Hart offers a biologically based explanation for the use of an ‘epistemic positioning strategy’ aimed by speakers/writers at the legitimization of assertions, at persuading addressees of the veracity of the propositions, as a prior condition for the discursive legitimization of actions. This article focuses on various issues addressed in Hart’s article, among them the degree of commitment invoked in speakers/writers’ choice of epistemic stance expressions as legitimization strategies, as well as the expression of subjectivity/intersubjectivity in discourse and the degree to (...) which this involves responsibility and accountability for the speaker/writer. The article also provides an alternative proposal of the categories identified by Bednarek for the conceptual domain of evidentiality. (shrink)
This article explores the use of epistemic stance strategies in journalistic discourse in English and Spanish. The linguistic resources of epistemic stance include evidential and modal expressions, as well as verbs of cognitive attitude and expressions of factivity. This article examines the pattern of distribution of epistemic stance expressions in three types of journalistic genres in English and Spanish and the presence of multifunctionality of some evidential expressions in the two languages. The article aims to reveal possible similarities or differences (...) in the use of the stance resources in the various genres and across languages. (shrink)
Myron Penner’s work shows some ways continental philosophy could strengthen apologetics. In particular, continental philosophy can serve what Francis Schaeffer called “the final apologetic” by exposing idols that keep us from living lives of “costly, observable love.” Yet continental philosophy can also imperil apologetics and theology. The worst danger stems from what I call the “idolatry of linguistic license,” a type of idolatry where linguistic criticism denies God a place in the normative community of speakers. Although the idolatry of linguistic (...) license mars some recent critiques of apologetics inspired by continental philosophy, apologetics would still profit from measured use of continental philosophy. (shrink)
I Alderdommen (1970) fremsetter Simone de Beauvoir en filosofisk analyse av alderdom og eldre menneskers situa- sjon, og hevder at behandlingen de får er «skandaløs»; samfunnet «returnerer dem som en vare det ikke lenger er bruk for». Hun tilkjennegir et like stort engasjement mot den urett som eldre utsettes for som hun gjør i Det annet kjønn (1949) når det gjelder undertrykkelsen av kvinner. Likevel påstår Beauvoir at alderdommen først og fremst er et problem for mannen, og det har blitt (...) hevdet at Alderdommen er et verk om aldersdiskriminering hvor mannens aldringsprosess gjøres til norm – ikke et feministisk verk på linje med Det annet kjønn. I denne artikkelen argumen- terer Tove Pettersen for at det nettopp er den feministiske filosofien Beauvoir utvikler i Det annet kjønn som ligger til grunn for hennes undersøkelser av undertrykkelse og diskriminering av eldre. I tillegg demonstrerer Beauvoirs omfattende analyse av alderdommen at hverken alder eller kjønn kan studeres uavhengig av hverandre. Alder og kjønn virker sammen, og må ses i lys av den situasjon disse fenomenene fremtrer i hvor også klasse er av stor betydning. Alderdommen kan derfor leses som et verk hvor Beauvoir viser hvordan ulike former for undertrykkelse virker sammen og bidrar til marginalisering og diskriminering av eldre. Nøkkelord: Simone de Beauvoir, Alderdommen, Det annet kjønn, feministisk filosofi, Den andre, aldersdiskriminering, alderisme******* -/- In The Coming of Age (1970), Simone de Beauvoir presents a philosophical analysis of old age and the elderly’s situa- tion, and claims that the treatment they receive is “scandalous”; society ‘returns them as a commodity that is no longer needed.’ She exhibits the same level of commitment regarding the injustice to which the elderly are exposed as she does in The Second Sex (1949) when it comes to the oppression of women. Nevertheless, Beauvoir claims that old age first and foremost is a problem for men, and it has been argued that The Coming of Age is a work on age discrim- ination where the male aging process is made the norm – not a feminist work on par with The Second Sex. In thisarticle, Tove Pettersen argues that it is precisely the feminist philosophy that Beauvoir develops in The Second Sex that enables her to analyze the oppression and discrimination of the elderly. Additionally, Beauvoir's comprehensive analysis of old age demonstrates that neither age nor gender can be studied independently. Age and gender intersect, and must be be seen in light of the situation in which class is of great importance. Thus, The Coming of Age can be read as a work in which Beauvoir shows how different forms of oppression work together and contribute to the mar- ginalization and discrimination of the elderly. Keywords: Simone de Beauvoir, The Coming of Age, The Second Sex, Feminist Philosophy, The Other, Age Discrimination, Ageism. (shrink)
Melalui karakternya dapat ditemukan intisari ajaran Hindu, yakni universalisme, tatvam asi, ahimsa, svadhes, moksa artham jagat hita ya ca iti dharma dan sebagainya. Keuniversalannya menimbulkan paham bahwa semua agama itu sama dan benar. Tidak ada satu pun agama yang paling baik dan paling benar. Semua agama sama, tidak ada satu pun yang lebih tinggi, lebih mulia dan lebih luhur. Ajaran dan pandangan Hindu mengenai agama dan perdamaian dalam perspektif multikultural sesungguhnya tidak ada masalah. Dengan kata lain, perdamaian yang dimaksudkan itu (...) pasti dapat diwujudkan secara nyata. Sebab, sejak mula yakni sejak abad 6000 SM Hindu hidup dan berkembang sampai saat ini, diwarnai oleh karakternya yang sangat universal. (shrink)
Her felsefi kongre zorunlu olarak politik bir öneme sahiptir. Bu, yalnızca felsefenin özünü her zaman politik olanın özüne bağlayan bir şey yüzünden değildir. Temel ve genel olarak, bu politik ima ona [felsefe ve politika arasındaki a priori ilişkiye] ağırlık katıyor, onu daha ciddi kılıyor ve özellikle felsefi kongre aynı zamanda uluslararası bir kongre olduğunda onun ayırıcı özelliğini de belirliyor. Uluslararası bir felsefe konferansı olasılığı sınırsız bir biçimde, farklı çizgilerle birlikte ve genelliğin birçok düzeyinde araştırılabilir. En genel anlamında böyle bir olasılık, (...) felsefenin özüne aykırı olarak, ulusal felsefelerin oluşturulduğu anlamına gelir. Belirli bir anda, belirli tarihsel, politik ve ekonomik bağlamda, bu ulusal gruplar, uluslararası toplantılar düzenlemeyi, ulusal kimlikleriyle temsil edilmeyi ve burada kendi farklılıklarını belirlemeyi ya da ilişkilendirmeyi zorunlu görmüştür. Bu tür bir farklılıklar toplantısı, bir dereceye kadar sadece öğretisel bağlam veya belli bir felsefi “üslup” tarafından tanımlanan ulusal felsefi kimliklerin öngörülmüş olduğu durumlarda gerçekleşebilir. Ancak, farklılıkların ilişkilendirilmesi de ortak bir unsuru öngörür: bir toplantı ancak tüm katılımcıların paylaştığı, bu durumda felsefi söylemin evrenselliği denilen ortak bir imge ile gerçekleşebilir. Bu kelimelerle, özüyle belirli bir dil grubu ve “kültürler” ile özdeşleştirilen bir projeden daha az bir olgu belirledim. Zira açıktır ki, bu unsurun şeffaflığının başına bir şey gelmiştir. (shrink)
We propose that the pragmatic factors that mediate everyday deduction, such as alternative and disabling conditions (e.g. Cummins et al., 1991) and additional requirements (Byrne, 1989) exert their effects on specific inferences because of their perceived relevance to more general principles, which we term SuperPs. Support for this proposal was found first in two causal inference experiments, in which it was shown that specific inferences were mediated by factors that are relevant to a more general principle, while the same inferences (...) were unaffected by factors not relevant to the general principle. These results were extended to deontic inferences in two further experiments. Taken together, these findings show that unstated superordinate principles play a significant role in certain types of reasoning. Questions raised by the findings for the main theoretical approaches are discussed. (shrink)
Spade 1988 sugges t s tha t t he r e are ac tua l l y two theo r i e s t o address t h i s ques t i o n t o , an ear l y one and a l a t e r one . 2 Most o f the presen t pape r i s a deve l o pmen t o f t h i s i dea . I sugges t (...) tha t ear l y work by Sherwood and o the r s was a s tudy o f quan t i f i e r s : the i r semant i c s and t he e f f e c t s o f con t e x t on i n f e r e n ce s t ha t can be made f r om quan t i f i e d te rms . La te r , i n the hands o f Bur l e y and o the r s , i t changed i n t o a s tudy o f someth i n g e l se , a s tudy o f what I ca l l g loba l quan t i f i c a t i o n a l e f f e c t . In sec t i o n 1 , I exp l a i n what these two op t i o n s are. (shrink)
