Results for 'Joshua I. Fox'

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Joshua Isaac Fox
University of Chicago
  1.  40
    Complex Wisdom in the Euthydemus.Joshua I. Fox - 2020 - Apeiron 53 (3):187-211.
    In the Euthydemus, Socrates is presented as an eager student of seemingly trivial arts, earning derision both for desiring to master the peculiar art of Euthydemus and Dionysodorus and for studying the harp in his old age. I explain Socrates’ interest in these apparently trivial arts by way of a novel reading of the first protreptic argument, suggesting that the wisdom Socrates praises is complex in nature, securing the happiness of its possessor only insofar as it is composed of both (...)
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  2.  64
    Two Pessimisms in Mill.Joshua Fox - 2021 - Utilitas 33 (4):442-457.
    Mill defines utilitarianism as the combination of a “theory of life” and a moral claim: only pleasure and freedom from pain are desirable as ends, and the promotion of happiness is the sole goal of moral action. So defined, utilitarianism is open to ad hominem pessimistic objection: a “theory of life” which entails the impossibility of happiness fits poorly with a morality centered on its promotion. The first two challenges Mill confronts in Utilitarianism share this pessimistic structure. Interestingly, however, these (...)
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  3.  29
    Gratitude to Beautiful Objects: On Nietzsche's Claim That the Beautiful “Promises Happiness”.Joshua Isaac Fox - 2020 - Journal of Nietzsche Studies 51 (2):169.
    Nietzsche suggests that part of what it is to experience something as beautiful is to experience it as beneficial in the highest degree. He defends this claim by suggesting that it alone captures the experience of beauty typical of artists. I argue that this is best understood as pointing to an explanatory argument: Nietzsche takes his view to make sense of an effect beautiful objects have on artists. This effect is, I suggest, gratitude. Beautiful objects inspire feelings of gratitude within (...)
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  4.  9
    The Freedom-Based Critique of Well-Being’s Exclusive Moral Claim.Joshua Fox - 2021 - Journal of Human Development and Capabilities 22 (4):647-662.
    Amartya Sen has suggested that the moral significance of freedom undermines the view that well-being alone possesses fundamental moral worth. Sen’s efforts to establish this claim, however, seem to fall short: he attempts to establish freedom’s independent moral significance by pointing to the value of autonomy, but explains the value of autonomy in terms of its role as an element of well-being. Nonetheless, I take it that Sen is very much on the right track: well-being is not the only fundamental (...)
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  5.  70
    Neural Computations That Underlie Decisions About Sensory Stimuli.Joshua I. Gold & Michael N. Shadlen - 2001 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (1):10-16.
  6.  10
    Yishuv Medinah and a Rabbinic Alternative to Greek Political Philosophy.Joshua I. Weinstein - 2015 - Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy 23 (2):161-195.
    _ Source: _Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 161 - 195 The Greek tradition of political philosophy, with its prominent focus on the forms of government, should be distinguished from the discourse typical of many rabbinic sources, with its concern for collective goals. This discourse commonly deploys broad, mid-level goals to mediate between abstract theology and practical law. Among these goals, yishuv medinah focuses on the economic and social development of a region or district, articulating the character of local needs. This (...)
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  7.  20
    Pupil Size as a Window on Neural Substrates of Cognition.Siddhartha Joshi & Joshua I. Gold - 2020 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 24 (6):466-480.
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  8.  1
    Exploring Perception and Usage of Narrative Medicine by Physician Specialty: A Qualitative Analysis.Joshua M. Hauser & Daniel A. Fox - 2021 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 16 (1):1-9.
    BackgroundNarrative medicine is a well-recognized and respected approach to care. It is now found in medical school curricula and widely implemented in practice. However, there has been no analysis of the perception and usage of narrative medicine across different medical specialties and whether there may be unique recommendations for implementation based upon specialty. The aims of this study were to explore these gaps in research.MethodsFifteen senior physicians who specialize in internal medicine, pediatrics, or surgery were interviewed in a semi-structured format (...)
