Results for 'Joshua Avery Dawson'

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  1.  27
    Moving Forward: The Existential Motion of the Self in Kierkegaard's Pseudonymous Works.Joshua Avery Dawson - 2018 - Wiley: The Heythrop Journal 63 (1):35-48.
    The Heythrop Journal, Volume 63, Issue 1, Page 35-48, January 2022.
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  2. Moving Forward: The Existential Motion of the Self in Kierkegaard's Pseudonymous Works.Joshua Avery Dawson - 2022 - Heythrop Journal 63 (1):35-48.
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  3. Re-Evaluation of Solutions to the Problem of Unprofessionalism in Peer Review.Joshua A. Rash, Jeff C. Clements, Stephanie Avery-Gomm, Chi-Yeung Choi, Alyssa M. Allen Gerwing & Travis G. Gerwing - 2021 - Research Integrity and Peer Review 6 (1).
    Our recent paper reported that 43% of reviewer comment sets shared with authors contained at least one unprofessional comment or an incomplete, inaccurate of unsubstantiated critique. Publication of this work sparked an online conversation surrounding professionalism in peer review. We collected and analyzed these social media comments as they offered real-time responses to our work and provided insight into the views held by commenters and potential peer-reviewers that would be difficult to quantify using existing empirical tools. Overall, 75% of comments (...)
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  4.  3
    Quantifying Professionalism in Peer Review.Joshua A. Rash, Jeff C. Clements, Chi-Yeung Choi, Stephanie Avery-Gomm, Alyssa M. Allen Gerwing & Travis G. Gerwing - 2020 - Research Integrity and Peer Review 5 (1).
    BackgroundThe process of peer-review in academia has attracted criticism surrounding issues of bias, fairness, and professionalism; however, frequency of occurrence of such comments is unknown.MethodsWe evaluated 1491 sets of reviewer comments from the fields of “Ecology and Evolution” and “Behavioural Medicine,” of which 920 were retrieved from the online review repository Publons and 571 were obtained from six early career investigators. Comment sets were coded for the occurrence of “unprofessional comments” and “incomplete, inaccurate or unsubstantiated critiques” using an a-prior rubric (...)
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  5.  14
    The Failure of the Sacraments in Coleridge’s Rime of the Ancient Mariner.Joshua Avery - 2020 - Renascence 72 (2):87-98.
    This essay argues that Coleridge’s Rime of the Ancient Mariner represents in its imagery a tension within Coleridge prior to his conversion to Anglicanism. Specifically, the poem’s treatment of institutional sacraments argues for their apparent inefficacy, at least from the Mariner’s vantage point. The sacramental idea upheld by a High Church view would suggest that particular earthly institutions, such as Holy Communion or matrimony, could function as actual and not merely symbolic vehicles of divine grace. The Rime, however, displays a (...)
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  6.  15
    Which Moral Exemplars Inspire Prosociality?Hyemin han, Clifford Ian Workman, Joshua May, Payton Scholtens, Kelsie J. Dawson, Andrea L. Glenn & Peter Meindl - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology.
    Some stories of moral exemplars motivate us to emulate their admirable attitudes and behaviors, but why do some exemplars motivate us more than others? We systematically studied how motivation to emulate is influenced by the similarity between a reader and an exemplar in social or cultural background (Relatability) and how personally costly or demanding the exemplar’s actions are (Attainability). Study 1 found that university students reported more inspiration and related feelings after reading true stories about the good deeds of a (...)
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  7. Sir Joshua Reynolds's Discourses.Joshua Reynolds - 1830 - Walter Scott.
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  8.  85
    Money, Politics, Political Equality Joshua Cohen.Joshua Cohen - 2001 - In Alex Byrne, Robert Stalnaker & Ralph Wedgwood (eds.), Fact and Value: Essays on Ethics and Metaphysics for Judith Jarvis Thomson. MIT Press. pp. 47.
  9.  22
    A Model for Deontic Logic.On Dawson-Models for Deontic Logic.P. T. Geach, E. E. Dawson & Lennart Aqvist - 1966 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 31 (4):666.
  10.  46
    Christopher Dawson's View of Modern Capitalism.Christopher Dawson - 1997 - The Chesterton Review 23 (4):529-531.
