Results for 'Jury'

875 found
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  1.  55
    Jury Theorems.Franz Dietrich & Kai Spiekermann - 2021 - The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Jury theorems are mathematical theorems about the ability of collectives to make correct decisions. Several jury theorems carry the optimistic message that, in suitable circumstances, ‘crowds are wise’: many individuals together (using, for instance, majority voting) tend to make good decisions, outperforming fewer or just one individual. Jury theorems form the technical core of epistemic arguments for democracy, and provide probabilistic tools for reasoning about the epistemic quality of collective decisions. The popularity of jury theorems spans (...)
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  2. Jury Theorems.Franz Dietrich & Kai Spiekermann - 2020 - In M. Fricker (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Social Epistemology. New York and Abingdon:
    We give a review and critique of jury theorems from a social-epistemology perspective, covering Condorcet’s (1785) classic theorem and several later refinements and departures. We assess the plausibility of the conclusions and premises featuring in jury theorems and evaluate the potential of such theorems to serve as formal arguments for the ‘wisdom of crowds’. In particular, we argue (i) that there is a fundamental tension between voters’ independence and voters’ competence, hence between the two premises of most (...) theorems; (ii) that the (asymptotic) conclusion that ‘huge groups are infallible’, reached by many jury theorems, is an artifact of unjustified premises; and (iii) that the (nonasymptotic) conclusion that ‘larger groups are more reliable’, also reached by many jury theorems, is not an artifact and should be regarded as the more adequate formal rendition of the ‘wisdom of crowds’. (shrink)
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  3. Optimal Jury Design for Homogeneous Juries with Correlated Votes.Serguei Kaniovski & Alexander Zaigraev - 2011 - Theory and Decision 71 (4):439-459.
    In a homogeneous jury, in which each vote is correct with the same probability, and each pair of votes correlates with the same correlation coefficient, there exists a correlation-robust voting quota, such that the probability of a correct verdict is independent of the correlation coefficient. For positive correlation, an increase in the correlation coefficient decreases the probability of a correct verdict for any voting rule below the correlation-robust quota, and increases that probability for any above the correlation-robust quota. The (...)
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  4.  44
    Should Juries Deliberate?Brian R. Hedden - 2017 - Social Epistemology 31 (4):368-386.
    Trial by jury is a fundamental feature of democratic governance. But what form should jury decision-making take? I argue against the status quo system in which juries are encouraged and even required to engage in group deliberation as a means to reaching a decision. Jury deliberation is problematic for both theoretical and empirical reasons. On the theoretical front, deliberation destroys the independence of jurors’ judgments that is needed for certain attractive theoretical results. On the empirical front, we (...)
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  5. A Model of Jury Decisions Where All Jurors Have the Same Evidence.Franz Dietrich & Christian List - 2004 - Synthese 142 (2):175 - 202.
    Under the independence and competence assumptions of Condorcet’s classical jury model, the probability of a correct majority decision converges to certainty as the jury size increases, a seemingly unrealistic result. Using Bayesian networks, we argue that the model’s independence assumption requires that the state of the world (guilty or not guilty) is the latest common cause of all jurors’ votes. But often – arguably in all courtroom cases and in many expert panels – the latest such common cause (...)
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  6. On the Semiosphere.Juri Lotman & Wilma Clark - 2005 - Sign Systems Studies 33 (1):205-226.
    This article, first published in Russian in 1984 in Sign Systems Studies, introduces the concept of semiosphere and describes its principal attributes. Semiosphere is the semiotic space, outside of which semiosis cannot exist. The ensemble of semiotic formations functionally precedes the singular isolated language and becomes a condition for the existence of the latter. Without the semiosphere, language not only does not function, it does not exist. The division between the core and the periphery is a law of the internal (...)
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  7.  44
    Eurozone Justice.Juri Viehoff - 2018 - Journal of Political Philosophy 26 (3):388-414.