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  9. Plato's Threefold City and Soul.Joshua I. Weinstein - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    Plato's 'Republic' constructs an ideal city composed of three parts, parallel to the soul's reason, appetites, and fighting spirit. But confusion and controversy have long surrounded this three-way division and especially the prominent role it assigns to angry and competitive spirit. In Plato's Three-fold City and Soul, Joshua I. Weinstein argues that, for Plato, determination and fortitude are not just expressions of our passionate or emotional natures, but also play an essential role in the rational agency of persons and (...)
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  10.  34
    Despair and the Determinate Negation of Brandom’s Hegel.Joshua I. Wretzel - 2014 - Continental Philosophy Review 47 (2):195-216.
    In this paper, I contend that Brandom’s interpretive oversights leave his inferentialist program vulnerable to Hegelian critique. My target is Brandom’s notion of “conceptual realism,” or the thesis that the structure of mind-independent reality mimics the structure of thought. I show, first, that the conceptual realism at the heart of Brandom’s empiricism finds root in his interpretation of Hegel. I then argue that conceptual realism is incompatible with Hegel’s thought, since the Jena Phenomenology, understood as a “way of despair,” includes (...)
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  11.  13
    Justice Brings Happiness in Plato's Republic.Joshua I. Weinstein - 2011 - In Michael Bruce & Steven Barbone (eds.), Just the Arguments: 100 of the Most Important Arguments in Western Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 201--207.
  12.  5
    A Tocqueville for Our Time.Joshua I. Miller - 2004 - Political Theory 32 (4):580-584.
  13.  7
    Review Essay on Hoopes and Festenstein.Joshua I. Miller - 2001 - Political Theory 29 (1):145-148.
  14.  7
    Sympathy for the Devil.Joshua I. Miller - 2007 - Political Theory 35 (3):364-370.
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  15. Trying and Doing: In Morality and the Law.Joshua I. Halberstam - 1978 - Dissertation, New York University
     
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  16.  13
    A Blinded Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial on the Use of Astaxanthin as an Adjunct to Splinting in the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.Joy C. MacDermid, Joshua I. Vincent, Bing S. Gan & Ruby Grewal - 2012 - In Zdravko Radman (ed.), The Hand. MIT Press. pp. 1-9.
  17.  2
    The MRSA Epidemic and/as Fluid Biopolitics.Christopher M. McLeod, Rachel Shields & Joshua I. Newman - 2016 - Body and Society 22 (4):155-184.
    This article offers a series of critical theorizations on the biopolitical dimensions of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, with specific attention to what has recently been referred to in the United States as the ‘MRSA Epidemic’. In particular, we reflect on the proliferation of biomedical discourses around the ‘spread’, and the pathogenic potentialities, of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. We turn to the work of Roberto Esposito and Jean-Luc Nancy to better make sense of how, during this immunological crisis, the individualized fleshy and (...)
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  18. Safety Engineering for Artificial General Intelligence.Roman Yampolskiy & Joshua Fox - 2013 - Topoi 32 (2):217-226.
    Machine ethics and robot rights are quickly becoming hot topics in artificial intelligence and robotics communities. We will argue that attempts to attribute moral agency and assign rights to all intelligent machines are misguided, whether applied to infrahuman or superhuman AIs, as are proposals to limit the negative effects of AIs by constraining their behavior. As an alternative, we propose a new science of safety engineering for intelligent artificial agents based on maximizing for what humans value. In particular, we challenge (...)
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  19.  32
    Shared Mechanisms of Perceptual Learning and Decision Making.Chi-Tat Law & Joshua I. Gold - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (2):226-238.
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  20. The Neuroscience of Moral Judgment: Empirical and Philosophical Developments.Joshua May, Clifford I. Workman, Julia Haas & Hyemin Han - forthcoming - In Felipe De Brigard & Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (eds.), Neuroscience and Philosophy. Cambridge, USA: MIT Press.
