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  1. Human reasoning and cognitive science.Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen - 2008 - Boston, USA: MIT Press.
    In the late summer of 1998, the authors, a cognitive scientist and a logician, started talking about the relevance of modern mathematical logic to the study of human reasoning, and we have been talking ever since. This book is an interim report of that conversation. It argues that results such as those on the Wason selection task, purportedly showing the irrelevance of formal logic to actual human reasoning, have been widely misinterpreted, mainly because the picture of logic current in psychology (...)
  2.  37
    A Cognitive Theory of Graphical and Linguistic Reasoning: Logic and Implementation.Keith Stenning & Jon Oberlander - 1995 - Cognitive Science 19 (1):97-140.
    We discuss external and internal graphical and linguistic representational systems. We argue that a cognitive theory of peoples' reasoning performance must account for (a) the logical equivalence of inferences expressed in graphical and linguistic form, and (b) the implementational differences that affect facility of inference. Our theory proposes that graphical representation limit abstraction and thereby aid “processibility”. We discuss the ideas of specificity and abstraction, and their cognitive relevance. Empirical support both comes from tasks which involve the manipulation of external (...)
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  3.  30
    Semantic Interpretation as Computation in Nonmonotonic Logic: The Real Meaning of the Suppression Task.Keith Stenning & Michiel Lambalgen - 2005 - Cognitive Science 29 (6):919-960.
    Interpretation is the process whereby a hearer reasons to an interpretation of a speaker's discourse. The hearer normally adopts a credulous attitude to the discourse, at least for the purposes of interpreting it. That is to say the hearer tries to accommodate the truth of all the speaker's utterances in deriving an intended model. We present a nonmonotonic logical model of this process which defines unique minimal preferred models and efficiently simulates a kind of closed-world reasoning of particular interest for (...)
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  4.  12
    Semantic Interpretation as Computation in Nonmonotonic Logic: The Real Meaning of the Suppression Task.Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen - 2005 - Cognitive Science 29 (6):919-960.
    Interpretation is the process whereby a hearer reasons to an interpretation of a speaker's discourse. The hearer normally adopts a credulous attitude to the discourse, at least for the purposes of interpreting it. That is to say the hearer tries to accommodate the truth of all the speaker's utterances in deriving an intended model. We present a nonmonotonic logical model of this process which defines unique minimal preferred models and efficiently simulates a kind of closed-world reasoning of particular interest for (...)
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  5.  24
    A little logic goes a long way: basing experiment on semantic theory in the cognitive science of conditional reasoning.Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (4):481-529.
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  6.  38
    A little logic goes a long way: basing experiment on semantic theory in the cognitive science of conditional reasoning.Keith Stenning & Michiel Lambalgen - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (4):481-529.
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  7.  49
    Aligning logical and psychological perspectives on diagrammatic reasoning.Keith Stenning & Oliver Lemon - 2001 - Artificial Intelligence Review 15:29--62.
    We advance a theoretical framework which combines recent insights of research in logic, psychology, and formal semantics, on the nature of diagrammatic representation and reasoning. In particular, we wish to explain the varied efficacy of reasoning and representing with diagrams. In general we consider diagrammatic representations to be restricted in expressive power, and we wish to explain efficacy of reasoning with diagrams via the semantical and computational properties of such restricted `languages'. Connecting these foundational insights (from semantics and complexity theory) (...)
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  8.  87
    Logic in the study of psychiatric disorders: Executive function and rule-following.Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen - 2007 - Topoi 26 (1):97-114.
    Executive function has become an important concept in explanations of psychiatric disorders, but we currently lack comprehensive models of normal executive function and of its malfunctions. Here we illustrate how defeasible logical analysis can aid progress in this area. We illustrate using autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as example disorders, and show how logical analysis reveals commonalities between linguistic and non-linguistic behaviours within each disorder, and how contrasting sub-components of executive function are involved across disorders. This analysis reveals (...)
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  9.  89
    Connectionism, classical cognitive science and experimental psychology.Mike Oaksford, Nick Chater & Keith Stenning - 1990 - AI and Society 4 (1):73-90.
    Classical symbolic computational models of cognition are at variance with the empirical findings in the cognitive psychology of memory and inference. Standard symbolic computers are well suited to remembering arbitrary lists of symbols and performing logical inferences. In contrast, human performance on such tasks is extremely limited. Standard models donot easily capture content addressable memory or context sensitive defeasible inference, which are natural and effortless for people. We argue that Connectionism provides a more natural framework in which to model this (...)
