Results for 'Justin Nathaniel Baker'

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  1.  42
    Providing Research Results to Participants: Attitudes and Needs of Adolescents and Parents of Children with Cancer.Conrad Vincent Fernandez, Jun Gao, Caron Strahlendorf, Albert Moghrabi, Rebecca Davis Pentz, Raymond Carlton Barfield, Justin Nathaniel Baker, Darcy Santor, Charles Weijer & Eric Kodish - unknown
    PURPOSE: There is an increasing demand for researchers to provide research results to participants. Our aim was to define an appropriate process for this, based on needs and attitudes of participants. METHODS: A multicenter survey in five sites in the United States and Canada was offered to parents of children with cancer and adolescents with cancer. Respondents indicated their preferred mode of communication of research results with respect to implications; timing, provider, and content of the results; reasons for and against (...)
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  2.  46
    Decision-making by Adolescents and Parents of Children with Cancer Regarding Health Research Participation.Kate Read, Conrad Vincent Fernandez, Jun Gao, Caron Strahlendorf, Albert Moghrabi, Rebecca Davis Pentz, Raymond Carlton Barfield, Justin Nathaniel Baker, Darcy Santor, Charles Weijer & Eric Kodish - unknown
    Background: Low rates of participation of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) in clinical oncology trials may contribute to poorer outcomes. Factors that influence the decision of AYAs to participate in health research and whether these factors are different from those that affect the participation of parents of children with cancer. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from validated questionnaires provided to adolescents (>12 years old) diagnosed with cancer and parents of children with cancer at 3 sites in Canada (...)
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  3.  28
    Single Session Low Frequency Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Changes Neurometabolite Relationships in Healthy Humans.Nathaniel R. Bridges, Richard A. McKinley, Danielle Boeke, Matthew S. Sherwood, Jason G. Parker, Lindsey K. McIntire, Justin M. Nelson, Catherine Fletchall, Natasha Alexander, Amanda McConnell, Chuck Goodyear & Jeremy T. Nelson - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
  4.  18
    Returning Individual Research Results from Digital Phenotyping in Psychiatry.Francis X. Shen, Matthew L. Baum, Nicole Martinez-Martin, Adam S. Miner, Melissa Abraham, Catherine A. Brownstein, Nathan Cortez, Barbara J. Evans, Laura T. Germine, David C. Glahn, Christine Grady, Ingrid A. Holm, Elisa A. Hurley, Sara Kimble, Gabriel Lázaro-Muñoz, Kimberlyn Leary, Mason Marks, Patrick J. Monette, Jukka-Pekka Onnela, P. Pearl O’Rourke, Scott L. Rauch, Carmel Shachar, Srijan Sen, Ipsit Vahia, Jason L. Vassy, Justin T. Baker, Barbara E. Bierer & Benjamin C. Silverman - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (2):69-90.
    Psychiatry is rapidly adopting digital phenotyping and artificial intelligence/machine learning tools to study mental illness based on tracking participants’ locations, online activity, phone and text message usage, heart rate, sleep, physical activity, and more. Existing ethical frameworks for return of individual research results (IRRs) are inadequate to guide researchers for when, if, and how to return this unprecedented number of potentially sensitive results about each participant’s real-world behavior. To address this gap, we convened an interdisciplinary expert working group, supported by (...)
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  5.  20
    Book Review: The Sleep of Behemoth: Disputing Peace and Violence in Medieval Europe, 1000–1200, by Jehangir Yezdi MalegamThe Sleep of Behemoth: Disputing Peace and Violence in Medieval Europe, 1000–1200, by MalegamJehangir Yezdi. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2013. [REVIEW]Justine Firnhaber-Baker - 2015 - Political Theory 43 (6):865-868.
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  6.  9
    University vs. Research Institute? The Dual Pillars of German Science Production, 1950–2010.Jennifer Dusdal, Justin J. W. Powell, David P. Baker, Yuan Chih Fu, Yahya Shamekhi & Manfred Stock - 2020 - Minerva 58 (3):319-342.