    We chart how neuroscience and philosophy have together advanced our understanding of moral judgment with implications for when it goes well or poorly. The field initially focused on brain areas associated with reason versus emotion in the moral evaluations of sacrificial dilemmas. But new threads of research have studied a wider range of moral evaluations and how they relate to models of brain development and learning. By weaving these threads together, we are developing a better understanding of the neurobiology of (...)
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  21. Because I Believe It’s the Right Thing to Do.Joshua May - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (4):791-808.
    Our beliefs about which actions we ought to perform clearly have an effect on what we do. But so-called “Humean” theories—holding that all motivation has its source in desire—insist on connecting such beliefs with an antecedent motive. Rationalists, on the other hand, allow normative beliefs a more independent role. I argue in favor of the rationalist view in two stages. First, I show that the Humean theory rules out some of the ways we ordinarily explain actions. This shifts the burden (...)
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  22.  17
    The Bioethics That I Would Like to See.Renée C. Fox - 2008 - Clinical Ethics 3 (1):25-26.
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  23.  3
    Ethical Issues in Intraoperative Neuroscience Research: Assessing Subjects’ Recall of Informed Consent and Motivations for Participation.Anna Wexler, Rebekah J. Choi, Ashwin G. Ramayya, Nikhil Sharma, Brendan J. McShane, Love Y. Buch, Melanie P. Donley-Fletcher, Joshua I. Gold, Gordon H. Baltuch, Sara Goering & Eran Klein - forthcoming - AJOB Empirical Bioethics:1-10.
  24.  16
    Plato’s Three-Fold City and Soul, Written by Joshua I. Weinstein.Josh Wilburn - 2019 - Polis 36 (3):586-589.
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  25.  14
    The Effectiveness of Proprioceptive Training for Improving Motor Function: A Systematic Review.Joshua E. Aman, Naveen Elangovan, I.-Ling Yeh & Jã¼Rgen Konczak - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  26.  89
    I. The Ghostly Body Politic: The Federalist Papers and Popular Sovereignty.Joshua Miller - 1988 - Political Theory 16 (1):99-119.
  27.  25
    Non‐Therapeutic Male Genital Cutting and Harm: Law, Policy and Evidence From U.K. Hospitals.Marie Fox, Michael Thomson & Joshua Warburton - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (4):467-474.
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  28.  32
    Using< I> Uh and< I> Um in Spontaneous Speaking.Herbert H. Clark & Jean E. Fox Tree - 2002 - Cognition 84 (1):73-111.
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  29. Rational Self-Doubt and the Failure of Closure.Joshua Schechter - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 163 (2):428-452.
    Closure for justification is the claim that thinkers are justified in believing the logical consequences of their justified beliefs, at least when those consequences are competently deduced. Many have found this principle to be very plausible. Even more attractive is the special case of Closure known as Single-Premise Closure. In this paper, I present a challenge to Single-Premise Closure. The challenge is based on the phenomenon of rational self-doubt – it can be rational to be less than fully confident in (...)
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  30.  73
    Unrealistic Optimism and the Ethics of Phase I Cancer Research.Joshua Crites & Eric Kodish - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (6):403-406.
    One of the most pressing ethical challenges facing phase I cancer research centres is the process of informed consent. Historically, most scholarship has been devoted to redressing therapeutic misconception, that is, the conflation of the nature and goals of research with those of therapy. While therapeutic misconception continues to be a major ethical concern, recent scholarship has begun to recognise that the informed consent process is more complex than merely a transfer of information and therefore cannot be evaluated only according (...)
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  31. Another Look at the Reality of Race, by Which I Mean Race-F.Joshua Glasgow - 2011 - In Allan Hazlett (ed.), New Waves in Metaphysics.
    Recently the idea that race is biologically real has gained more traction. One argument against this claim is that the populations identified by science do not sufficiently map onto the concept of race as deployed in the relevant racial discourse, namely folk racial discourse. Call that concept the concept of race-f. Robin Andreasen (2005) argues that this "mismatch" criticism fails, on a variety of grounds including: ordinary folk semantically defer to scientists; scientists can disagree about facts; historians disagree about the (...)