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  10.  28
    Logic programming, probability, and two-system accounts of reasoning: a rejoinder to Oaksford and Chater.Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen - 2016 - Thinking and Reasoning 22 (3):355-368.
    This reply to Oaksford and Chater’s ’s critical discussion of our use of logic programming to model and predict patterns of conditional reasoning will frame the dispute in terms of the semantics of the conditional. We begin by outlining some common features of LP and probabilistic conditionals in knowledge-rich reasoning over long-term memory knowledge bases. For both, context determines causal strength; there are inferences from the absence of certain evidence; and both have analogues of the Ramsey test. Some current work (...)
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  11.  92
    To Naturalize or Not to Naturalize? An Issue for Cognitive Science as Well as Anthropology.Keith Stenning - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (3):413-419.
    Several of Beller, Bender, and Medin’s (2012) issues are as relevant within cognitive science as between it and anthropology. Knowledge-rich human mental processes impose hermeneutic tasks, both on subjects and researchers. Psychology's current philosophy of science is ill suited to analyzing these: Its demand for ‘‘stimulus control’’ needs to give way to ‘‘negotiation of mutual interpretation.’’ Cognitive science has ways to address these issues, as does anthropology. An example from my own work is about how defeasible logics are mathematical models (...)
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  12.  40
    Throwing the normative baby out with the prescriptivist bathwater.Theodora Achourioti, Andrew Fugard & Keith Stenning - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (5):249-249.
    It is neither desirable nor possible to eliminate normative concerns from the psychology of reasoning. Norms define the most fundamental psychological questions: What are people trying to do, and how? Even if no one system of reasoning can be the norm, pure descriptivism is as undesirable and unobtainable in the psychology of reasoning as elsewhere in science.
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  13.  13
    Logic in the study of psychiatric disorders: executive function and rule-following.Keith Stenning & Michiel Lambalgen - 2007 - Topoi 26 (1):97-114.
    Executive function has become an important concept in explanations of psychiatric disorders, but we currently lack comprehensive models of normal executive function and of its malfunctions. Here we illustrate how defeasible logical analysis can aid progress in this area. We illustrate using autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as example disorders, and show how logical analysis reveals commonalities between linguistic and non-linguistic behaviours within each disorder, and how contrasting sub-components of executive function are involved across disorders. This analysis reveals (...)
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  14. Effects of representational modality and thinking style on learning to solve reasoning problems.Padraic Monaghan & Keith Stenning - 1998 - In M. A. Gernsbacher & S. J. Derry (eds.), Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Maweh, N.J., USA: Lawerence Erlbaum. pp. 716--721.
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  15.  30
    Reasoning in Non-probabilistic Uncertainty: Logic Programming and Neural-Symbolic Computing as Examples.Tarek R. Besold, Artur D’Avila Garcez, Keith Stenning, Leendert van der Torre & Michiel van Lambalgen - 2017 - Minds and Machines 27 (1):37-77.
    This article aims to achieve two goals: to show that probability is not the only way of dealing with uncertainty ; and to provide evidence that logic-based methods can well support reasoning with uncertainty. For the latter claim, two paradigmatic examples are presented: logic programming with Kleene semantics for modelling reasoning from information in a discourse, to an interpretation of the state of affairs of the intended model, and a neural-symbolic implementation of input/output logic for dealing with uncertainty in dynamic (...)
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  16.  20
    Interpretation, representation, and deductive reasoning.Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen - 2008 - In Jonathan Eric Adler & Lance J. Rips (eds.), Reasoning: Studies of Human Inference and its Foundations. Cambridge University Press. pp. 223-248.
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  17.  22
    Nonsentential representation and nonformality.Keith Stenning & Jon Oberlander - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):365-366.
  18.  26
    Statistical models as cognitive models of individual differences in reasoning.Andrew J. B. Fugard & Keith Stenning - 2013 - Argument and Computation 4 (1):89 - 102.
    (2013). Statistical models as cognitive models of individual differences in reasoning. Argument & Computation: Vol. 4, Formal Models of Reasoning in Cognitive Psychology, pp. 89-102. doi: 10.1080/19462166.2012.674061.
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  19.  9
    Bounded rationality: from fast and frugal heuristics to logic programming and back.Francisco Vargas, Laura Martignon & Keith Stenning - 2023 - Mind and Society 22 (1):33-51.
    The notion of “bounded rationality” was introduced by Simon as an appropriate framework for explaining how agents reason and make decisions in accordance with their computational limitations and the characteristics of the environments in which they exist (seen metaphorically as two complementary scissor blades).We elaborate on how bounded rationality is usually conceived in psychology and on its relationship with logic. We focus on the relationship between heuristics and some non-monotonic logical systems. These two categories of cognitive tools share fundamental features. (...)
