Ordo V comprises works on religious instruction. This first volume of Ordo V in the Amsterdam edition of the Latin texts of Erasmus offers one of Erasmus’ earliest writings De contemptu mundi and other theological works, including the Explanation on the Apostles’ Creed , a book on prayer and a work on the Christian’s preparation on death.
A ética habermasiana do discurso pode ser vista como uma reformulação da razão prática de Kant. Habermas compreende sua proposta ética como transformação da ética kantiana com os recursos da razão comunicativa, com base numa ética de responsabilidade. O presente texto examina a pretensão de Habermas à luz de sua obra jurídica tardia. O trabalho procura mostrar que com introdução de procedimentos democráticos, no binômio moral/direito, Habermas substitui a ética discursiva pela soberania popular. O artigo opera com a hipótese que (...) a postura tardia de Habermas em relação à razão prática kantiana somente se mantém na medida em que tem o amparo do idealismo alemão.Habermas’ ethics about discourse can be seen as a reformulation of Kant’s practical reason. Habermas views his ethical proposal as a transformation of the Kantian ethics with the resources of the communicative reason, based upon an ethics of responsibility. The present paper examines Habermas’ pretension in lieu of his later juridical work. It tries to show that with the introduction of democratic procedures in the duality morals/right, Habermas substitutes the discursive ethics with popular sovereignty. The article works with the hypothesis that Habermas’ later posture with respect to the practical reason can only be sustained on the grounds of the German idealism. (shrink)
The book examines the history and development of public administration, the study of the internal structure and functioning of government and its interaction with society and its citizens. It surveys different approaches to the field and the methodological and epistemological issues surrounding an interdisciplinary, applied social science.
O artigo retoma a interpretação de Macpherson do estado natural e a confronta com a concepção hobbesiana da verdadeira liberdade dos súditos. O trabalho expõe os desafios teóricos do fisicalismo vital na obra de Hobbes e assume e posição de que o teórico político inglês não prova que os homens evitam pela luta e ou pela fuga a morte violenta movidos unicamente por uma necessidade natural.
O trabalho apresenta o encaminhamento dado ao fato kantiano da razão em dois artigos recentes e retoma, a seguir, a discussão em torno do sentimento do respeito pela lei moral para concluir que a concepção fichteana de razão prática configura o primeiro mal-entendido do Faktum.
Para Kant, a luta pelo aprimoramento do direito é travada com as armas da argumentação. Trata-se de emancipar a comunidade jurídica da tutela oriunda do senhorio violento das origens. rumo ao Estado republicano. O processo desemboca na constituição de um Estado estabelecido pela união de uma multidão de seres humanos submetida a leis de direito, no qual o povo exerce, na figura de seus representantes, a soberania e os poderes da República estão comprometidos com a eficácia do direito. O artigo (...) expõe tópicos do pensamento político do pensador alemão e destaca traços relevantes da filosofia da história no Kant tardio. O trabalho visa contribuir para o debate político, jurídico e filosó-fico atual sobre globalização e o futuro do Estado nacional de direito. (shrink)
A Doutrina do direito apenas nas últimas décadas voltou a merecer o interesse dos estudiosos da filosofia. O presente texto procura mostrar a filiação iluminista da ciência kantiana do direito. O artigo privilegia o caráter racional das concepções jurídicas do pensador alemão.
O ensaio expõe a posição kantiana tardia em relação ao direito e à ética, comdestaque para as noções de direito subjetivo e de dever jurídico interno. Trata-se de mostrar aoriginalidade de Kant na última versão redacional das doutrinas do direito e da virtude. Otrabalho realça a contribuição do direito racional kantiano para os limites da dogmática jurídicaatual em face da crescente juridificação das ciências normativas.