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  8.  29
    The Place of Art Among Other Modelling Systems.Juri Lotman - 2011 - Sign Systems Studies 39 (2/4):249-269.
    This article by Juri Lotman from the third volume of Trudy po znakovym sistemam (Sign Systems Studies) in 1967, deals with the problem of artistic modelling. The general working questions are whether art displays any characteristic traits that are common for all modelling systems and which could be the specific traits that can distinguish art from other modelling systems. Art is seen as a secondary modelling system, more precisely, as a play-type model, which is characterised simultaneously by practical and conventional (...)
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  9.  19
    Maximum Convergence on a Just Minimum: A Pluralist Justification for European Social Policy.Juri Viehoff - 2017 - European Journal of Political Theory 16 (2):164-187.
    There is widespread agreement that the European Union is presently suffering from a lack of social justice. Yet there is significant disagreement about what the relevant injustice consists in: Federalists believe the EU can only remedy its justice deficit through the introduction of direct interpersonal transfers between people living in separate states. Intergovernmentalists believe the justice-related purpose of the EU is to enable states to cooperate fairly, and to remain internally just and democratic in the face of increased global pressure (...)
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  10.  26
    Is a Unified Psychophysical Law Realistic?Jüri Allik - 1989 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (2):267-268.
  11.  27
    Juri Lotman in English: Bibliography.Kalevi Kull - 2011 - Sign Systems Studies 39 (2/4):343-356.
    The bibliography provides a list of all known English-language publications by Juri M. Lotman, in chronologicalorder, described de visu. The first English translation of J. Lotman’s work appeared in 1973, altogether there is 109 entries in the list. The bibliography demonstrates that in the 1970s and 1980s, most of the translations were published in the context of slavistics, whereas after 2000 Lotman’s work starts to appear in the anthologies of general semiotics.
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  12. Jury Theorems for Peer Review.Marcus Arvan, Liam Kofi Bright & Remco Heesen - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Peer review is often taken to be the main form of quality control on academic research. Usually journals carry this out. However, parts of maths and physics appear to have a parallel, crowd-sourced model of peer review, where papers are posted on the arXiv to be publicly discussed. In this paper we argue that crowd-sourced peer review is likely to do better than journal-solicited peer review at sorting papers by quality. Our argument rests on two key claims. First, crowd-sourced peer (...)
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  13.  62
    Optimizing Political Influence: A Jury Theorem with Dynamic Competence and Dependence.Thomas Mulligan - forthcoming - Social Choice and Welfare.
    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate, formally, an ambiguity in the exercise of political influence. To wit: A voter might exert influence with an eye toward maximizing the probability that the political system (1) obtains the correct (e.g. just) outcome, or (2) obtains the outcome that he judges to be correct (just). And these are two very different things. A variant of Condorcet's Jury Theorem which incorporates the effect of influence on group competence and interdependence is developed. (...)
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  14.  35
    Social Justice in the European Union: The Puzzles of Solidarity, Reciprocity and Choice.Juri Viehoff & Kalypso Nikolaïdis - 2015 - In Dimitry Kochenov, Grainne de Burca & Andrew Williams (eds.), Europe’s Justice Deficit? Oxford: Hart Publishing. pp. 277-294.
  15. Epistemic Democracy: Generalizing the Condorcet Jury Theorem.Christian List & Robert E. Goodin - 2001 - Journal of Political Philosophy 9 (3):277–306.
    This paper generalises the classical Condorcet jury theorem from majority voting over two options to plurality voting over multiple options. The paper further discusses the debate between epistemic and procedural democracy and situates its formal results in that debate. The paper finally compares a number of different social choice procedures for many-option choices in terms of their epistemic merits. An appendix explores the implications of some of the present mathematical results for the question of how probable majority cycles (as (...)
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  16. A Defence of Jury Nullification.Thom Brooks - 2004 - Res Publica 10 (4):401-423.