    The world’s third largest producer of scientific research, Germany, is the origin of the research university and the independent, extra-university research institute. Its dual-pillar research policy differentiates these organizational forms functionally: universities specialize in advanced research-based teaching; institutes specialize intensely on research. Over the past decades this policy affected each sector differently: while universities suffered a lingering “legitimation crisis,” institutes enjoyed deepening “favored sponsorship”—financial and reputational advantages. Universities led the nation’s reestablishment of scientific prominence among the highly competitive European and (...)
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  7.  18
    The Underappreciated Influence of Elisabeth Kübler-Ross on the Development of Palliative Care for Children.Bryan A. Sisk & Justin N. Baker - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (12):70-72.
    In the history of palliative care, all roads lead back to Dame Cicely Saunders, a remarkable social worker/nurse/physician who promoted the concept of total pain and founded the first modern hospic...
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  8.  44
    Ethics Consultation in Pediatrics: Long-Term Experience From a Pediatric Oncology Center.Liza-Marie Johnson, Christopher L. Church, Monika Metzger & Justin N. Baker - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (5):3-17.
    There is little information about the content of ethics consultations in pediatrics. We sought to describe the reasons for consultation and ethical principles addressed during EC in pediatrics through retrospective review and directed content analysis of EC records at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. Patient-based EC were highly complex and often involved evaluation of parental decision making, particularly consideration of the risks and benefits of a proposed medical intervention, and the physician's fiduciary responsibility to the patient. Nonpatient consultations provided guidance (...)
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  9.  31
    Clinically Significant? Depends on Whom You Ask.Liza-Marie Johnson, Christopher L. Church, Michael F. Walsh & Justin N. Baker - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (10):18-20.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 10, Page 18-20, October 2012.
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  10.  22
    Case Report of Dual-Site Neurostimulation and Chronic Recording of Cortico-Striatal Circuitry in a Patient With Treatment Refractory Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.Sarah T. Olsen, Ishita Basu, Mustafa Taha Bilge, Anish Kanabar, Matthew J. Boggess, Alexander P. Rockhill, Aishwarya K. Gosai, Emily Hahn, Noam Peled, Michaela Ennis, Ilana Shiff, Katherine Fairbank-Haynes, Joshua D. Salvi, Cristina Cusin, Thilo Deckersbach, Ziv Williams, Justin T. Baker, Darin D. Dougherty & Alik S. Widge - 2020 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
  11. Problems for pure probabilism about promotion (and a disjunctive alternative).Nathaniel Sharadin - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (5):1371-1386.
    Humean promotionalists about reasons think that whether there is a reason for an agent to ϕ depends on whether her ϕ-ing promotes the satisfaction of at least one of her desires. Several authors have recently defended probabilistic accounts of promotion, according to which an agent’s ϕ-ing promotes the satisfaction of one of her desires just in case her ϕ-ing makes the satisfaction of that desire more probable relative to some baseline. In this paper I do three things. First, I formalize (...)
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  12.  64
    Reduction, elimination, and the mental.Schwartz Justin - 1991 - Philosophy of Science 58 (June):203-20.
    The antireductionist arguments of many philosophers (e.g., Baker, Fodor and Davidson) are motivated by a worry that successful reduction would eliminate rather than conserve the mental. This worry derives from a misunderstanding of the empiricist account of reduction, which, although it does not underwrite "cognitive suicide", should be rejected for its positivist baggage. Philosophy of psychology needs more detailed attention to issues in natural science which serve as analogies for reduction of the mental. I consider a range of central (...)
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  13.  16
    The Lost Liquid Cosmogony of Johannes Daniel Schlichting (1705–1765).Justin Begley - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (5):571-609.
    The focus of this paper is a fascinating but hitherto unstudied 1742 manuscript treatise by Johannes Daniel Schlichting (1705–1765) titled “Sapientiæ Problema” that contains something extremely rare in the mid-eighteenth century: a full-blown speculative cosmogony. As this article reveals, Schlichting developed a distinctive vital liquid matter in an effort to account for the generation of all natural bodies and combat the stamina-based theories that were dominant in his day. He hoped that his treatise would be published in the Philosophical Transactions (...)