The psychological state and neural correlates of 19 women undergoing normal childbirth were studied. Frequent occurence of nonordinary psychological phenomena was traced back in 6 subjects, occurring in active and passive alertness, as well as hypnagogic/hypnopompic periods, and in dreaming, during the late period of pregnancy, giving birth, and the period of 2-4 days post partull. The brain activity of the aforementioned subgroup during this time was characterized primarily by general activation of the right hemisphere in the bandpass of infraslow (...) electrical processes and by more localized EEG activation. The implications of the data for research on gender-specific altered states of consciousness are discussed. (shrink)
We have evaluated analytically the vacuum polarization in a Coulomb field using the relativistic Dirac-Coulomb wave functions by a new method. The result is made finite by an appropriate choice of contour integrations and gives the standard result in the lowest order of iteration. We used the formalism of self-field quantum electrodynamics in the evaluation of the vacuum polarization which needs neither field quantization nor renormalization. There are no infrared or ultraviolet divergences.
Social life convinces that without cultivating such moral values as goodness, humanity, responsibility, self-esteem, creative initiative, enterprise, tolerance, one can hardly expect to improve the moral situation in our country. These moral phenomena, in the period of transition to a market that has not yet become civilized, serve the function of harmonizing personal and public interests.
David E. Over is a leading cognitive scientist and, with his firm grounding in philosophical logic, he also exerts a powerful influence on the psychology of reasoning. He is responsible for not only a large body of empirical work and accompanying theory, but for advancing a major shift in thinking about reasoning, commonly known as the ‘new paradigm’ in the psychology of human reasoning. -/- Over’s signature mix of philosophical logic and experimental psychology has inspired generations of researchers, psychologists, and (...) philosophers alike over more than a quarter of a century. The chapters in this volume, written by a leading group of contributors including a number who helped shape the psychology of reasoning as we know it today, each take their starting point from the key themes of Over’s ground-breaking work. The essays in this collection explore a wide range of central topics—such as rationality, bias, dual processes, and dual systems—as well as contemporary psychological and philosophical theories of conditionals. It concludes with an engaging new chapter, authored by David E. Over himself, which details and analyses the new paradigm psychology of reasoning. -/- This book is therefore important reading for scholars, researchers, and advanced students in psychology, philosophy, and the cognitive sciences, including those who are not familiar with Over’s thought already. (shrink)
We discuss N. I. Vavilov’s 1922 landmark publication, “The Law of Homologous Series in Variation,” and highlight its salient points. Vavilov drew upon his considerable experience in the field with wild and cultivated crop plants and summarized what he noticed in the form of a law. The law stated that comparable variant forms tended to appear in different varieties of the same species, different species of the same genus, different genera of the same family, and so on. His survey of (...) the older literature suggested that the law applied to multicellular animals as well. Vavilov acknowledged that such “parallel” series might be the outcome of convergent evolution. At the same time, by way of an alternative hypothesis, he posed a question that continues to engage evolutionary biology to this day. Namely, does the existence of such parallelisms reflect underlying structural and developmental principles which constrain the range of possible plant and animal forms? Vavilov’s original 1922 paper from the Journal of Genetics is available as supplementary material in the online version of this article. (shrink)