     
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  32. Lying, Risk and Accuracy.Sam Fox Krauss - 2017 - Analysis 77 (4):726-734.
    Almost all philosophers agree that a necessary condition on lying is that one says what one believes to be false. But, philosophers haven’t considered the possibility that the true requirement on lying concerns, rather, one’s degree-of-belief. Liars impose a risk on their audience. The greater the liar’s confidence that what she asserts is false, the greater the risk she’ll think she’s imposing on the dupe, and, therefore, the greater her blameworthiness. From this, I arrive at a dilemma: either the belief (...)
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  33. Conscious Control Over Action.Joshua Shepherd - 2015 - Mind and Language 30 (3):320-344.
    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this article I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges—challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I argue that though nonconscious contributions (...)
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  34. Book Review. [REVIEW]Joshua Fox - 1999 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 119 (3):527-528.
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  35.  3
    Phonologies of Asia and Africa.Joshua Fox & Alan S. Kaye - 1999 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 119 (3):527.
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  36. Does Disgust Influence Moral Judgment?Joshua May - 2014 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 92 (1):125-141.
    Recent empirical research seems to show that emotions play a substantial role in moral judgment. Perhaps the most important line of support for this claim focuses on disgust. A number of philosophers and scientists argue that there is adequate evidence showing that disgust significantly influences various moral judgments. And this has been used to support or undermine a range of philosophical theories, such as sentimentalism and deontology. I argue that the existing evidence does not support such arguments. At best it (...)
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  37. The Contours of Control.Joshua Shepherd - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 170 (3):395-411.
    Necessarily, if S lacks the ability to exercise control, S is not an agent. If S is not an agent, S cannot act intentionally, responsibly, or rationally, nor can S possess or exercise free will. In spite of the obvious importance of control, however, no general account of control exists. In this paper I reflect on the nature of control itself. I develop accounts of control ’s exercise and control ’s possession that illuminate what it is for degrees of control (...)
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  38. Moral Rationalism on the Brain.Joshua May - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
    I draw on neurobiological evidence to defend the rationalist thesis that moral judgments are essentially dependent on reasoning, not emotions (conceived as distinct from inference). The neuroscience reveals that moral cognition arises from domain-general capacities in the brain for inferring, in particular, the consequences of an agent’s action, the agent’s intent, and the rules or norms relevant to the context. Although these capacities entangle inference and affect, blurring the reason/emotion dichotomy doesn’t preferentially support sentimentalism. The argument requires careful consideration of (...)
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  39. The Secret Joke of Kant’s Soul.Joshua Greene - 2007 - In W. Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), Moral Psychology, Vol. 3. MIT Press.
    In this essay, I draw on Haidt’s and Baron’s respective insights in the service of a bit of philosophical psychoanalysis. I will argue that deontological judgments tend to be driven by emotional responses, and that deontological philosophy, rather than being grounded in moral reasoning, is to a large extent3 an exercise in moral rationalization. This is in contrast to consequentialism, which, I will argue, arises from rather different psychological processes, ones that are more “cognitive,” and more likely to involve genuine (...)
     
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  40. Could Evolution Explain Our Reliability About Logic?Joshua Schechter - 2013 - In Tamar Szabo Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.), Oxford Studies in Epistemology 4. pp. 214.
    We are reliable about logic in the sense that we by-and-large believe logical truths and disbelieve logical falsehoods. Given that logic is an objective subject matter, it is difficult to provide a satisfying explanation of our reliability. This generates a significant epistemological challenge, analogous to the well-known Benacerraf-Field problem for mathematical Platonism. One initially plausible way to answer the challenge is to appeal to evolution by natural selection. The central idea is that being able to correctly deductively reason conferred a (...)
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  41. The Reliability Challenge and the Epistemology of Logic.Joshua Schechter - 2010 - Philosophical Perspectives 24 (1):437-464.