A Doutrina do direito é um dos últimos trabalhos de Kant. Recomposto para uma nova editoração, o texto tem merecido a atenção de e teóricos do direito. A presente contribuição examina a repercussão da obra jurídica de Kant nos escritos recentes de Tugendhat, um dos críticos mais notórios do pensamento kantiano. O artigo privilegia asrelações entre direito e moral, procura dar uma feição mais nítida à chamada razão trivial, tendo em vista as clássicas objeções de Hegel à razão prática kantiana.
O ensaio expõe a posição kantiana tardia em relação ao direito e à ética, com destaque para as noções de direito subjetivo e de dever jurídico intemo. Trata-se de mostrar a originalidade de Kant na última versão redacional das doutrinas do direito e da virtude. O trabalho realça a contribuição do direito racional kantiano para os limites da dogmática jurídica atual em face da crescente juridificação das ciênciasnormativas.
A incorporação econômica gradual da livre circulação de bens, pessoas, serviço ou capitais e a paulatina reengenharia da homogeneização tecnológica e social dos povos da terra não dispensam uma concepção política prévia do sumo bem político que consiste na paz perpétua. O artigo tem por objeto o contratualismo kantiano e trata das formas organizacionais planetárias de Kant. O texto busca esclarecer como Kant vê, elabora e soluciona o problema de um dever moral condenado a acercar-se progressivamente de um ideal racional (...) que permanece historicamente desconhecido. Para o autor, Kant traça o tempo da história segundo o esquema da razão do direito. (shrink)
SÍNTESE - o artigo sumaria o modo peculiar como Kant lida com o estado de natureza hobbesiano e estabelece o espaço público do meum vel tuum extemum na Doutrina do Direito. O texto visa realçar a originalidade de Kant como filósofo político.
O artigo inicia com o enfoque do absolutismo hobbesiano à luz da doutrina tradicional do direito natural. A seguir expõe a complexa relaçáo de Hobbes com a democracia e a noçáo hobbesiana de representaçáo política. Depois de reconstruir algumas das objeções básicas de Hobbes ao pensamento político clássico, o texto procura mostrar que o filósofo inglês opera, em relaçáo a Aristóteles, com um conceito relativamente inalterado de natureza. Objetivo maior do trabalho é configurar o Estado como produto genuíno do desempenho (...) intelectual do teórico político inglês. (shrink)
At the Belgian parliamentary elections in June 1999, the Flemish nationalist party 'Volksunie' which formed an alliance with the social-liberal ID21 progressed slightly. On July 10, 1999, the party decided to participate in the purple-green-yellow Flemish government, but at the same time they decided to stay out of the federal Belgian government. Two years later, the VU-Party Bureau decided that due to deep divisions within the party it had become impossible for the party to continue. The 15.000 party members were (...) asked to judge about the future of the party. Because no party project managed to obtain a 50 %-majority in the party member referendum, the VU dissappeared. Two new parties - the 'Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie' and 'Spirit' - emerged from the ruins of the VU. The collapse of the VU can be seen as the most far-reaching change in the Flemish party political context of the last decade. This article focusses on the last two and a half years of the VU and on the first year of the N-VA and Spirit. In a first part, achronological overview is build up. This part provides an overview «from day to day» of the events that played a role in the collapse of the VU and the creation of the N-VA and Spirit. The second part of the article draws amore morphological picture of the VU, the N-VA and Spirit: data are presented about the internal organisation of these parties. By offering an extensive overview of facts and figures, it is the intention of the authors to provide a solid guidelinefor further investigation. (shrink)
Cet article, s’inscrit dans le cadre minimaliste de la syntaxe générative et étudie oui / non et wh-questions dans la langue Ǹjò̩-kóo, parlée dans l’état de Ondo au Nigeria. On observe que la particule interrogative pour des questions de type oui / non qui suit systématiquement le sujet DP se trouve également dans des clauses avec wh-questions. Cet article soutient que oui / non et wh-questions sont projetées par la même tête fonctionnelle Inter˚, et que wh-words ne participent pas à (...) la saisie de wh-propositions comme interrogative. L’article conclut que le mouvement de Wh-éléments vers la position initiale de la clause dans les langues à WH-mouvement n’a pas pour but l’interrogation mais plutôt pour la focalisation. (shrink)