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  14.  6
    Justin M. Byron-Davies, Revelation and the Apocalypse in Late Medieval Literature: The Writings of Julian of Norwich and William Langland. (Religion and Culture in the Middle Ages.) Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2020. Pp. 211. £70. ISBN: 978-1-7868-3516-1. [REVIEW]Denise N. Baker - 2022 - Speculum 97 (2):483-484.
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  15.  10
    Justine Firnhaber-Baker, Violence and the State in Languedoc, 1250–1400. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. Pp. xiv, 218; 4 black-and-white figures and 1 map. $99. ISBN: 978-1-107-03955-1. [REVIEW]Philip Daileader - 2015 - Speculum 90 (3):806-808.
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  16.  66
    Epistemic Instrumentalism Explained.Nathaniel P. Sharadin - 2023 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    Do epistemic requirements vary along with facts about what promotes agents' well-being? Epistemic instrumentalists say 'yes', and thereby earn a lot of contempt. This contempt is a mistake on two counts. First, it is incorrectly based: the reasons typically given for it are misguided. Second, it fails to distinguish between first- and second-order epistemic instrumentalism; and, it happens, only the former is contemptible. In this book, Nathaniel P. Sharadin argues for rejecting epistemic instrumentalism as a first-order view not because (...)
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  17.  33
    Three Revisionary Implications of Buddhist Animal Ethics.Calvin Baker - forthcoming - Philosophy East and West.
    Many accept the following three theses in animal ethics. First, although animal welfare should not be—or at least, need not be—our top moral priority, it is not a trivial one either. Second, if an animal is sentient, then it is a moral patient. Third, the extinction of an animal species is a tragic outcome that we have moral reason to prevent. I argue that a traditional (i.e., pre-modern) Buddhist perspective pushes against the first thesis and that a naturalized Buddhist perspective (...)
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  18.  38
    Madness: A Philosophical Exploration.Justin Garson - 2022 - New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Since the time of Hippocrates, madness has typically been viewed through the lens of disease, dysfunction, and defect. In 'Madness', philosopher of science Justin Garson presents a radically different paradigm for conceiving of madness and the forms that it takes. In this paradigm, which he calls madness-as-strategy, madness is neither a disease nor a defect, but a designed feature, like the heart or lungs.
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  19.  6
    Josef Pieper on the spiritual life: creation, contemplation, and human flourishing.Nathaniel A. Warne - 2023 - Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press.
    Warne's original study provides an insightful analysis of the role of contemplation and creation in the thought of Josef Pieper, illustrating the importance of this practice to earthly happiness and human flourishing. What is the relationship between creation, contemplation, human flourishing, and moral development? Nathaniel Warne's Josef Pieper on the Spiritual Life offers a sophisticated answer to this question through a systematic analysis of philosopher Josef Pieper's (1904-1997) thought. Warne's examination centers on the role of contemplation and creation in (...)
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  20. Contrastive Semantics for Deontic Modals.Justin Snedegar - 2013 - In Martijn Blaauw (ed.), Contrastivism in philosophy. New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
    This paper argues for contrastivism about the deontic modals, 'ought', 'must', and 'may'. A simple contrastivist semantics that predicts the desired entailment relations among these modals is offered.
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  21.  85
    Expected Choiceworthiness and Fanaticism.Calvin Baker - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies.
    Maximize Expected Choiceworthiness (MEC) is a theory of decision-making under moral uncertainty. It says that we ought to handle moral uncertainty in the way that Expected Value Theory (EVT) handles descriptive uncertainty. MEC inherits from EVT the problem of fanaticism. Roughly, a decision theory is fanatical when it requires our decision-making to be dominated by low-probability, high-payoff options. Proponents of MEC have offered two main lines of response. The first is that MEC should simply import whatever are the best solutions (...)
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  22.  5
    The individual.Nathaniel Southgate Shaler - 1900 - New York,: D. Appleton and company.