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  20.  24
    The Complex Mind: An Interdisciplinary Approach.David McFarland, Keith Stenning & Maggie McGonigle (eds.) - 2012 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Machine generated contents note: -- Preface -- Acknowledgements -- Notes on Contributors -- PART I: COMPLEXITY IN ANIMAL MINDS -- Introduction: M.McGonigle-Chalmers -- Relational and Absolute Discrimination Learning by Squirrel Monkeys: Establishing a Common Ground with Human Cognition; B.T.Jones -- Serial List Retention by Non-Human Primates: Complexity and Cognitive Continuity; F.R.Treichler -- The Use of Spatial Structure in Working Memory: A Comparative Standpoint; C.De Lillo -- The Emergence of Linear Sequencing in Children: A Continuity Account and a Formal Model; M.McGonigle-Chalmers&I.Kusel (...)
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  21.  10
    Applying Marr to memory.Keith Stenning - 1987 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (3):494-495.
  22.  18
    Cooperative versus adversarial communication; contextual embedding versus disengagement.Keith Stenning & Padraic Monaghan - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):696-697.
    Subjects exhibiting logical competence choices, for example, in Wason's selection task, are exhibiting an important skill. We take issue with the idea that this skill is individualistic and must be selected for at some different level than System 1 skills. Our case redraws System 1/2 boundaries, and reconsiders the relationship of competence model to skill.
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  23.  6
    Episodic is what apes are not.Keith Stenning - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (1):158-159.
  24. Embedding logic in communication: lessons from the logic classroom.Keith Stenning - 1996 - In J. F. A. K. van Benthem (ed.), Logic and Argumentation. North-Holland. pp. 227--240.
     
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  25. Language Evolution: Enlarging the Picture.Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen - 2012 - In David McFarland, Keith Stenning & Maggie McGonigle (eds.), The Complex Mind. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 264-282.
     
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  26.  75
    “Nonmonotonic” does not mean “probabilistic”.Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):102-103.
    Oaksford & Chater (O&C) advocate Bayesian probability as a way to deal formally with the pervasive nonmonotonicity of common sense reasoning. We show that some forms of nonmonotonicity cannot be treated by Bayesian methods.
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  27. Rules, Regularities, Randomness. Festschrift for Michiel van Lambalgen.Keith Stenning & Martin Stokhof (eds.) - 2022 - Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Institute for Logic, Language and Computation.
    Festschrift for Michiel van Lambalgen on the occasion of his retirement as professor of logic and cognitive science at the University of Amsterdam.
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  28.  8
    The Cognitive Impact of Diagrams.Keith Stenning - 1996 - In J. Ezquerro A. Clark (ed.), Philosophy and Cognitive Science: Categories, Consciousness, and Reasoning. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 181--196.
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  29. Semantics as a foundation for psychology: A case study of Wason's selection task. [REVIEW]Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen - 2001 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10 (3):273-317.
    We review the various explanations that have been offered toaccount for subjects'' behaviour in Wason ''s famous selection task. Weargue that one element that is lacking is a good understanding ofsubjects'' semantics for the key expressions involved, and anunderstanding of how this semantics is affected by the demands the taskputs upon the subject''s cognitive system. We make novel proposals inthese terms for explaining the major content effects of deonticmaterials. Throughout we illustrate with excerpts from tutorialdialogues which motivate the kinds of (...)
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  30.  60
    Theories of diagrammatic reasoning: Distinguishing component problems. [REVIEW]Corin Gurr, John Lee & Keith Stenning - 1998 - Minds and Machines 8 (4):533-557.
    Theories of diagrams and diagrammatic reasoning typically seek to account for either the formal semantics of diagrams, or for the advantages which diagrammatic representations hold for the reasoner over other forms of representation. Regrettably, almost no theory exists which accounts for both of these issues together, nor how they affect one another. We do not attempt to provide such an account here. We do, however, seek to lay out larger context than is generally used for examining the processes of using (...)
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  31.  34
    Lewis Carroll , Das Spiel der Logik, Germam Translation by Micheal Zöllner of 671, Edited and with an afterword by Paul Good. Tropen Verlag, Cologne, and Frommann-Holzboog, Stuttgart, 1998, 199 pp. - Paul Good, Logik—ein Spiel, Therein, pp. 103–119. [REVIEW]Keith Stenning - 1999 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 64 (3):1368-1370.
  32.  21
    Terry regier, the human semantic potential: Spatial language and constrained connectionism. [REVIEW]Keith Stenning - 2001 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10 (2):266-269.
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