Apresento neste artigo as linhas gerais do pensamento do filósofo e epistemólogo catalão Marià Corbí, bem como sua teoria acerca da função da religião nas sociedades tradicionais e da perda desta função nos quadros da moderna sociedade científica e tecnológica. Para Corbí, a era industrial fez desaparecerem as condições de vida que tornavam necessárias as culturas pré-industriais e suas mitologias e religiões. Os sistemas de programação coletiva baseados nessas religiões e mitologias perderam sua função, e por isso estão todos em (...) colapso. Em seguida abordo sua proposta de uma espiritualidade leiga, voltada para o conhecimento silencioso e o caminho interior. A espiritualidade leiga, livre da submissão a sistemas de crença, deve preservar o rico legado espiritual presente nas várias tradições religiosas como contribuição para uma sociedade mais humana e livre. Por fim, faço algumas observações e comentários sobre questões que considero sensíveis no modelo teórico de Corbí, sobretudo sua afirmação sobre o fim da religião e a falta de substitutos para ela, sua compreensão da história e a possível universalização de sua proposta de espiritualidade. Palavras-chave: Religião; Espiritualidade; Cultura; Revolução científica; Corbí.This article presents the general lines of thought of the catalan philosopher and epistemologist Marià Corbí, as well as his theory about the role of religion in traditional societies and the loss of this function within the frameworks of modern scientific and technological society. For Corbí, the industrial era made disappear the living conditions which made necessary the pre-industrial cultures and their mythologies and religions. Social programming systems based on these mythologies and religions have lost their function, so they are all collapsing. Then I discuss his proposal for a lay spirituality, which seeks the quiet knowledge and the interior path to oneself. This lay spirituality, free from submission to belief systems, should preserve the rich spiritual heritage present in the various religious traditions as a contribution to a more human and free society. Finally, I make some observations and comments on sensitive issues in Corbí´s theoretical model, especially his statement about the end of religion and the lack of substitutes for it, his understanding of history and the possible universality of his spirituality proposal. Key words: Religion; Spirituality; Culture; Scientific revolution; Corbí. (shrink)
O artigo propõe-se a, num primeiro momento, pensar o significado do Concílio Vaticano II e seu esquecimento. Em relação a seus frutos, aponta a nova realidade eclesial, particularmente na América Latina, em termos de rompimento com o passado legalista, antimodernista e eurocentrista, e a construção de caminhos alternativos. Sobre o esquecimento do Concílio, destaca que a Cúria romana, os últimos dois papas e a parcela conservadora do episcopado, ainda quando mantinham um discurso de filiação e reverência pelo legado do Concílio, (...) trabalhavam pelo desvanecimento de seu caráter formativo e vinculante. Num segundo momento, o artigo especula, a partir de alguns questionamentos, sobre as dimensões e possibilidades de “um novo Pentecostes”. Pergunta: Considerando a longa duração dos processos históricos, pode-se afirmar que “o Concílio passou”? Que pressões estruturais e condições objetivas favoreceriam um novo processo de mudança na Igreja? Que podemos aprender do crescente Pentecostalismo em nossos países? Terá futuro o milenar modelo de organização da Igreja frente aos processos de “teia de relações” trazidos pela globalização? A teologia tradicional se sustentará frente às exigências do diálogo inter-religioso? Que é “religião”? Qual seria a contribuição das religiões frente às grandes questões planetárias? Palavras-chave: Igreja. Vaticano II. Episcopado. Pentecostalismo.This article aims to reflect on the meaning of Vatican II and their oblivion. In relation to its fruit, the article firstly highlights the new ecclesial reality, particularly in Latin America in terms of breaking with the past legalistic, anti-modernist and Eurocentric, and the construction of alternative paths. The article postulates that the Roman Curia, the last two popes and the conservative portion of the episcopate struggled for the attenuation of the formative dimension of the Council. Secondly, the article raises some questions about the dimensions and possibilities of “a new Pentecost”. Here are some of these questions: a) taking into account the long-term processes, could one say that the Vatican II is already outdated? b) What structural pressures and objective conditions would facilitate a new process of change in the Church? c) What can we learn from the growing of the Pentecostalism in our countries? d) Faced with the processes of “web relationships” presented by globalization, would the old model of church organization continue to succeed? e) Will the traditional theology survive to the demands of inter-religious dialogue? f) What is “religion”? g) What would be the main contributions of religions to the great planetary questions? Keywords: Church. Vatican II. Episcopate. Pentecostalism. - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n24p1267. (shrink)