    We think of logic as objective. We also think that we are reliable about logic. These views jointly generate a puzzle: How is it that we are reliable about logic? How is it that our logical beliefs match an objective domain of logical fact? This is an instance of a more general challenge to explain our reliability about a priori domains. In this paper, I argue that the nature of this challenge has not been properly understood. I explicate the challenge (...)
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  42. What in the World is Weakness of Will?Joshua May & Richard Holton - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 157 (3):341–360.
    At least since the middle of the twentieth century, philosophers have tended to identify weakness of will with akrasia—i.e. acting, or having a disposition to act, contrary to one‘s judgments about what is best for one to do. However, there has been some recent debate about whether this captures the ordinary notion of weakness of will. Richard Holton (1999, 2009) claims that it doesn’t, while Alfred Mele (2010) argues that, to a certain extent, it does. As Mele recognizes, the question (...)
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  43.  17
    Ai Ssu-Ch'i's Contribution to the Development of Chinese Marxism.Joshua A. Fogel - 1987 - the Harvard University Press.
    Introduction Marxism did not come to China simply as one of the many waves from abroad that inundated Chinese intellectual life during the late Ch'ing ...
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  44.  13
    Time Judgment and Body Temperature.R. H. Fox, Pamela A. Bradbury & I. F. Hampton - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (1):88.
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  45. The Concept of Intentional Action: A Case Study in the Uses of Folk Psychology.Joshua Knobe - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 130 (2):203-231.
    It is widely believed that the primary function of folk psychology lies in the prediction, explanation and control of behavior. A question arises, however, as to whether folk psychology has also been shaped in fundamental ways by the various other roles it plays in people’s lives. Here I approach that question by considering one particular aspect of folk psychology – the distinction between intentional and unintentional behaviors. The aim is to determine whether this distinction is best understood as a tool (...)
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  46. Conscious Action/Zombie Action.Joshua Shepherd - 2016 - Noûs 50 (2):419-444.
    I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying . I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience (...)
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  47. Beyond Point-and-Shoot Morality: Why Cognitive (Neuro)Science Matters for Ethics.Joshua D. Greene - 2014 - Ethics 124 (4):695-726.
    In this article I explain why cognitive science (including some neuroscience) matters for normative ethics. First, I describe the dual-process theory of moral judgment and briefly summarize the evidence supporting it. Next I describe related experimental research examining influences on intuitive moral judgment. I then describe two ways in which research along these lines can have implications for ethics. I argue that a deeper understanding of moral psychology favors certain forms of consequentialism over other classes of normative moral theory. I (...)
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  48.  14
    Organisms, Machines, and Thunderstorms: A History of Self-Organization (I).Evelyn Fox Keller - 2008 - Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 38 (1):45-75.
  49. The Limits of Emotion in Moral Judgment.Joshua May - 2018 - In Karen Jones & Francois Schroeter (eds.), The Many Moral Rationalisms. Oxford University Press. pp. 286-306.
    I argue that our best science supports the rationalist idea that, independent of reasoning, emotions aren’t integral to moral judgment. There’s ample evidence that ordinary moral cognition often involves conscious and unconscious reasoning about an action’s outcomes and the agent’s role in bringing them about. Emotions can aid in moral reasoning by, for example, drawing one’s attention to such information. However, there is no compelling evidence for the decidedly sentimentalist claim that mere feelings are causally necessary or sufficient for making (...)
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  50. Heschel, Hiddenness, and the God of Israel.Joshua Blanchard - 2016 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 8 (4):109-124.
    Drawing on the writings of the Jewish thinker, Abraham Joshua Heschel, I defend a partial response to the problem of divine hiddenness. A Jewish approach to divine love includes the thought that God desires meaningful relationship not only with individual persons, but also with communities of persons. In combination with John Schellenberg’s account of divine love, the admission of God’s desire for such relationships makes possible that a person may fail to believe that God exists not because of any (...)
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