  11.  41
    Dawson's View of the Contemporary Political Crisis.Christopher Dawson - 1999 - The Chesterton Review 25 (1/2):181-183.
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  12.  47
    "Experimental Philosophy and its Critic," Ed. Joachim Horvath and Thomas Grundmann; "Experimental Philosophy," Volume 2, Ed. Joshua Knobe and Shaun Nichols; and "Current Controversies in Experimental Philosophy," Ed. Edouard Machery and Elizabeth O’Neill. [REVIEW]Joshua Alexander - 2014 - Teaching Philosophy 37 (3):411-414.
  13.  46
    Ghostly Matters: Haunting and the Sociological Imagination.Avery Gordon - 2008 - University of Minnesota Press.
    Her shape and his hand -- Distractions -- The other door, it's floods of tears with consolation enclosed -- Not only the footprints but the water too and what is down there -- There are crossroads.
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  14. Kant and the Subject of Critique: On the Regulative Role of the Psychological Idea.Avery Goldman - 2012 - Indiana University Press.
    Immanuel Kant is strict about the limits of self-knowledge: our inner sense gives us only appearances, never the reality, of ourselves. Kant may seem to begin his inquiries with an uncritical conception of cognitive limits, but in Kant and the Subject of Critique, Avery Goldman argues that, even for Kant, a reflective act must take place before any judgment occurs. Building on Kant’s metaphysics, which uses the soul, the world, and God as regulative principles, Goldman demonstrates how Kant can (...)
     
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  15.  3
    Land, Conflict, and Justice: A Political Theory of Territory.Avery Kolers - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    Territorial disputes have defined modern politics, but political theorists and philosophers have said little about how to resolve such disputes fairly. Is it even possible to do so? If historical attachments or divine promises are decisive, it may not be. More significant than these largely subjective claims are the ways in which people interact with land over time. Building from this insight, Avery Kolers evaluates existing political theories and develops an attractive alternative. He presents a novel link between political (...)
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  16.  79
    The Future of Bioethics: Three Dogmas and a Cup of Hemlock.Angus Dawson - 2010 - Bioethics 24 (5):218-225.
    In this paper I argue that bioethics is in crisis and that it will not have a future unless it begins to embrace a more Socratic approach to its leading assumptions. The absence of a critical and sceptical spirit has resulted in little more than a dominant ideology. I focus on three key issues. First, that too often bioethics collapses into medical ethics. Second, that medical ethics itself is beset by a lack of self-reflection that I characterize here as a (...)
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  17. Regard for Reason in the Moral Mind.Joshua May - 2018 - Oxford University Press.
    The burgeoning science of ethics has produced a trend toward pessimism. Ordinary moral thought and action, we’re told, are profoundly influenced by arbitrary factors and ultimately driven by unreasoned feelings. This book counters the current orthodoxy on its own terms by carefully engaging with the empirical literature. The resulting view, optimistic rationalism, shows the pervasive role played by reason, and ultimately defuses sweeping debunking arguments in ethics. The science does suggest that moral knowledge and virtue don’t come easily. However, despite (...)
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  18. Person as Scientist, Person as Moralist.Joshua Knobe - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (4):315.
    It has often been suggested that people’s ordinary capacities for understanding the world make use of much the same methods one might find in a formal scientific investigation. A series of recent experimental results offer a challenge to this widely-held view, suggesting that people’s moral judgments can actually influence the intuitions they hold both in folk psychology and in causal cognition. The present target article distinguishes two basic approaches to explaining such effects. One approach would be to say that the (...)
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  19. Rational Self-Doubt and the Failure of Closure.Joshua Schechter - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 163 (2):428-452.
    Closure for justification is the claim that thinkers are justified in believing the logical consequences of their justified beliefs, at least when those consequences are competently deduced. Many have found this principle to be very plausible. Even more attractive is the special case of Closure known as Single-Premise Closure. In this paper, I present a challenge to Single-Premise Closure. The challenge is based on the phenomenon of rational self-doubt – it can be rational to be less than fully confident in (...)
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  20. Experimental Philosophy.Joshua Knobe, Wesley Buckwalter, Shaun Nichols, Philip Robbins, Hagop Sarkissian & Tamler Sommers - 2012 - Annual Review of Psychology 63 (1):81-99.