    This book explores the concept of individuality from a scientific and philosophical perspective. The author examines the relationship between society and individuality, exploring its implications for psychology, biology, and morality. Shaler's writing is clear, engaging, and thought-provoking, making this book an essential read for students of philosophy and psychology. This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work is in the "public domain in (...)
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  23. The Varieties of Normativity.Derek Clayton Baker - 2017 - In Tristram Colin McPherson & David Plunkett (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Metaethics. New York: Routledge. pp. 567-581.
    This paper discusses varieties of normative phenomena, ranging from morality, to epistemic justification, to the rules of chess. It canvases a number of distinctions among these different normative phenomena. The most significant distinction is between formal and authoritative normativity. The prior is the normativity exhibited by any standard one can meet or fail to meet. The latter is the sort of normativity associated with phenomena like the "all-things-considered" ought. The paper ends with a brief discussion of reasons for skepticism about (...)
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  24.  9
    Reality testing and metacognition.Nathaniel Greely - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology.
    Reality testing is the process by which we distinguish our own perceptual states from imagination or episodic memory. I argue that reality testing is a metacognitive process. Since reality testing is also accomplished by creatures who lack mental state concepts, it follows that reality testing is a nonconceptual metacognitive process. I also provide prima facie evidence that reality testing is a necessary condition for prototypical cognitive states like belief. It follows that metacognition is phylogenetically and logically prior to cognition in (...)
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  25. Oxford Handbook of Chinese Philosophy.Justin Tiwald (ed.) - forthcoming - New York: Oxford University Press.
    The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Philosophy is a collection of essays on important texts and figures in the history of Chinese thought. The essays cover both well-known texts such as the Analects and the Zhuangzi as well as many of the lesser-known thinkers in the classical and post-classical Chinese tradition. Most of the chapters focus on thinkers or texts in one of three important historical movements: Classical ("pre-Qin") Chinese philosophy, Chinese Buddhism, and the Confucian response to Buddhism ("neo-Confucianism" broadly construed).
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  26.  44
    The Cambridge world history of medical ethics.Robert Baker & Laurence B. McCullough (eds.) - 2009 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    The Cambridge World History of Medical Ethics is the first comprehensive scholarly account of the global history of medical ethics. Offering original interpretations of the field by leading bioethicists and historians of medicine, it will serve as the essential point of departure for future scholarship in the field. The volumes reconceptualize the history of medical ethics through the creation of new categories, including the life cycle; discourses of religion, philosophy, and bioethics; and the relationship between medical ethics and the state, (...)
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  27. Function and Teleology.Justin Garson - 2008 - In Sahorta Sarkar & Anya Plutynski (eds.), Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Blackwell. pp. 525-549.
    This is a short overview of the biological functions debate in philosophy. While it was fairly comprehensive when it was written, my short book ​A Critical Overview of Biological Functions has largely supplanted it as a definitive and up-to-date overview of the debate, both because the book takes into account new developments since then, and because the length of the book allowed me to go into substantially more detail about existing views.
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  28. Baker response.Dean-Peter Baker - 2023 - In Deane-Peter Baker (ed.), Ethics at war: how should military personnel make ethical decisions? New York, NY: Routledge.
     
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  29.  40
    Why It's Ok to Not Be Monogamous.Justin L. Clardy - 2023 - Routledge.
    The downsides of monogamy are felt by most people engaged in long-term relationships, including restrictions on self-discovery, limits on friendship, sexual boredom, and a circumscribed understanding of intimacy. Yet, a "happily ever after" monogamy is assumed to be the ideal form of romantic love in many modern societies: a relationship that is morally ideal and will bring the most happiness to its two partners. -/- In Why It’s OK to Not Be Monogamous, Justin L. Clardy deeply questions these assumptions. (...)
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  30.  33
    9 Virtue ethics and bioethics.Justin Oakley - 2013 - In Daniel C. Russell (ed.), The Cambridge companion to virtue ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 197.
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  31. Skeptical theism.Justin P. McBrayer - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (7):611-623.