    In both Great Britain and the United States there has been a growing debate about the modern acceptability of jury nullification. Properly understood, juries do not have any constitutional right to ignore the law, but they do have the power to do so nevertheless. Juries that nullify may be motivated by a variety of concerns: too harsh sentences, improper government action, racism, etc. In this article, I shall attempt to defend jury nullification on a number of grounds. First, (...)
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  17.  20
    The Jury and Criminal Responsibility in Anglo-American History.Thomas A. Green - 2015 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 9 (3):423-442.
    Anglo-American theories of criminal responsibility require scholars to grapple with, inter alia, the relationship between the formal rule of law and the powers of the lay jury as well as two inherent ideas of freedom: freedom of the will and political liberty. Here, by way of canvassing my past work and prefiguring future work, I sketch some elements of the history of the Anglo-American jury and offer some glimpses of commentary on the interplay between the jury—particularly its (...)
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  18.  8
    О семиосфере. Резюме.Juri Lotman - 2005 - Sign Systems Studies 33 (1):227-228.
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  19.  15
    Teaching the Ethics of Scientific Research Through Novels.Juris Dilevko & Rachel Barton - 2014 - Journal of Information Ethics 23 (1):65-82.
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  20.  50
    Jury Nullification and the Rule of Law.Brenner M. Fissell - 2013 - Legal Theory 19 (3):217-241.
    Despite an intractable judiciary, there is widespread consensus within the legal academy that jury nullification is compatible with the rule of law. This proposition is most strongly tested by where a jury nullifies simply because it disagrees with the law itself. While some substantive nullifications can comport with the rule of law, most commentatorsjustice,vely undifferentiated view of a morality (even though jurisdictional and vicinage morality can diverge). In doing so, a healthy vision of antityrannical nullifications is presented, but (...)
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  21.  29
    The Early Settlement of Southern Mesopotamia: A Review of Recent Historical, Geological, and Archaeological ResearchThe Early History of the Ancient Near East: 9000-2000 B. C. [REVIEW]Juris Zarins, Hans J. Nissen, Elizabeth Lutzeier & Kenneth J. Northcott - 1992 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 112 (1):55.
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  22. 3. The Quid Juris.Dennis Schulting - 2018 - In Kant’s Deduction From Apperception: An Essay on the Transcendental Deduction of the Categories. De Gruyter. pp. 28-62.
    What is the Quid Juris in Kant's Deduction? Chapter 3 from my book on the Deduction (Kant's Deduction From Apperception) provides an answer to that question, and also contains an extensive discussion of the relevant literature on this topic (Henrich, Proops, Seeberg & Longuenesse).
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  23.  5
    Citizen Tax Juries: Democratizing Tax Enforcement After the Panama Papers.Gordon Arlen - 2022 - Political Theory 50 (2):193-220.
    Four years after the Panama Papers scandal, tax avoidance remains an urgent moral-political problem. Moving beyond both the academic and policy mainstream, I advocate the “democratization of tax enforcement,” by which I mean systematic efforts to make tax avoiders accountable to the judgment of ordinary citizens. Both individual oligarchs and multinational corporations have access to sophisticated tax avoidance strategies that impose significant fiscal costs on democracies and exacerbate preexisting distributive and political inequalities. Yet much contemporary tax sheltering occurs within the (...)
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  24.  63
    Institutional Degeneration of Science.Jüri Eintalu - 2021 - Philosophy Study 11 (2):116-123.
    The scientificity of the research should be evaluated according to the methodology used in the study. However, these are usually the research areas or the institutions that are classified as scientific or non-scientific. Because of various reasons, it may turn out that the scientific institutions are not producing science, while the “non-scientists” are doing real science. In the extreme case, the official science system is entirely corrupt, consisting of fraudsters, while the real scientists have been expelled from academic institutions. Since (...)
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  25.  26
    Juri Lotman’s Autocommunication Model and Roland Barthes’s Representations of Self and Other.Lei Han - 2014 - Sign Systems Studies 42 (4):517-529.