O presente artigo abordará a construção do conhecimento em Giambattista Vico embasando-se no discurso De Nostri Temporis Studiorum. Com a troca da “imaginação” pela “racionalidade”, colocou-se de lado a engenhosidade humana, anulando assim a verossimilhança que fora negada por não apresentar verdades factuais levando à atrofia do engenho. O intuito aqui é analisar o desenvolvimento imaginativo proposto por Vico, gerando uma nova crítica. Conclui-se sobre uma possível epistemologia das humanidades, na qual cada sujeito possa, com seus próprios instrumentos, desenvolver um (...) conhecimento menos “dogmático” e mais humano, partindo de um solo estável, qual seja, a história. (shrink)
The Patients’ Rights and Duties Act, promulgated in Chile in 2012, has made the informed consent process a critical step to respect the patient’s autonomy. It is then relevant to test health workers’ knowledge of the subject, especially in the surgery department. We carried out a quantitative study on 90 specialists from the surgery department in a public tertiary hospital, to whom a questionnaire was administered to test their knowledge of informed consent. We found that 76.6 % of the respondents (...) have a low level of knowledge, creating a setting in which patients’ rights can be violated. (shrink)
Texto que vem demonstrar a correlação entre disciplinas tidas, por vezes, como díspares, no caso a linguística e a matemática, e como existe um real enlaçamento entre as mesmas, principalmente no campo analítico. O autor vem discorrer sobre uma epistemologia respeitosa pelas categorias próprias a cada conhecimento, de modo a tornar o desenvolvimento lógico-científico numa abordagem multidisciplinar, congregando várias áreas, principalemente, nesse caso, a inguística e a literatura, como fomentadoras de uma estruturação lógico-analítica ímpar ao cientista.
El presente artículo tiene como propósito exponer la implementación y evaluación de un modelo de intervención grupal para personas con consumo problemático de drogas, el cual tiene como teoría de base la Biología de la Cognición y del Amar de Humberto Maturana. Hipotetizamos que mediante laimplementación de este modelo de terapia grupal disminuyen los niveles de depresión y ansiedad en las personas con consumo problemático de drogas. Es una investigación cuasi experimental pre-post con grupo de control, donde se exponen los (...) resultados de la muestra del Grupo Tratamiento, perteneciente a la Comunidad Terapéutica Padre Alberto Hurtado de Arica y del Grupo Control, el cual corresponde a la Comunidad Terapéutica La Tirana de AltoHospicio. Los resultados obtenidos muestran las diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos.The present article has as purpose to expose the implementation and evaluation of a model of group intervention for people with problematic consumption of drugs, which has as base theory the Biology of Cognition and of Love of Humberto Maturana; hypothesizing diminish the depression levels and anxiety in people with problematic consumption of drugs by means of thismodel’s of group therapy implementation. It is an quasi experimental research pre-post with control group, where the results of the sample of two Group Treatment are exposed, one belonging to the Therapeutic Community Padre Alberto Hurtado of Arica and the Group Control, which corresponds to the Therapeutic Community La Tirana at Alto Hospicio. The obtained results show significant differences between both groups. (shrink)
A corpus of 60 articles published in Spanish, English, and Portuguese was analyzed to account for the integrative literature review on the concept of vulnerability from bioethics, identifying the following thematic trends: risk, susceptibility, autonomy, and culture in people and communities. The methodological approach has been mainly qualitative. We found that the disciplines that most addressed the concept belong to the human and social sciences. The authors recommend conducting studies of the concept from people’s perspectives and that ethics committees review (...) the informed consent and information guides according to these results. The categories give way to the concept of vulnerability, which must be analyzed beyond principlism in bioethics. (shrink)
Este artigo aborda a temática do idoso nas Instituições de Longa Permanência, em face do envelhecimento bem-sucedido e da qualidade de vida. A revisão bibliográfica contempla os artigos entre o período 2006 a 2012 e um artigo de 2001. Consultaram-se as bases de dados da biblioteca virtual em saúde -..
