In this fascinating study van der Meulen undertakes to show that the Hegelian view of spirit and history is untenable. The critique is extended to Marx's theories. Throughout the work the Hegelian views are contrasted with the more dualistic position of Kant.--K. H.
When this was already in print, I came across an article on ‘Porsons Gesetz’ by K. Witte in Hermes xlix. , pp. 229–245, which led me to another article with the same title by J. Krái in Sitzungsberichte der königlböhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, Klasse für Philosophic usw., Jahrgang 1909, ix. Král reckons the percentage of spondees in the fifth foot of the tragic trimeter at 43·4, and he has forestalled me in finding therein a partial explanation of Porson's Law. (...) This suggestion is curtly dismissed by Witte, who sees in the predominance of iambs not a cause but a consequence of the Law. (shrink)
When this was already in print, I came across an article on ‘Porsons Gesetz’ by K. Witte in Hermes xlix., pp. 229–245, which led me to another article with the same title by J. Krái in Sitzungsberichte der königlböhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, Klasse für Philosophic usw., Jahrgang 1909, ix. Král reckons the percentage of spondees in the fifth foot of the tragic trimeter at 43·4, and he has forestalled me in finding therein a partial explanation of Porson's Law. This (...) suggestion is curtly dismissed by Witte, who sees in the predominance of iambs not a cause but a consequence of the Law. (shrink)
Hadith scholars are individuals who play an important role in the spread of the Prophetic traditions. in the midst of his people, as an authoritative source after the Qur'an for the complete Islamic legal construct, which was previously discovered and compiled by the Imam of Hadith in their canonical books, like Imam Muḥammad ibn Ismā’īl al-Bukhārī in “Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī” and Muslim Imam ibn al-Ḥajjāj al-Naysābūrī in “Muslim Ṣaḥīḥ”, through long tracing from one country to another in order to obtain directly (...) one history from the source. The position of the Hadith scholars in this regard, who are at the spearhead of the spread of the Hadiths after their collection by the Imam of the Hadith, as well as their existence and consistency in guarding the Hadith from various forms of deviation of understanding of the people, become an integral part of an integral circle named Hadith, as a saying of the Prophet, the Rabbis and the Imams. (shrink)
Context: Many recent research areas such as human cognition and quantum physics call the observer-independence of traditional science into question. Also, there is a growing need for self-reflexivity in science, i.e., a science that reflects on its own outcomes and products. Problem: We introduce the concept of second-order science that is based on the operation of re-entry. Our goal is to provide an overview of this largely unexplored science domain and of potential approaches in second-order fields. Method: We provide the (...) necessary conceptual groundwork for explorations in second-order science, in which we discuss the differences between first- and second-order science and where we present a roadmap for second-order science. The article operates mainly with conceptual differentiations such as the separation between three seemingly identical concepts such as Science II, Science 2.0 and second-order science. Results: Compared with first-order science, the potential of second-order science lies in 1. higher levels of novelty and innovations, 2. higher levels of robustness and 3. wider integration as well as higher generality. As first-order science advances, second-order science, with re-entry as its basic operation, provides three vital functions for first-order science, namely a rich source of novelty and innovation, the necessary quality control and greater integration and generality. Implications: Second-order science should be viewed as a major expansion of traditional scientific fields and as a scientific breakthrough towards a new wave of innovative research. Constructivist content: Second-order science has strong ties with radical constructivism, which can be qualified as the most important root/origin of second-order science. Moreover, it will be argued that a new form of cybernetics is needed to cope with the new problems and challenges of second-order science. (shrink)
İslam hukuku tarihine baktığımızda fıkıh usûlünün bir süreç içerisinde geliştiğini söylemek mümkündür. Bu süreç içerisinde, mezhep imamları de-diğimiz müçtehitler başta olmak üzere birçok âlimin, fıkıh usûlü ilminin yapısını oluşturan katkılarından bahsedilebilir. Örneğin İmam Ebû Hanîfe’nin istihsana başvurması, İmam Mâlik’in amel-i ehli Medine ile amel etmesi ve İmam Şafiî’nin hem Ehl-i rey hem de Ehl-i hadisin fıkhını mezcederek elde ettiği formasyonla “er-Risâle” adlı eserinde bir usûl ortaya koyması fıkıh usûlü ilminin yapısını oluşturan katkıların başında gelmektedir. Bu katkıların yanında özellikle mezheplerin kurumsallaştığı (...) dönem ve sonrasında Gazalî, İbn Teymiyye, öğrencisi İbn Kayyım ve Şâtıbî gibi âlimlerin, fıkıh usulüne dinamizm kazandırmak adına söz konusu ilme yönelik birtakım yenileme çabaları ortaya koydukları bilinmektedir. Modern dönemde ise fıkıh usûlünü yenileme çabalarının klasik döneme göre daha net ve yaygın olduğu görülmektedir. Bu dönemde fıkıh usulüne yönelik yenileme çabalarını iki merhalede değerlendirmek mümkündür. Bu merhalelerin birincisi, fıkıh usûlünü yenilemeye çağrı merhalesi, ikincisi ise fıkıh usûlünü yenilemenin amelî merhalesidir. İkinci merhalede âlimlerin dinî, siyasî, sosyal ve felsefî eğilimlerine bağlı olarak kendi içinde de farklı tezler içeren “fıkhî ve usûlî yaklaşım” ve “fikrî ve felsefî yaklaşım” olmak üzere iki temel yaklaşımdan bahsedilebilir. Bu çalışmada kendi içinde de farklı eğilimlere sahip fikrî ve felsefî yaklaşımın fıkıh usûlünü yenilemeye dair görüşlerini, Fazlurrahman,, Hasan Turabî ve Muhammed Müctehid Şebusterî örnekliğinde sunmaya çalıştık. (shrink)