    This paper discusses Juri Lotman’s concept of autocommunication and explores its applicability by referring to Roland Barthes’s representations of Self and Other. The texts to be discussed include Barthes’s writings on Japan and China, an excerpt from his rewriting of Balzac’s “Sarrasine” in S/Z, and his autobiography and Rousseau’s Confessions. The paper contrasts two cultural communication cases in terms of analysing two kinds of a-semantic codes: the positive a-semantic code of Japan, and the negative a-semantic code of China. With reference (...)
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  26. The Premises of Condorcet’s Jury Theorem Are Not Simultaneously Justified.Franz Dietrich - 2008 - Episteme 5 (1):56-73.
    Condorcet's famous jury theorem reaches an optimistic conclusion on the correctness of majority decisions, based on two controversial premises about voters: they are competent and vote independently, in a technical sense. I carefully analyse these premises and show that: whether a premise is justi…ed depends on the notion of probability considered; none of the notions renders both premises simultaneously justi…ed. Under the perhaps most interesting notions, the independence assumption should be weakened.
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  27. Лотман, Юрий. От Редколлегии.Juri Lotman - 1992 - Труды По Знаковым Системам (Sign Systems Studies) 25:3-4.
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  28.  42
    Juri Lotman inglise keeles.Kalevi Kull - 2011 - Sign Systems Studies 39 (2/4):356-356.
    The bibliography provides a list of all known English-language publications by Juri M. Lotman, in chronologicalorder, described de visu. The first English translation of J. Lotman’s work appeared in 1973, altogether there is 109 entries in the list. The bibliography demonstrates that in the 1970s and 1980s, most of the translations were published in the context of slavistics, whereas after 2000 Lotman’s work starts to appear in the anthologies of general semiotics.
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  29.  8
    Waiving Jury Deliberation.Andrei Poama - 2020 - Social Theory and Practice 46 (1):181-204.
    This article argues that, given the current pervasive uncertainty about the reliability of jury deliberation, we ought to treat it with epistemic humility. I further argue that epistemic humility should be expressed and enforced by turning jury deliberation from a mandatory rule of the jury trial to a waivable right of the defendant. I consider two main objections to my argument: the first one concerns the putative self-defeatingness of humility attitudes; the second objection points to the burdensomeness (...)
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  30.  25
    Juri Lotman on Proper Name.Ülle Pärli & Eleonora Rudakovskaja - 2002 - Sign Systems Studies 30 (2):577-590.
    The article treats the concept of proper name in Juri Lotman’s semiotics, taking into account also studies in the same field by other authors of the Tartu-Moscow school (V. Ivanov, B. Ogibenin, V. Toporov, B. Uspenski). Focus is laid at three sub-topics: name and myth, name and text, name and artistic creation. One of the sources of treating proper name for both the program article by J. Lotman and B. Uspenski (“Myth — Name — Culture”), and works by several other (...)
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  31.  32
    The Jury Between the Civil and the Criminal Law.Paul Robertshaw - 2000 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 13 (3):251-278.
    This article comprises two case studies of a ``problem'' within the Anglo-Welsh legal process of jury trial. In that tradition, the judge not only instructs on the law to be applied by the jury, s/he also ``summarises'' the evidence after counsel have already done so. This summarising is largely unconstrained by appellate control. The ``problem'' that the two cases present is that they were trials of ``civil'' issues in which the subject matter is also categorised as ``criminal''. Where (...)
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  32. The Social Divided.Juri Mykkänen - 1992 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 18 (1):1-27.
  33.  6
    Juri Lotman, Gilles Deleuze and Their Approaches to Cinema: Points of Intersection.Mihael Konstantinov - 2020 - Sign Systems Studies 48 (2-4):392-414.
