.
  3.  34
    Evolving artificial sign languages in the lab: From improvised gesture to systematic sign.Yasamin Motamedi, Marieke Schouwstra, Kenny Smith, Jennifer Culbertson & Simon Kirby - 2019 - Cognition 192 (C):103964.
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  4.  84
    Non‐adjacent Dependency Learning in Humans and Other Animals.Benjamin Wilson, Michelle Spierings, Andrea Ravignani, Jutta L. Mueller, Toben H. Mintz, Frank Wijnen, Anne Kant, Kenny Smith & Arnaud Rey - 2020 - Topics in Cognitive Science 12 (3):843-858.
    Wilson et al. focus on one class of AGL tasks: the cognitively demanding task of detecting non‐adjacent dependencies (NADs) among items. They provide a typology of the different types of NADs in natural languages and in AGL tasks. A range of cues affect NAD learning, ranging from the variability and number of intervening elements to the presence of shared prosodic cues between the dependent items. These cues, important for humans to discover non‐adjacent dependencies, are also found to facilitate NAD learning (...)
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  5.  29
    Contextual predictability shapes signal autonomy.James Winters, Simon Kirby & Kenny Smith - 2018 - Cognition 176 (C):15-30.
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  6.  44
    Zipf’s Law of Abbreviation and the Principle of Least Effort: Language users optimise a miniature lexicon for efficient communication.Jasmeen Kanwal, Kenny Smith, Jennifer Culbertson & Simon Kirby - 2017 - Cognition 165 (C):45-52.
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  7. Cross-Situational Learning: An Experimental Study of Word-Learning Mechanisms.Kenny Smith, Andrew D. M. Smith & Richard A. Blythe - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (3):480-498.
    Cross-situational learning is a mechanism for learning the meaning of words across multiple exposures, despite exposure-by-exposure uncertainty as to the word's true meaning. We present experimental evidence showing that humans learn words effectively using cross-situational learning, even at high levels of referential uncertainty. Both overall success rates and the time taken to learn words are affected by the degree of referential uncertainty, with greater referential uncertainty leading to less reliable, slower learning. Words are also learned less successfully and more slowly (...)
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  8.  78
    Non‐adjacent Dependency Learning in Humans and Other Animals.Benjamin Wilson, Michelle Spierings, Andrea Ravignani, Jutta L. Mueller, Toben H. Mintz, Frank Wijnen, Anne van der Kant, Kenny Smith & Arnaud Rey - 2018 - Topics in Cognitive Science 12 (3):843-858.
    Wilson et al. focus on one class of AGL tasks: the cognitively demanding task of detecting non‐adjacent dependencies (NADs) among items. They provide a typology of the different types of NADs in natural languages and in AGL tasks. A range of cues affect NAD learning, ranging from the variability and number of intervening elements to the presence of shared prosodic cues between the dependent items. These cues, important for humans to discover non‐adjacent dependencies, are also found to facilitate NAD learning (...)
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  9.  31
    The cognitive roots of regularization in language.Vanessa Ferdinand, Simon Kirby & Kenny Smith - 2019 - Cognition 184 (C):53-68.
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  10.  28
    Simplicity and informativeness in semantic category systems.Jon W. Carr, Kenny Smith, Jennifer Culbertson & Simon Kirby - 2020 - Cognition 202 (C):104289.
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  11.  71
    Minimal Requirements for the Emergence of Learned Signaling.Matthew Spike, Kevin Stadler, Simon Kirby & Kenny Smith - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (7):623-658.
    The emergence of signaling systems has been observed in numerous experimental and real-world contexts, but there is no consensus on which shared mechanisms underlie such phenomena. A number of explanatory mechanisms have been proposed within several disciplines, all of which have been instantiated as credible working models. However, they are usually framed as being mutually incompatible. Using an exemplar-based framework, we replicate these models in a minimal configuration which allows us to directly compare them. This reveals that the development of (...)
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  12. The Impact of Information Structure on the Emergence of Differential Object Marking: An Experimental Study.Shira Tal, Kenny Smith, Jennifer Culbertson, Eitan Grossman & Inbal Arnon - 2022 - Cognitive Science 46 (3):e13119.
    Cognitive Science, Volume 46, Issue 3, March 2022.