In the last few years there has been a revival of interest in F.H. Bradley and particularly the account of judgment contained in The Principles of Logic. Many of those who discuss Bradley’s theory of judgment mistakenly assume that it can best be seen as a linguistic account. They insist that what Bradley says can be understood as an account of the meaning and reference of words or sentences. In this paper I will argue that Bradley’s theory of judgment is (...) essentially a psychological theory. Judgment is the union of part of the content of an image or other mental particular with our immediate experience. There is no evidence for the linguisitc interpretation and its defenders cannot make sense of Bradley’s discussion of a number of technical points, particularly his criticism of the view that judgment is the synthesis of ideas, and his comments on the idea of “this.” I will also argue that Bradley’s account of judgment cannot be separated from his later metaphysics and is essentially Hegelian in character. To explain Bradley’s theory I will begin where he does, with an examination of the nature of ideas. (shrink)
Students in an undergraduate legal and ethical issues course continually told the authors that they did not have time to study for the course because they were busy studying for their clinical courses. Faculty became concerned that students were failing to realize the value of legal and ethical concepts as applicable to clinical practice. This led the authors to implement a transformational learning experience in which students applied legal and ethical course content in a high-fidelity human simulation (HFHS) scenario. A (...) preliminary evaluation compared the new HFHS experience with in-person and online student groups using the same case. Based on both student and faculty perceptions, the HFHS was identified as the best of the three approaches for providing a transformational learning experience regarding legal and ethical content. (shrink)
Context: The journal Constructivist Foundations celebrates ten years of publishing articles on constructivist approaches, in particular radical constructivism. Problem: In order to preserve the sustainability of radical constructivism and regain its appeal to new generations of researchers, we set up a new course of action for and with the radical constructivist community to study its innovative potential. This new avenue is “second-order science.” Method: We specify two motivations of second-order science, i.e., the inclusion of the observer, and self-reflexivity that allows (...) second-order science to operate on the products of normal or first-order science. Also, we present a short overview of the contributions that we have collected for this inaugural issue on second-order science. Results: These six initial contributions demonstrate the potential of the new set of approaches to second-order science across several disciplines. Implications: Second-order science is believed to be a cogent concept in the evolution of science, leading to a new wave of innovations, novel experiments and a much closer relationship with current research in the cognitive neurosciences in particular, and with evolutionary and complexity theories in general. (shrink)
Arendt's conception of culture could supersede claims that nature's intrinsic value or human interests best ground environmental ethics. Fusing ancient Greek notions of non-instrumental value and Roman concerns for cultivating and preserving worldly surroundings, culture supplies an ethic for the treatment of nonhuman things. Unlike a system of philosophical propositions, an Arendtian ecology could only arise in public deliberation, since culture's qualitative judgements are intrinsically linked to processes of political persuasion.
Context: Although second-order cybernetics was proposed as a new way of cybernetic investigations around 1970, its general status and its modus operandi are still far from obvious. Problem: We want to provide a new perspective on the scope and the currently available potential of second-order cybernetics within today’s science landscapes. Method: We invited a group of scholars who have produced foundational work on second-order cybernetics in recent years, and organized an open call for new approaches to second-order cybernetics. The accepted (...) contributions are discussed and mapped. We also investigate the relations between second-order cybernetics and second-order science. Results: We present a coherent outlook on the scope of second-order cybernetics today, identify a general methodology of science and show that second-order cybernetics can be used in a large number of disciplines that go well beyond purely scientific domains. These results are based on a new epistemic mode “from within,” which can be traced back directly to von Foerster. We also arrived at the conclusion that from its early years onwards second-order cybernetics was developed in two different ways, so that second-order cybernetics and second-order science operate in different domains. Implications: Both the coherent perspective of the scope of second-order cybernetics with a new five-part agenda and the outline for a general methodology of science based on a new epistemic mode that was created within and for second-order cybernetics demonstrate the growing importance of reflexivity in science, which, so far, has not been widely recognized. (shrink)
Fujisawa in his plea for Shinto cosmic vitalism may indeed be right in thinking that Japanese thought has much to contribute to Western philosophy. But this has to be supported by a far more searching and self-critical study than the author has provided.--K. H.