    Engaging with the methods of studying contemporary digital audiovisual art is a dominant topic in contemporary theories of art. Against this background, the article offers a view onto some aspects of Juri Lotman’s and Gilles Deleuze’s studies on the cinema. As a rule, contemporary studies of digital audiovisual art take place in the context of interdisciplinary studies. One of the methodological principles of such studies consists in adopting a structural and semiotic approach. As of today, this methodological approach to studying (...)
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  34.  24
    A Very Discontinuous Borel Function.Juris Steprāns - 1993 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 58 (4):1268 - 1283.
    It is shown to be consistent that the reals are covered by ℵ1 meagre sets yet there is a Baire class 1 function which cannot be covered by fewer than ℵ2 continuous functions. A new cardinal invariant is introduced which corresponds to the least number of continuous functions required to cover a given function. This is characterized combinatorially. A forcing notion similar to, but not equivalent to, superperfect forcing is introduced.
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  35. Socrates and the Jury: Paradoxes in Plato's Distinction Between Knowledge and True Belief.M. F. Burnyeat & Jonathan Barnes - 1980 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 54 (1):173 - 206.
  36.  25
    Juries.Elvira Perez Vallejos, Kruakae Pothong, Stephen Coleman, Ansgar Koene, Chris James Carter, Ramona Statache, Tom Rodden, Derek McAuley, Monica Cano, Svenja Adolphs & Claire O'Malley - 2015 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 45 (3):84-90.
    A quick journey through prevention science and a comparison between online and offline risks, harm, and vulnerability in children suggests that new approaches and interventions are needed to promote Internet safety and minimise the new sources of risk associated with accessing the Internet. In this paper we present a new methodological approach to promote digital literacy and positively influence the way in which young people interact with the Internet: iRights Youth Juries. These juries offer a solution for the challenge of (...)
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  37.  14
    A Defense of Jury Nullification.Michael Huemer - 2018 - In David Boonin, Katrina L. Sifferd, Tyler K. Fagan, Valerie Gray Hardcastle, Michael Huemer, Daniel Wodak, Derk Pereboom, Stephen J. Morse, Sarah Tyson, Mark Zelcer, Garrett VanPelt, Devin Casey, Philip E. Devine, David K. Chan, Maarten Boudry, Christopher Freiman, Hrishikesh Joshi, Shelley Wilcox, Jason Brennan, Eric Wiland, Ryan Muldoon, Mark Alfano, Philip Robichaud, Kevin Timpe, David Livingstone Smith, Francis J. Beckwith, Dan Hooley, Russell Blackford, John Corvino, Corey McCall, Dan Demetriou, Ajume Wingo, Michael Shermer, Ole Martin Moen, Aksel Braanen Sterri, Teresa Blankmeyer Burke, Jeppe von Platz, John Thrasher, Mary Hawkesworth, William MacAskill, Daniel Halliday, Janine O’Flynn, Yoaav Isaacs, Jason Iuliano, Claire Pickard, Arvin M. Gouw, Tina Rulli, Justin Caouette, Allen Habib, Brian D. Earp, Andrew Vierra, Subrena E. Smith, Danielle M. Wenner, Lisa Diependaele, Sigrid Sterckx, G. Owen Schaefer, Markus K. Labude, Harisan Unais Nasir, Udo Schuklenk, Benjamin Zolf & Woolwine (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Philosophy and Public Policy. Springer Verlag. pp. 39-50.
    In the practice of “jury nullification,” a jury votes to acquit a defendant despite sufficient evidence of lawbreaking, on the grounds that a conviction would be unjust, usually because the law itself is unjust or because the expected punishment would be unduly harsh. This practice is widely condemned by judges. Nevertheless, in the case of an unjust law or unduly harsh punishment, there are no good arguments against jury nullification, and there is one powerful argument in its (...)
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  38.  35
    Mask in an artistic world of Gogol, and the masks of Anatoli Kaplan.Juri Lotman - 2002 - Sign Systems Studies 30 (2):704-705.