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  13.  42
    Word Meanings Evolve to Selectively Preserve Distinctions on Salient Dimensions.Catriona Silvey, Simon Kirby & Kenny Smith - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (1):212-226.
    Words refer to objects in the world, but this correspondence is not one-to-one: Each word has a range of referents that share features on some dimensions but differ on others. This property of language is called underspecification. Parts of the lexicon have characteristic patterns of underspecification; for example, artifact nouns tend to specify shape, but not color, whereas substance nouns specify material but not shape. These regularities in the lexicon enable learners to generalize new words appropriately. How does the lexicon (...)
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  14.  85
    How Culture and Biology Interact to Shape Language and the Language Faculty.Kenny Smith - 2018 - Topics in Cognitive Science 12 (2):690-712.
    Smith gives an excellent overview on research in language evolution, in which he discusses several recent models of how linguistic systems and the cognitive capacities involved in language learning may have co‐evolved. He illustrates how combined pressures on language learning and communication/use produce compositionally structured languages. Once in place, a (culturally transmitted) communication system creates new selection pressures on the capacity for acquiring these systems.
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  15.  34
    From partners to populations: A hierarchical Bayesian account of coordination and convention.Robert D. Hawkins, Michael Franke, Michael C. Frank, Adele E. Goldberg, Kenny Smith, Thomas L. Griffiths & Noah D. Goodman - 2023 - Psychological Review 130 (4):977-1016.
  16.  9
    Minimal Requirements for the Emergence of Learned Signaling.Matthew Spike, Kevin Stadler, Simon Kirby & Kenny Smith - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (3):623-658.
    The emergence of signaling systems has been observed in numerous experimental and real‐world contexts, but there is no consensus on which (if any) shared mechanisms underlie such phenomena. A number of explanatory mechanisms have been proposed within several disciplines, all of which have been instantiated as credible working models. However, they are usually framed as being mutually incompatible. Using an exemplar‐based framework, we replicate these models in a minimal configuration which allows us to directly compare them. This reveals that the (...)
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  17.  29
    Word learning under infinite uncertainty.Richard A. Blythe, Andrew D. M. Smith & Kenny Smith - 2016 - Cognition 151 (C):18-27.
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  18.  37
    A computational model of the cultural co-evolution of language and mindreading.Marieke Woensdregt, Chris Cummins & Kenny Smith - 2020 - Synthese 199 (1-2):1347-1385.
    Several evolutionary accounts of human social cognition posit that language has co-evolved with the sophisticated mindreading abilities of modern humans. It has also been argued that these mindreading abilities are the product of cultural, rather than biological, evolution. Taken together, these claims suggest that the evolution of language has played an important role in the cultural evolution of human social cognition. Here we present a new computational model which formalises the assumptions that underlie this hypothesis, in order to explore how (...)
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  19.  90
    Learning Times for Large Lexicons Through Cross‐Situational Learning.Richard A. Blythe, Kenny Smith & Andrew D. M. Smith - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (4):620-642.
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  20.  43
    Adult Learning and Language Simplification.Mark Atkinson, Kenny Smith & Simon Kirby - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2818-2854.
    Languages spoken in larger populations are relatively simple. A possible explanation for this is that languages with a greater number of speakers tend to also be those with higher proportions of non‐native speakers, who may simplify language during learning. We assess this explanation for the negative correlation between population size and linguistic complexity in three experiments, using artificial language learning techniques to investigate both the simplifications made by individual adult learners and the potential for such simplifications to influence group‐level language (...)
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  21. Iterated learning in populations of Bayesian agents.Kenny Smith - 2009 - In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. pp. 697--702.
     
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  22.  34
    Conceptual Similarity and Communicative Need Shape Colexification: An Experimental Study.Andres Karjus, Richard A. Blythe, Simon Kirby, Tianyu Wang & Kenny Smith - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (9):e13035.
    Colexification refers to the phenomenon of multiple meanings sharing one word in a language. Cross‐linguistic lexification patterns have been shown to be largely predictable, as similar concepts are often colexified. We test a recent claim that, beyond this general tendency, communicative needs play an important role in shaping colexification patterns. We approach this question by means of a series of human experiments, using an artificial language communication game paradigm. Our results across four experiments match the previous cross‐linguistic findings: all other (...)