İslâm’ın ilk dönemlerinden başlayarak âlimler neshin mahiyeti, delilleri ve Kur’an’da geçen emir ve nehiy ifadeleri yanında haber ifadelerinin neshin konusu olup olmayacağı meseleleri üzerinde yoğunlaşarak bir nesh teorisi meydana getirmişlerdir. Bu bağlamda şer’î hüküm içeren haber ifadelerinin emir ve nehiy manasında oldukları için metninin daha sonra gelen şer’î bir delille nesh edilmesi caiz görülmüştür. Haberin ifade ettiği şeye gelince; Allah’ın sıfatları ve kıyametin kopuşu gibi değişmesi mümkün olmayan şeylerden ise, yalana yol açacağı için, bunun nesh edilmesi caiz görülmemiştir. Bu iki (...) konuda âlimler ittifak etmişlerdir. Geçmişte olanları ve gelecekte olacak hâdiseleri bildiren haberin ifade ettiği şeyin neshin konusu olup olmayacağı konusunda ise ihtilafa düşmüşlerdir. Keza vaad ve vaid bildiren haberler ile ebedîlikle kayıtlanan haber ifadelerini neshin caiz olup olmayacağı da tartışma konusu olmuştur. Burada Kur’an’da geçen haber ifadelerinin hangisinin nesh edilmesinin mümkün, hangisinin mümkün olmadığı meselesinin ana hatlarıyla ortaya konulması amaçlanmıştır. (shrink)
Adcock discusses Roman political ideas and practice from the beginnings to the time of Septimius Severus. There is very little in this volume which will seem new or surprising to a reader who possesses a fair knowledge of Roman history.--K. H.
Throughout this eclectic work in the Aristotelian-Thomistic tradition, Meyer displays an amazing breadth of knowledge; but his attempt to do justice to many different views frequently makes it impossible for him to make more than a few general remarks. Besides the traditional questions of metaphysics and philosophical anthropology, he discusses developments in modern physics, cosmology, biology, and psychology.--K. H.
Strauss strives to restore to Machiavelli his evil reputation, pointing out that the originality of his work has to be sought not in the novelty of his understanding of political phenomena, but rather in his acceptance of an image of man which stresses not the ideal in him but the base. Particularly interesting in this thorough study are the discussion of Machiavelli's attitude toward religion and the emphasis Strauss puts on Machiavelli's use of numbers as a key to his work.--K. (...) H. (shrink)
This expensively produced and well-illustrated little volume contains the unpublished writings in English of the father of Merz. Besides the expected whimsical poems, among them the English version of the famous Ur-Sonata the reader will find some touching prose sketches in which the poet describes his despair during the war years.--K. H.
The central theme of this volume is love, which conquers the rift between man and that which surrounds him. The meaning of human existence is sought in the awareness of the same, incomprehensible divine presence in man and in the other. Although this work owes too much to Heidegger to stand as an original contribution, it is nevertheless well written and sincere.--K. H.
The author argues for a non-sensual reality, basing his arguments on parapsychology, a consideration of prophecies, and not quite digested aspects of modern scientific developments. As Hawley points out, his views may be those of the future; unfortunately his arguments will not make them so.--K. H.
Bergler argues for the all-pervasiveness of a repressed psychic masochism. The argument is supported by a great wealth of clinical material. Nevertheless it seems doubtful whether this quite justifies the sweeping thesis. The writing is somewhat loose and the tone of Bergler's attack on his critics unfortunate.--K. H.
An ambitious work. In a small volume the author attempts to sketch the outline of a metaphysical system, admitting however that the synthesis which bridges the gulf between abstraction and reality must ultimately be found by each individual. In Foss's philosophy existentialism and philosophia perennis mingle, yielding a philosophy dominated by an all pervading, unifying love.--K. H.
Not only does Klemmt succeed in showing the importance of Reinhold as a key figure between Kant and Fichte, but he also establishes the originality of his work; especially interesting is his analysis of Reinhold's philosophy of consciousness, which anticipated important tenets of phenomenology. To regard this study as merely historical would be a mistake, for it is an impressive attempt to investigate some of the fundamental principles of theoretical philosophy.--K. H.