    Experimental philosophy is a new interdisciplinary field that uses methods normally associated with psychology to investigate questions normally associated with philosophy. The present review focuses on research in experimental philosophy on four central questions. First, why is it that people's moral judgments appear to influence their intuitions about seemingly nonmoral questions? Second, do people think that moral questions have objective answers, or do they see morality as fundamentally relative? Third, do people believe in free will, and do they see free (...)
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  21. Why Do Mathematicians Re-Prove Theorems?John W. Dawson Jr - 2006 - Philosophia Mathematica 14 (3):269-286.
    From ancient times to the present, the discovery and presentation of new proofs of previously established theorems has been a salient feature of mathematical practice. Why? What purposes are served by such endeavors? And how do mathematicians judge whether two proofs of the same theorem are essentially different? Consideration of such questions illuminates the roles that proofs play in the validation and communication of mathematical knowledge and raises issues that have yet to be resolved by mathematical logicians. The Appendix, in (...)
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  22. Solidarity: A Moral Concept in Need of Clarification (Editorial).A. Dawson & M. Verweij - 2012 - Public Health Ethics 5 (1):1--5.
  23. Analytic Epistemology and Experimental Philosophy.Joshua Alexander & Jonathan M. Weinberg - 2007 - Philosophy Compass 2 (1):56–80.
    It has been standard philosophical practice in analytic philosophy to employ intuitions generated in response to thought-experiments as evidence in the evaluation of philosophical claims. In part as a response to this practice, an exciting new movement—experimental philosophy—has recently emerged. This movement is unified behind both a common methodology and a common aim: the application of methods of experimental psychology to the study of the nature of intuitions. In this paper, we will introduce two different views concerning the relationship that (...)
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  24.  78
    "Are You My Mommy?" On the Genetic Basis of Parenthood.Avery Kolers & Tim Bayne - 2001 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 18 (3):273–285.
    What exactly is it that makes someone a parent? Many people hold that parenthood is grounded, in the first instance, in the natural derivation of one person's genetic constitution from the genetic constitutions of others. We refer to this view as "Geneticism". In Part I we distinguish three forms of geneticism on the basis of whether they hold that direct genetic derivation is sufficient, necessary, or both sufficient and necessary, for parenthood. Parts two through four examine three arguments for geneticism: (...)
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  25.  34
    The Steward of the Millian State.Angus Dawson & Marcel Verweij - 2008 - Public Health Ethics 1 (3):193-195.
  26. How Valuable Could a Person Be?Joshua Rasmussen & Andrew M. Bailey - 2021 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 103 (2):264-277.
    We investigate the value of persons. Our primary goal is to chart a path from equal and extreme value to infinite value. We advance two arguments. Each argument offers a reason to think that equal and extreme value are best accounted for if we are infinitely valuable. We then raise some difficult but fruitful questions about the possible grounds or sources of our infinite value, if we indeed have such value.
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  27.  14
    Generative Social Science: Studies in Agent-Based Computational Modeling.Joshua M. Epstein - 2007 - Princeton University Press.
    This book argues that this powerful technique permits the social sciences to meet an explanation, in which one 'grows' the phenomenon of interest in an artificial society of interacting agents: heterogeneous, boundedly rational actors.
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  28.  14
    The Jews in the Byzantine Empire 641–1204. By Joshua Starr. Pp. Vii + 266. Athens: Verlag der Byzantinisch-Neugriechischen Jahrbücher. 1939. [REVIEW]William Miller & Joshua Starr - 1940 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 60:116-116.
  29. Philosophical Intuitions Are Surprisingly Stable Across Both Demographic Groups and Situations.Joshua Knobe - 2021 - Filozofia Nauki 29 (2):11-76.
  30.  22
    In Defence of Moral Imperialism: Four Equal and Universal Prima Facie Principles.A. Dawson - 2006 - Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (4):200-204.
    Raanan Gillon is a noted defender of the four principles approach to healthcare ethics. His general position has always been that these principles are to be considered to be both universal and prima facie in nature. In recent work, however, he has made two claims that seem to present difficulties for this view. His first claim is that one of these four principles, respect for autonomy, has a special position in relation to the others: he holds that it is first (...)
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  31.  73
    Spheres of Justice: A Defense of Pluralism and Equality.Joshua Cohen - 1986 - Journal of Philosophy 83 (8):457-468.