    Juri Lotman. Mask in an artistic world of Gogol, and the masks of Anatoli Kaplan. The paper deals with an intersemiotic problem — how it is possible to represent a verbal image by the means of sculpture. It was written as an afterword for a German edition of N. Gogol’s Dead Souls (illustrated by photos on mask-sculpures by Anatoli Kaplan) thus using a style meant for general reader. However, it includes a deep analysis and several important conclusions about the fancy (...)
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  39.  27
    The Jury Nullification Instruction and the De Jure/De Facto Debate: A Hohfeldian Analysis.Travis Hreno - 2008 - Public Affairs Quarterly 22 (3):231-251.
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  40.  71
    The Jury and Democratic Theory.Jeffrey Abramson - 1993 - Journal of Political Philosophy 1 (1):45-68.
  41. Pluralis Juris: Towards a Relativistic Theory of Law.Stig Jørgensen - 1982 - Det Lærde Selskab I Aarhus.
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  42. Poder político, tiranía y bien común en Francisco Suárez.Yamila Eliana Juri - 2019 - Isonomía. Revista de Teoría y Filosofía Del Derecho 50:116-133.
    El presente trabajo esboza la doctrina suareciana sobre el ejercicio del poder soberano en el contexto ideológico de la llamada Escuela de Salamanca, haciendo foco en la factibilidad de la resistencia al mismo, en los casos de tiranía y vinculando tal resistencia a la clave fundamental de la comunidad política que es el bien común, al cual está ordenada la potestad soberana. Nos interesa confrontar esta doctrina con la de un autor contemporáneo a Suárez y clásico por sus aportes a (...)
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  43.  18
    Value and Ethical Objectivity: A Study in Ethical Objectivity and the Objectivity of Value.Gordon Jury - 1937 - London: G. Allen & Unwin.
    November 1936 PREFACE THIS book is, in slightly revised form, a dis sertation presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Yale University.
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  44. The Problem of Induction the Presuppositions Revisited.Jüri Eintalu - 2001
     
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  45. 'To Methodize and Regulate Them': William Petty's Governmental Science of Statistics.Juri Mykkänen - 1994 - History of the Human Sciences 7 (3):65-88.
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  46.  12
    Symmetry and Rationality.Jüri Tammaru - 2001 - In Rein Vihalemm (ed.), Estonian Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 179--184.
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  47.  16
    Solidarity Under Duress: Defending State Vigilantism.Juri Viehoff - 2022 - European Journal of Philosophy 30 (2):546-564.
    European Journal of Philosophy, Volume 30, Issue 2, Page 546-564, June 2022.
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  48.  58
    Institutional Degeneration of Science.Jüri Eintalu - 2019 - Philosophical Drops.
    Since Popper and Lakatos, the demarcation line between science and non-science has been considered one of the fundamental issues of the philosophy of science. According to Lakatos, pseudoscience is a non-science, which appears as science, using science's public authority. Since then, mountains of texts have been published on how non-sciences, such as astrology, are not sciences. -/- But the enemy is not on the other side of the border. The enemy is in our midst. Science has been institutionalized. The best (...)
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  49.  51
    Democracy Without Enlightenment: A Jury Theorem for Evaluative Voting.Michael Morreau - 2021 - Journal of Political Philosophy 29 (2):188-210.
    Panels, boards, and committees throughout society evaluate all manner of things by grading them, first individually and then collectively. Thus risks are prioritized, research proposals are funded, and candidates are shortlisted for jobs. It is not usual to pick winners in political elections by grading the candidates, but there are examples in history. This article takes up a question about the quality of judgments and decisions made by grading: under which conditions are they likely to be right? An answer comes (...)
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  50.  4
    On the Dynamics of Culture.Juri Lotman - 2013 - Sign Systems Studies 41 (2/3):355-370.
    First published as Лотман, Ю. М. 1992. О динамике культуры. Труды по знаковым системам 25: 5–22.
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