The current study investigates whether self-talk phrases can influence behavior in Ultimatum Games. In our three self-talk treatments, participants were instructed to tell themselves to keep their own interests in mind, to also think of the other person, or to take some time to contemplate their decision. We investigate how such so-called experimenter-determined strategic self-talk phrases affect behavior and emotions in comparison to a control treatment without instructed self-talk. The results demonstrate that other-focused self-talk can nudge proposers towards fair behavior, (...) as offers were higher in this group than in the other conditions. For responders, self-talk tended to increase acceptance rates of unfair offers as compared to the condition without self-talk. This effect is significant for both other-focused and contemplation-inducing self-talk but not for self-focused self-talk. In the self-focused condition, responders were most dissatisfied with unfair offers. These findings suggest that use of self-talk can increase acceptance rates in responders, and that focusing on personal interests can undermine this effect as it negatively impacts the responders’ emotional experience. In sum, our study shows that strategic self-talk interventions can be used to affect behavior in bargaining situations. (shrink)
Whereas there are many publications in which argumentation quality has been defined by argumentation theorists, considerably less research attention has been paid to lay people’s considerations regarding argument quality. Considerations about strong and weak argumentation are relevant because they can be compared with actual persuasive success. Argumentation theorists’ conceptions have to some extent been shown to be compatible with actual effectiveness, but for lay people such compatibility has yet to be determined. This study experimentally investigated lay people’s expectations about the (...) persuasiveness of anecdotal, statistical, causal, and expert evidence, and compared these expectations with the actual persuasiveness of these evidence types. Dutch and French participants (N = 174) ranked four types of evidence in terms of their expected persuasiveness for eight different claims. Both cultural groups expected statistical evidence to be the most persuasive type of evidence to other people, followed by expert, causal, and, finally, anecdotal evidence. A comparison of these rankings with the results of Hornikx and Hoeken (Communication Monographs 74, 443–463, 2007, Study 1) on the actual persuasiveness of the same evidence types reveals that people’s expectations are generally accurate: How relatively persuasive they expect evidence types to be often corresponded with their actual persuasiveness. (shrink)
The belief in free will has been frequently challenged since Benjamin Libet published his famous experiment in 1983. Although Libet’s experiment is highly dependent upon subjective reports, no study has been conducted that focused on a first-person or introspective perspective of the task. We took a neurophenomenological approach in an N = 1 study providing reliable and valid measures of the first-person perspective in conjunction with brain dynamics. We found that a larger readiness potential is attributable to more frequent occurrences (...) of self-initiated movements during negative deflections of the slow cortical potentials . These negative deflections occur in parallel with an inner impulse reported by an expert meditator which may in turn lead to a voluntary act. We demonstrate in this proof-of-principle approach that the first-person perspective obtained by an expert meditator in conjunction with neural signal analysis can contribute to our understanding of the neural underpinnings of voluntary acts. (shrink)