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  32. Substance: Its Nature and Existence.Joshua Hoffman & Gary Rosenkrantz - 1997 - Routledge.
    Substance has been a leading idea in the history of Western philosophy. _Joshua Hoffman and Gary S. Rosenkrantz_ explain the nature and existence of individual substances, including both living things and inanimate objects. Specifically written for students new to this important and often complex subject, _Substance_ provides both the historical and contemporary overview of the debate. Great Philosophers of the past, such as Aristotle, Descartes, Spinoza, Leibnitz, Locke, and Berkeley were profoundly interested in the concept of substance. And, the authors (...)
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  33.  21
    Confirmation, Disconfirmation, and Information in Hypothesis Testing.Joshua Klayman & Young-won Ha - 1987 - Psychological Review 94 (2):211-228.
  34. Conscious Control Over Action.Joshua Shepherd - 2015 - Mind and Language 30 (3):320-344.
    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this article I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges—challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I argue that though nonconscious contributions (...)
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  35.  21
    What Does Solidarity Do for Bioethics?Avery Kolers - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (2):122-128.
    Bioethical work on solidarity has yielded an array of divergent conceptions. But what do these accounts add to normative bioethics? What is solidarity’s distinctive social normative role? Prainsack and Buyx suggest that solidarity be understood as the ‘putty’ of justice. I argue here that the putty metaphor is deeply insightful and—when spelled out in detail—successfully explicates solidarity’s social normative function. Unfortunately, Prainsack and Buyx’s own account cannot play this role. I propose instead that the putty metaphor supports a conception of (...)
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  36.  93
    Theory-Based Bayesian Models of Inductive Learning and Reasoning.Joshua B. Tenenbaum, Thomas L. Griffiths & Charles Kemp - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (7):309-318.
  37. Sentimental Rules: On the Natural Foundations of Moral Judgment.Joshua Knobe - 2007 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 75 (3):727-729.
  38. Intuitions Are Inclinations to Believe.Joshua Earlenbaugh & Bernard Molyneux - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 145 (1):89 - 109.
    Advocates of the use of intuitions in philosophy argue that they are treated as evidence because they are evidential. Their opponents agree that they are treated as evidence, but argue that they should not be so used, since they are the wrong kinds of things. In contrast to both, we argue that, despite appearances, intuitions are not treated as evidence in philosophy whether or not they should be. Our positive account is that intuitions are a subclass of inclinations to believe. (...)
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  39.  44
    Divine Simplicity: The Aspectival Account.Joshua Reginald Sijuwade - forthcoming - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion:1-37.
    This article aims to provide a consistent explication of the doctrine of Divine Simplicity. To achieve this end, a re-construal of the doctrine is made within an "aspectival trope-theoretic" metaphysical framework, which will ultimately enable the doctrine to be elucidated in a consistent manner, and the Plantingian objections raised against it will be shown to be unproblematic.
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  40. Accentuate the Negative.Joshua Alexander, Ronald Mallon & Jonathan M. Weinberg - 2010 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (2):297-314.
    Our interest in this paper is to drive a wedge of contention between two different programs that fall under the umbrella of “experimental philosophy”. In particular, we argue that experimental philosophy’s “negative program” presents almost as significant a challenge to its “positive program” as it does to more traditional analytic philosophy.
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  41.  69
    The Priority of Solidarity to Justice.Avery Kolers - 2014 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 31 (4):420-433.
    Recognising and responding to injustices that benefit us is a pervasive problem of contemporary life, and arguably a mark of moral seriousness in anyone who presumes to take moral stands at all. In response, a number of authors have defended the view that such benefits normally bring with them prima facie obligations of compensation. This ‘wrongful-benefits’ approach has considerable intuitive plausibility, much of it founded in the financial metaphor that gives it an appearance of precision. Yet while the compensation scenario (...)
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  42.  12
    Floating Provisos and Sinking Islands.Avery Kolers - 2012 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (4):333-343.
    Rising sea levels may sink entire countries. Individualistic solutions to this climate catastrophe, such as those proposed by Meisels and Risse, are inadequate on both Kantian and Lockean criteria. This article concurs with Cara Nine's recent argument that such ‘ecological refugee states’ are entitled to territorial remedies. But Nine's proposal, founded on Locke's ‘sufficiency’ proviso and Nozick's famous application of it to waterholes in the desert, is instructively incorrect. Careful consideration of the distinction between land and territory, and of the (...)
