A presente comunicação é o resultado de uma pesquisa bibliográfica e das constatações do autor derivadas da sua experiência no processo de ensino e aprendizagem, mormente na disciplina de Didáctica de Física. Tomando como pressuposto de que a Didáctica de Física ou a Prática de Ensino de Física, ocupa um papel preponderante no currículo de Formação do corpo discente e docente na Universidade Pedagógica, o autor trás à tona uma discussão teórica com vários autores que de algum tempo à esta (...) parte se têm debruçado sobre o assunto. Nesta discussão, o autor se apegou no seguinte tripé: a) A dicotomia ensino e aprendizagem em Física; b) A prática de ensino de Física: realidades e desafios rumo à novos paradigmas didáctico – epistemológicos e c) Algumas reflexões pessoais do autor, arraigadas na sua experiência profissional e não só. O desdobramento deste tripé, serviu para cimentar a sua convicção, antes tida como premissa, segundo a qual, o ensino de Física, sobretudo em se tratando de cursos universitários, a actividade experimental precisa ter em conta à aspectos como a descrição das aulas, o modo como são organizadas, a valorização das actividades experimentais desenvolvidas em pequenos grupos, bem como a abordagem que focaliza a demonstração de conceitos e fenómenos discutidos teoricamente. E ainda, o direccionamento das actividades para favorecer elementos didácticos como o desenvolvimento de habilidades, observação e interpretação, entre outros. Para que estes pressupostos ganhem eco na nossa plataforma curricular, é necessário que a formação de professores de Física, dê maior importância aos contornos ecológicos, sociais e económicos que bordejam o espaço educacional. A percepção teórica que isso dá ao educador, aglutinado ao saber teórico-prático deste, da realidade que circunda a escola, é a que dá ao educador, premissas e ferramentas para poder equacionar e apropriar-se com eficácia dos ambientes sócio-culturais existentes neste espaço ecológico. (shrink)
El neo-pragmatismo teorizado por el que puede ser considerado como el pensador más leído e influyente de nuestro tiempo, Richard Rorty, presagia una cultura nueva en relación con la filosofía. El pensador americano se sitúa en el debate abierto, tolerante y flexible de toda la humanidad, negando que haya criterios absolutos, metafísicos, en los que basar la actividad humana. El criterio de justificación y elección entre diversas posturas o visiones del mundo vendrá determinado por los intereses de los miembros y (...) no por correspondencia con la realidad, la naturaleza humana o cualquier principio ahistórico. Sin embargo, la tolerancia, la aceptación del pluralismo, la asimilación de nuevos vocabularios y metáforas… asumen un absoluto, un elemento totalitario, a saber: la contingencia. Aunque pudieran parecer la negación de toda metafísica, las tesis rortyanas albergan y encubren una teoría o metafísica extremadamente fuerte y simple: no hay nada necesario, todo es contingente. (shrink)
Reichenbachian approaches to indexicality contend that indexicals are "token-reflexives": semantic rules associated with any given indexical-type determine the truth-conditional import of properly produced tokens of that type relative to certain relational properties of those tokens. Such a view may be understood as sharing the main tenets of Kaplan's well-known theory regarding content, or truth-conditions, but differs from it regarding the nature of the linguistic meaning of indexicals and also regarding the bearers of truth-conditional import and truth-conditions. Kaplan has criticized these (...) approaches on different counts, the most damaging of which is that they make impossible a "logic of demonstratives". The reason for this is that the token-reflexive approach entails that not two tokens of the same sentential type including indexicals are guaranteed to have the same truth-conditions. In this paper I rebut this and other criticisms of the Reichenbachian approach. Additionally, I point out that Kaplan's original theory of "true demonstratives" is empirically inadequate, and claim that any modification capable of accurately handling the linguistic data would have similar problems to those attributed to the Reichenbachian approach. This is intended to show that the difficulties, no matter how real, are not caused by idiosincracies of the "token-reflexive" view, but by deep facts about indexicality. (shrink)
The paper examines an alleged distinction claimed to exist by Van Gelder between two different, but equally acceptable ways of accounting for the systematicity of cognitive output (two “varieties of compositionality”): “concatenative compositionality” vs. “functional compositionality.” The second is supposed to provide an explanation alternative to the Language of Thought Hypothesis. I contend that, if the definition of “concatenative compositionality” is taken in a different way from the official one given by Van Gelder (but one suggested by some of his (...) formulations) then there is indeed a different sort of compositionality; however, the second variety is not an alternative to the language of thought in that case. On the other hand, if the concept of concatenative compositionality is taken in a different way, along the lines of Van Gelder's explicit definition, then there is no reason to think that there is an alternative way of explaining systematicity. (shrink)