We tested whether preschool-aged children (N = 280) track an agents’ choices of individuals from novel social groups (i.e., social choices) to infer an agent’s social preferences and the social status of the groups. Across experiments, children saw a box containing 2 groups (red and blue toy cats). In Experiment 1, children were randomly assigned to Social Selection in which items were described as “friends,” or to Object Selection in which items were described as “toys.” Within each selection type, the (...) agent selected 5 items from either a numerically common group (82% of box; selections appearing random) or a numerically rare group (18% of box; selections violating random sampling). After watching these selections, children were asked who the agent would play with among 3 individuals: 1 from the selected group, 1 from the unselected group, or 1 from a novel group. Only participants who viewed Social Selection of a numerically rare group predicted that the agent would select an individual from that group in the future. These participants also said an individual from the selected group was the “leader.” Subsequent experiments further probed the Social Selection findings. Children’s reasoning depended on the agent actively selecting the friends (Experiment 2), and children thought a member of the rare selected group was the leader, but not the “helper” (Experiment 3). These results illustrate that children track an agent’s positive social choices to reason about that agent’s social preferences and to infer the status (likelihood of being a leader) of novel social groups. (shrink)
The case of Rees v. Darlington Memorial Hospital N.H.S. Trustarises from a lower court backlash against the a prior decision of the British House of Lords in McFarlane v. Tayside Health Board. McFarlane holding that healthy children brought about by negligence in family planning procedures are blessings, and parents should therefore be denied the costs of child maintenance. But, would the House agree with the Court of Appeal in Reesthat the factual variation in that case of a disabled parent with (...) a healthy child should form an exception? In tracing the appeal of Reesto the House of Lords, this note explores their Lordships’ refusal in principle to depart from McFarlane, as well as the invocation of an autonomy-based approach to address the harm of unsolicited parenthood. In reflecting on the extent to which the wrongful conception action can be said to reinforce the value of reproductive autonomy, this note argues, nevertheless, that Reesillustrates in another way a significant departure from McFarlane, but that this is still a turn in the wrong direction. Far from resonating with women’s diverse experiences of reproduction, the law of negligence continues to illustrate little respect for reproductive choice. Therefore, this note calls for a deeper understanding of autonomy, one that recognises and embraces the diversity of individuals’ reproductive lives. (shrink)
In "Counting and Indeterminate Identity", N. Ángel Pinillos develops an argument that there can be no cases of `Split Indeterminate Identity'. Such a case would be one in which it was indeterminate whether a=b and indeterminate whether a=c, but determinately true that b≠c. The interest of the argument lies, in part, in the fact that it appears to appeal to none of the controversial claims to which similar arguments due to Gareth Evans and Nathan Salmon appeal. I argue for two (...) counter-claims. First, the formal argument fails to establish its conclusion, for essentially the same reason Evans's and Salmon's arguments fail to establish their conclusions. Second, the phenomena in which Pinillos is interested, which concern the cardinalities of sets of vague objects, manifest the existence of what Kit Fine called `penumbral connections', phenomena that the logics Pinillos considers are already known not to handle well. (shrink)
I n "The Skeleton in Frege's Cupboard," Jaakko Hintikka and Gabriel Sandul argue that "Frege's failure to grasp the idea of the standard interpretation of higher-order logic turns his entire foundational project into a hopeless daydream" (315). We examine the grounds for what we take to be the central thesis of their paper, that "Frege is inextricably committed to a nonstandard interpretation" of higher-order logic (310) and argue that Hintikka and Sandu present no compelling evidence in favor of this view.
Dans sa Somme, art. 34, Henri de Gand se penche sur les questions se rapportant à la vérité en Dieu . Il n’y a pas tant d’auteurs qui se sont donné la peine d’étudier ce problème à fond, nous fait-il remarquer1 — bien à tort, d’après lui. Car trois problèmes fondamentaux concernant la vérité se superposent: celui de la localisation, celui de la définition classique et celui de l’essence de la vérité.