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  43.  95
    The Grasshopper’s Error: Or, On How Life is a Game.Avery Kolers - 2015 - Dialogue 54 (4):727-746.
    I here defend the thesis that the best life is the life that one plays as a game—specifically, a ‘Suitsian’ game that meets the definition proposed in The Grasshopper by Bernard Suits. Even more specifically, it is a nested, open, role-playing game where the life’s quality as a game partly depends on there being no more people than players. To defend this thesis I refute two powerful challenges to it, one from Thomas Hurka (2006) and another from within The Grasshopper (...)
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  44. Epistemic Modals and Context: Experimental Data.Joshua Knobe & Seth Yalcin - 2014 - Semantics and Pragmatics 7 (10):1-21.
    Recently, a number of theorists (MacFarlane (2003, 2011), Egan et al. (2005), Egan (2007), Stephenson (2007a,b)) have argued that an adequate semantics and pragmatics for epistemic modals calls for some technical notion of relativist truth and/or relativist content. Much of this work has relied on an empirical thesis about speaker judgments, namely that competent speakers tend to judge a present-tense bare epistemic possibility claim true only if the prejacent is compatible with their information. Relativists have in particular appealed to judgments (...)
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  45.  81
    IVF Technology and the Argument From Potential.Peter Singer & Karen Dawson - 1988 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 17 (2):87-104.
    Singer and Dawson point out that two arguments against abortion, that the embryo is entitled to protection because from fertilization it is (1) a human being or (2) a potential human being, are also used by opponents of embryo experimentation. They focus on the second argument, evaluating the notion of potentiality as it applies to gametes, to the unimplanted embryo, to the implanted developing embryo, and to the embryo created by in vitro fertilization (IVF). They argue that there is (...)
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  46.  40
    A Moral Theory of Solidarity.Avery Kolers - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Accounts of solidarity typically defend it in teleological or loyalty terms, justifying it by invoking its goal of promoting justice or its expression of support for a shared community. Such solidarity seems to be a moral option rather than an obligation. In contrast, A Moral Theory of Solidarity develops a deontological theory grounded in equity. With extended reflection on the Spanish conquest of the Americas and the US Civil Rights movement, Kolers defines solidarity as political action on others' terms. Unlike (...)
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  47.  50
    Floating Provisos and Sinking Islands.Avery Kolers - 2012 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (3):333-343.
    Rising sea levels may sink entire countries. Individualistic solutions to this climate catastrophe, such as those proposed by Meisels and Risse, are inadequate on both Kantian and Lockean criteria. This article concurs with Cara Nine's recent argument that such ‘ecological refugee states’ are entitled to territorial remedies. But Nine's proposal, founded on Locke's ‘sufficiency’ proviso and Nozick's famous application of it to waterholes in the desert, is instructively incorrect. Careful consideration of the distinction between land and territory, and of the (...)
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  48. The Epistemic Status of the Imagination.Joshua Myers - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 178 (10):3251-3270.
    Imagination plays a rich epistemic role in our cognitive lives. For example, if I want to learn whether my luggage will fit into the overhead compartment on a plane, I might imagine trying to fit it into the overhead compartment and form a justified belief on the basis of this imagining. But what explains the fact that imagination has the power to justify beliefs, and what is the structure of imaginative justification? In this paper, I answer these questions by arguing (...)
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  49.  39
    Cognitive Load Selectively Interferes with Utilitarian Moral Judgment.Jonathan D. Cohen Joshua D. Greene, Sylvia A. Morelli, Kelly Lowenberg, Leigh E. Nystrom - 2008 - Cognition 107 (3):1144.
  50.  82
    Generalization, Similarity, and Bayesian Inference.Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Thomas L. Griffiths - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (4):629-640.
    Shepard has argued that a universal law should govern generalization across different domains of perception and cognition, as well as across organisms from different species or even different planets. Starting with some basic assumptions about natural kinds, he derived an exponential decay function as the form of the universal generalization gradient, which accords strikingly well with a wide range of empirical data. However, his original formulation applied only to the ideal case of generalization from a single encountered stimulus to a (...)
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