    Most a posteriori arguments against the existence of God take the following form: (1) If God exists, the world would not be like this (where 'this' picks out some feature of the world like the existence of evil, etc.) (2) But the world is like this . (3) Therefore, God does not exist. Skeptical theists are theists who are skeptical of our ability to make judgments of the sort expressed by premise (1). According to skeptical theism, if there were a (...)
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  32.  53
    Advances in Experimental Philosophy of Mind.Justin Sytsma (ed.) - 2014 - New York: Bloomsbury.
    Leading researchers in the philosophy of mind present and explore cutting edge research in the exciting new field of experimental philosophy.
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  33.  70
    Has content been naturalized?Lynne Rudder Baker - 1991 - In Barry M. Loewer (ed.), Meaning in Mind: Fodor and His Critics. Cambridge: Blackwell.
    The Representational Theory of the Mind (RTM) has been forcefully and subtly developed by Jerry A. Fodor. According to the RTM, psychological states that explain behavior involve tokenings of mental representations. Since the RTM is distinguished from other approaches by its appeal to the meaning or "content" of mental representations, a question immediately arises: by virtue of what does a mental representation express or represent an environmental property like coto or shoe? This question asks for a general account of the (...)
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  34.  35
    Two Origin Stories for Experimental Philosophy.Justin Sytsma - unknown
    Both advocates and critics of experimental philosophy often describe it in narrow terms as being the empirical study of people’s intuitions about philosophical cases. This conception corresponds with a narrow origin story for the field—it grew out of a dissatisfaction with the uncritical use of philosophers’ own intuitions as evidence for philosophical claims. In contrast, a growing number of experimental philosophers have explicitly embraced a broad conception of the sub-discipline, which treats it as simply the use of empirical methods to (...)
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  35. Thing Causation.Nathaniel Baron-Schmitt - forthcoming - Noûs.
    According to orthodoxy, the most fundamental kind of causation involves one event causing another event. I argue against this event‐causal view. Instead, the most fundamental kind of causation is thing causation, which involves a thing causing a thing to do something. Event causation is reducible to thing causation, but thing causation is not reducible to event causation, because event causation cannot accommodate cases of fine‐grained causation. I defend my view from objections, including C. D. Broad's influential “timing” argument, and I (...)
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  36.  45
    Model-Based Influences on Humans' Choices and Striatal Prediction Errors.Nathaniel D. Daw, Samuel J. Gershman, Ben Seymour, Peter Dayan & Raymond J. Dolan - 2011 - Neuron 69 (6):1204-1215.
    The mesostriatal dopamine system is prominently implicated in model-free reinforcement learning, with fMRI BOLD signals in ventral striatum notably covarying with model-free prediction errors. However, latent learning and devaluation studies show that behavior also shows hallmarks of model-based planning, and the interaction between model-based and model-free values, prediction errors, and preferences is underexplored. We designed a multistep decision task in which model-based and model-free influences on human choice behavior could be distinguished. By showing that choices reflected both influences we could (...)
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  37. Revelatory Regret and the Standpoint of the Agent.Justin F. White - 2017 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 41 (1):225-240.
    Because anticipated and retrospective regret play important roles in practical deliberation and motivation, better understanding them can illuminate the contours of human agency. However, the possibility of self-ignorance and the fact that we change over time can make regret—especially anticipatory regret—not only a poor predictor of where the agent will be in the future but also an unreliable indicator of where the agent stands. Granting these, this paper examines the way in which prospective and, particularly, retrospective regret can nevertheless yield (...)
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  38.  18
    Why Would Anyone Believe in God?Justin L. Barrett - 2004 - Lanham MD: AltaMira Press.
    Using the latest cognitive and psychological scientific data and theory, this book answers the question "why would anyone believe in God?".
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  39. Meritocracy and the Tests of Virtue in Greek and Confucian Political Thought.Justin Tiwald & Jeremy Reid - 2024 - Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 41:111–147.
    A crucial tenet of virtue-based or expertise-based theorizing about politics is that there are ways to identify and select morally and epistemically excellent people to hold office. This paper considers historical challenges to this task that come from within Greek and Confucian thought and political practice. Because of how difficult it is to assess character in ordinary settings, we argue that it is even more difficult to design institutions that select for virtue at the much wider political scale. Specifically, we (...)