Descriptive semantic theories purport to characterize the meanings of the expressions of languages in whatever complexity they might have. Foundational semantics purports to identify the kind of considerations relevant to establish that a given descriptive semantics accurately characterizes the language used by a given individual or community. Foundational Semantics I presents three contrasting approaches to the foundational matters, and the main considerations relevant to appraise their merits. These approaches contend that we should look at the contents of speakers’ intuitions; at (...) the deep psychology of users and its evolutionary history, as revealed by our best empirical theories; or at the personal-level rational psychology of those subjects. Foundational Semantics II examines a fourth view, according to which we should look instead at norms enforced among speakers. The two papers aim to determine in addition the extent to which the approaches are really rival, or rather complementary. (shrink)
Espino, Santamaria, and Garcia-Madruga (2000) report three results on the time taken to respond to a probe word occurring as end term in the premises of a syllogistic argument. They argue that these results can only be predicted by the theory of mental models. It is argued that two of these results, on differential reaction times to end-terms occurring in different premises and in different figures, are consistent with Chater and Oaksford's (1999) probability heuristics model (PHM). It is argued that (...) the third finding, on different reaction times between figures, does not address the issue of processing difficulty where PHM predicts no differences between figures. It is concluded that Espino et al.'s results do not discriminate between theories of syllogistic reasoning as effectively as they propose. (shrink)
A philosopher and political thinker describes a new political grammar free of modernist assumptions. In 2004 and 2005, Antonio Negri held ten workshops at the Collège International de Philosophie in Paris to formulate a new political grammar of the postmodern. Biopolitics, biopowers, control, the multitude, people, war, borders, dependency and interdependency, state, nation, the common, difference, resistance, subjective rights, revolution, freedom, democracy: these are just a few of the themes Negri addressed in these experimental laboratories. Postmodernity, Negri suggests, can (...) be described as a “porcelain factory”: a delicate and fragile construction that could be destroyed through one clumsy act. Looking across twentieth century history, Negri warns that our inability to anticipate future developments has already placed coming generations in serious jeopardy. Describing the years 1917-1968 as the “short century,” Negri suggests that by the end of it, all of the familiar markers of modernity had lost their relevance. Confronted with an intolerable reality, indignation and the revolutionary will to transform the world have both taken new forms and must be understood anew, free of modernist assumptions. In the impassioned debates recounted in this book, Antonio Negri attempts to describe the formation of an alternative political horizon and looks for a way to define the practices and modes of expression that democracy could take.Antonio Negri is a philosopher and essay writer. A political and social activist in the 1960s and 1970s in Italy, he taught political sciences for many years and has written numerous books on political philosophy including Marx beyond Marx, The Savage Anomaly, Insurgencies ; and in collaboration with Michael Hardt, Empire and Multitude. (shrink)
This essay discusses the main contentions of The Antinomies of Antonio Gramsci by Perry Anderson in a critical reading of both the positions of the British historian, and of his critics among ‘Togliattian Gramscianists’.
We obtain in this paper a representation of the formulae of extensions ofL by generalized quantifiers through functors between categories of first-order structures and partial isomorphisms. The main tool in the proofs is the back-and-forth technique. As a corollary we obtain the Caicedo's version of Fraïssés theorem characterizing elementary equivalence for such languages. We also discuss informally some geometrical interpretations of our results.
The present study investigated whether individual differences between psychologists in thinking styles are associated with accuracy in diagnostic classification. We asked novice and experienced clinicians to classify two clinical cases of clients with two co-occurring psychological disorders. No significant difference in diagnostic accuracy was found between the two groups, but when combining the data from novices and experienced psychologists accuracy was found to be negatively associated with certain decision making strategies and with a higher self-assessed ability and preference for a (...) rational thinking style. Our results underscore the idea that it might be fruitful to look for explanations of differences in the accuracy of diagnostic judgments in individual differences between psychologists (such as in thinking styles or decision making strategies used), rather than in experience level. (shrink)