The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a model of moral distress in military nursing. The model evolved through an analysis of the moral distress and military nursing literature, and the analysis of interview data obtained from US Army Nurse Corps officers (n = 13). Stories of moral distress (n = 10) given by the interview participants identified the process of the moral distress experience among military nurses and the dimensions of the military nursing moral distress (...) phenomenon. Models of both the process of military nursing moral distress and the phenomenon itself are proposed. Recommendations are made for the use of the military nursing moral distress models in future research studies and in interventions to ameliorate the experience of moral distress in crisis military deployments. (shrink)
In Rogers, the Court of Appeal held that the decision of Swindon N.H.S. Primary Care Trust to refuse to fund Herceptin for the treatment of Ann Rogers against breast cancer was irrational. The P.C.T. maintained that their decision was not resource driven but based on the fact that Herceptin was, at that time, not licensed by the European Medicines Agency (E.M.E.A.) for use in early stage breast cancer. Yet it was prepared to fund its use in ‹exceptional circumstances’ which could (...) only be based upon the personal situation of the patient. In this note, I focus upon the ‹exceptionality’ argument in the context of the patient as consumer of healthcare and women as carers. I argue for a focus upon caring rather than consumerism in healthcare. (shrink)
RÉSUMÉ: Cet essai se concentre sur les tentatives de Hare de résoudre le problème du profiteur dans les termes de la théorie oú il distingue les niveaux intuitif et critique de la pensée morale. Hare fait valoir que la pensée critique correcte en utilitarisme des actes endosse les régles qui serviront a la pensée intuitive, règles enjoignant à un individu de s’acquitter de ses responabilités sociales, par exemplevoter ou recycler ses ordures. Je lais valoir que Hare propose ou suggère implicitement (...) divers critères de sélection des règles, critères que j’entreprends de désambiguïser. Je soutiens en outre qu’aucun de ces critères n’arrive à rèsoudre complètement le problème du profiteur. (shrink)
Du fait de sa programmabilité, l’ordinateur est souvent qualifié de machine universelle. Si la machine classique est la représentation d’un programme unique et spécifique, l’ordinateur est un mécanisme qui représente physiquement n’importe quel programme installé comme une procédure d’exploitation parmi d’autres possibles. En raison de cette versatilité et de cette flexibilité..
There are indications that the interpersonal affective factor and the social deviation factor, both of which are underlying dimensions of psychopathy, have a positive and a negative relationship, respectively, with executive functioning. However, this is seldom taken into consideration in the research on the relationship between executive functioning and psychopathy, which may be an explanation for the many inconsistent results in this area as reported in the literature (e.g., Rogers, 2006). In the present study, executive functioning was studied using the (...) Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in 53 inpatients of a Dutch forensic psychiatric clinic who were classified by means of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Special attention was given to the relationship between the two separate factors and executive functioning. Age, educational level, and substance abuse were controlled for in the analysis. No difference was found between psychopathic (N = 17) and nonpsychopathic (N = 36) patients in the WCST scoring categories, nor was there a significant difference in the four diagnostic subgroups defined by the two factors. However, the trends observed do justify further study in this direction. (shrink)
En este trabajo se da un panorama acerca de la formación ciudadana en estudiantes de bachillerato. El propósito es analizar algunas de las posturas y proponer la adhesión de la cultura ciudadana como un concepto integral que busca que los estudiantes pasen de meros observadores a una participación activa. En la primera parte, se aborda diversos enfoques sobre la formación ciudadana en el bachillerato. En la segunda, se expone la perspectiva de la cultura ciudadana desde los postulados que señala el (...) sociólogo Alain Touraine, en el cual menciona que pasar de la pasividad de los individuos hacia la conformación de ciudadanos es mediante el reconocimiento de su subjetividad y del sí mismo, para fomentar una intervención reflexiva y crítica de su medio. Palabras claves: Ciudadanía, jóvenes, bachillerato, educación ciudadana, formación valores. (shrink)
Neo-Fregean logicists claim that Hume's Principle (HP) may be taken as an implicit definition of cardinal number, true simply by fiat. A longstanding problem for neo-Fregean logicism is that HP is not deductively conservative over pure axiomatic second-order logic. This seems to preclude HP from being true by fiat. In this paper, we study Richard Kimberly Heck's Two-sorted Frege Arithmetic (2FA), a variation on HP which has been thought to be deductively conservative over second-order logic. We show that it (...) isn't. In fact, 2FA is not conservative over $n$-th order logic, for all $n \geq 2$. It follows that in the usual one-sorted setting, HP is not deductively Field-conservative over second- or higher-order logic. (shrink)
Richard G. Heck presents a new account of Gottlob Frege's Grundgesetze der Arithmetik, or Basic Laws of Arithmetic, which establishes it as a neglected masterpiece at the center of Frege's philosophy. He explores Frege's philosophy of logic, and argues that Frege knew that his proofs could be reconstructed so as to avoid Russell's Paradox.