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  40.  5
    Questioning: A New History of Western Philosophy.Gideon Baker - 2022 - Edinburgh University Press.
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  41.  37
    Sources of the Self as an Argument for Theism.Deane-Peter Baker - 2009 - Philosophical Papers 38 (3):401-416.
  42. The libertarian philosophy.Robert Baker - 1977 - New York, N.Y.: A publication of the New York Libertarian Association.
     
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  43. Weigh Competing Ethical Obligations Due to Collaborators and Affected Parties.Nathaniel Tashima & Cathleen Crain - 2016 - In Dena Plemmons & Alex W. Barker (eds.), Anthropological ethics in context: an ongoing dialogue. Walnut Creek, California: Left Coast Press.
     
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  44. The ontological status of persons.Lynne Rudder Baker - 2009 - In John P. Lizza (ed.), Defining the beginning and end of life: readings on personal identity and bioethics. Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press.
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  45.  11
    Attributions of Consciousness.Justin Sytsma - 2016 - In Justin Sytsma & Wesley Buckwalter (eds.), A Companion to Experimental Philosophy. Malden, MA: Wiley. pp. 257–278.
    This chapter focuses on attributions of phenomenal consciousness, leaving to the side interesting questions about how people attribute other types of consciousness. While researchers are not in perfect agreement about how the concept of phenomenal consciousness should be understood, the standard line is that a creature is phenomenally conscious just in case it has phenomenally conscious mental states, and that a mental state is phenomenally conscious just in case it has phenomenal qualities. The chapter explores whether lay people employ the (...)
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  46.  73
    The effect of word predictability on reading time is logarithmic.Nathaniel J. Smith & Roger Levy - 2013 - Cognition 128 (3):302-319.
  47. Deontic Reasoning Across Contexts.Justin Snedegar - 2014 - In F. Cariani (ed.), DEON 2014. Springer. pp. 208-223.
    Contrastivism about ‘ought’ holds that ‘ought’ claims are relativized, at least implicitly, to sets of mutually exclusive but not necessarily jointly exhaustive alternatives. This kind of theory can solve puzzles that face other linguistic theories of ‘ought’, via the rejection or severe restriction of principles that let us make inferences between ‘ought’ claims. By rejecting or restricting these principles, however, the contrastivist takes on a burden of recapturing acceptable inferences that these principles let us make. This paper investigates the extent (...)
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  48. Contingent Grounding.Nathaniel Baron-Schmitt - 2021 - Synthese 199 (1-2):4561-4580.
    A popular principle about grounding, “Internality”, says that if A grounds B, then necessarily, if A and B obtain, then A grounds B. I argue that Internality is false. Its falsity reveals a distinctive, new kind of explanation, which I call “ennobling”. Its falsity also entails that every previously proposed theory of what grounds grounding facts is false. I construct a new theory.
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  49.  77
    The Robots of the Dawn of Experimental Philosophy of Mind.Justin Sytsma - unknown
    In this chapter, I consider two hypotheses that have informed recent work in experimental philosophy of mind. The first is a positive hypothesis put forward by Fiala, Arico, and Nichols : Categorization of an entity as an agent through fast, automatic, and domain-specific processing produces a disposition to ascribe a wide range of mental states to that entity. The second is a negative hypothesis put forward by Sytsma and Machery: The existence of phenomenally conscious mental states is not obvious from (...)
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  50.  80
    The Biology of Bird-Song Dialects.Myron Charles Baker & Michael A. Cunningham - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (1):85-100.
    No single theory so far proposed gives a wholly satisfactory account of the origin and maintenance of bird-song dialects. This failure is the consequence of a weak comparative literature that precludes careful comparisons among species or studies, and of the complexity of the issues involved. Complexity arises because dialects seem to bear upon a wide range of features in the life history of bird species. We give an account of the principal issues in bird-song dialects: evolution of vocal learning, experimental (...)
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