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  23.  11
    The emergence of word-internal repetition through iterated learning: Explaining the mismatch between learning biases and language design.Mitsuhiko Ota, Aitor San José & Kenny Smith - 2021 - Cognition 210 (C):104585.
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  24. Reconsidering human cross-situational learning capacities: A revision to Yu & Smith's (2007) experimental paradigm.Kenny Smith - 2009 - In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. pp. 2711--2716.
     
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  25.  26
    Interaction Promotes the Adaptation of Referential Conventions to the Communicative Context.Lucía Castillo, Kenny Smith & Holly P. Branigan - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (8):e12780.
    Coordination between speakers in dialogue requires balancing repetition and change, the old and the new. Interlocutors tend to reuse established forms, relying on communicative precedents. Yet linguistic interaction also necessitates adaptation to changing contexts or dynamic tasks, which might favor abandoning existing precedents in favor of better communicative alternatives. We explored this tension using a maze game task in which individual participants and interacting pairs had to describe figures and their positions in one of two possible maze types: a regular (...)
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  26.  32
    Is a holistic protolanguage a plausible precursor to language? A test case for a modern evolutionary linguistics.Kenny Smith - 2008 - Interaction Studies 9 (1):1-17.
  27.  52
    Speakers Align With Their Partner's Overspecification During Interaction.Jia E. Loy & Kenny Smith - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (12):e13065.
    Speakers often overspecify by encoding more information than is necessary when referring to an object (e.g., “the blue mug” for the only mug in a group of objects). We investigated the role of a partner's linguistic behavior (whether or not they overspecify) on a speaker's own tendency to overspecify. We used a director–matcher task in which speakers interacted with a partner who either consistently overspecified or minimally specified in the color/size dimension (Experiments 1, 2, and 3), as well as with (...)
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  28.  43
    Context and Perceptual Salience Influence the Formation of Novel Stereotypes via Cumulative Cultural Evolution.Jacqui Hutchison, Sheila J. Cunningham, Gillian Slessor, James Urquhart, Kenny Smith & Douglas Martin - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S1):186-212.
    We use a transmission chain method to establish how context and category salience influence the formation of novel stereotypes through cumulative cultural evolution. We created novel alien targets by combining features from three category dimensions—color, movement, and shape—thereby creating social targets that were individually unique but that also shared category membership with other aliens (e.g., two aliens might be the same color and shape but move differently). At the start of the transmission chains each alien was randomly assigned attributes that (...)
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  29. Do our modern skulls house stone-age minds?Jane Suilin Lavelle & Kenny Smith - 2014 - In Michela Massimi (ed.), Philosophy and the Sciences for Everyone. Routledge.
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  30.  18
    Is a holistic protolanguage a plausible precursor to language?: A test case for a modern evolutionary linguistics.Kenny Smith - 2008 - Interaction Studies 9 (1):1-17.
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  31.  5
    Is a holistic protolanguage a plausible precursor to language?Kenny Smith - 2008 - Interaction Studies. Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies / Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies 9 (1):1-17.
    If protolanguage was a holistic system where complex meanings were conveyed using unanalysed forms, there must be some process which delivered up the elements of modern language from this system. This paper draws on evidence from computational modelling, developmental and historical linguistics and comparative psychology to evaluate the plausibility of the analysis process. While some of the criticisms levelled at analysis can be refuted using such evidence, several areas are highlighted where further evidence is required to decide key issues. More (...)
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  32.  23
    Introduction. Cultural transmission and the evolution of human behaviour.Kenny Smith, Michael Kalish, Thomas Griffiths & Stephan Lewandowsky - unknown
    The articles in this theme issue seek to understand the evolutionary bases of social learning and the consequences of cultural transmission for the evolution of human behaviour. In this introductory article, we provide a summary of these articles and a personal view of some promising lines of development suggested by the work summarized here.
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  33.  36
    The brain plus the cultural transmission mechanism determine the nature of language.Kenny Smith, Simon Kirby & Andrew D. M. Smith - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (5):533-534.
    We agree that language adapts to the brain, but we note that language also has to adapt to brain-external constraints, such as those arising from properties of the cultural transmission medium. The hypothesis that Christiansen & Chater (C&C) raise in the target article not only has profound consequences for our understanding of language, but also for our understanding of the biological evolution of the language faculty.
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