Este trabalho investiga a presença da figura de Zumbi dos Palmares no conto “A cabeça de Zumbi”, de Alberto Mussa, buscando tanto compreender aspectos históricos e culturais nele presentes como explorar a associação entre a figura mítico-histórica de Zumbi e a do orixá Exu. Inicialmente, para situar e dimensionar a importância do herói de Palmares para a história do negro no Brasil e dimensionar a questão de nossa formação identitária, utilizamos pensamentos de Sérgio Buarque de Holanda, Gilberto Freyre e (...) Stuart Hall, entre outros. Em seguida, enfocamos o conto e a relação entre Zumbi e Exu, feita por Conceição Evaristo na apresentação do livro, aprofundando-a a partir de informações colhidas nas obras de Reginaldo Prandi, Roger Bastide e Vagner Gonçalves da Silva e de observações críticas feitas por Moema Augel. (shrink)
What is racism? is a timely question that is hotly contested in the philosophy of race. Yet disagreement about racism’s nature does not begin in philosophy, but in the sociopolitical domain. Alberto G. Urquidez argues that philosophers of race have failed to pay sufficient attention to the practical considerations that prompt the question “What is racism?” Most theorists assume that “racism” signifies a language-independent phenomenon that needs to be “discovered” by the relevant science or “uncovered” by close scrutiny of (...) everyday usage of this term. (Re-)Defining Racism challenges this metaphysical paradigm. Urquidez develops a Wittgenstein-inspired framework that illuminates the use of terms like “definition,” “meaning,” “explanation of meaning,” and “disagreement,” for the analysis of contested normative concepts. These elucidations reveal that providing a definition of “racism” amounts to recommending a form of moral representation—a rule for the correct use of “racism.” As definitional recommendations must be justified on pragmatic grounds, Urquidez takes as a starting point for justification the interests of racism's historical victims. (shrink)
This open access book discusses individual, collective, and institutional responsibilities with regard to vaccination from the perspective of philosophy and public health ethics. It addresses the issue of what it means for a collective to be morally responsible for the realisation of herd immunity and what the implications of collective responsibility are for individual and institutional responsibilities. The first chapter introduces some key concepts in the vaccination debate, such as ‘herd immunity’, ‘public goods’, and ‘vaccine refusal’; and explains why failure (...) to vaccinate raises certain ethical issues. The second chapter analyses, from a philosophical perspective, the relationship between individual, collective, and institutional responsibilities with regard to the realisation of herd immunity. The third chapter is about the principle of least restrictive alternative in public health ethics and its implications for vaccination policies. Finally, the fourth chapter presents an ethical argument for unqualified compulsory vaccination, i.e. for compulsory vaccination that does not allow for any conscientious objection. The book will appeal to philosophers interested in public health ethics and the general public interested in the philosophical underpinning of different arguments about our moral obligations with regard to vaccination. (shrink)
Conversación entre Alberto Ciria, ganador del premio anual 2015 a la promoción de la filosofía y la cultura en Málaga que entrega FICUM, y Alejandro Rojas en torno a la pregunta ¿qué es para ti la filosofía?
In _Michael Polanyi and His Generation_, Mary Jo Nye investigates the role that Michael Polanyi and several of his contemporaries played in the emergence of the social turn in the philosophy of science. This turn involved seeing science as a socially based enterprise that does not rely on empiricism and reason alone but on social communities, behavioral norms, and personal commitments. Nye argues that the roots of the social turn are to be found in the scientific culture and political events (...) of Europe in the 1930s, when scientific intellectuals struggled to defend the universal status of scientific knowledge and to justify public support for science in an era of economic catastrophe, Stalinism and Fascism, and increased demands for applications of science to industry and social welfare. At the center of this struggle was Polanyi, who Nye contends was one of the first advocates of this new conception of science. Nye reconstructs Polanyi’s scientific and political milieus in Budapest, Berlin, and Manchester from the 1910s to the 1950s and explains how he and other natural scientists and social scientists of his generation—including J. D. Bernal, Ludwik Fleck, Karl Mannheim, and Robert K. Merton—and the next, such as Thomas Kuhn, forged a politically charged philosophy of science, one that newly emphasized the social construction of science. (shrink)
What is depiction? This is a venerable question that has received many different answers throughout the whole history of philosophy, especially in contemporary times. A Syncretistic Theory of Depiction elaborates a new account on this matter by providing a theory of depiction that tries to combine the merits of the previous theories while dropping their defects. It is argued that a picture is a representation in a pictorial or figurative mode, and its 'figurativity' is given by a special perception, perceiving-in, (...) whose nature is reconceived. Such a perception inter alia grasps some properties which the picture's vehicle has in common with what is perceived in it; by so doing, that perception provides the picture with a figurative content. In contrast, the picture's representational value, its subject or its pictorial content, is given by a conventionally or causally based selection out of that figurative content. (shrink)
In order to present the philosopher Alberto Wagner de Reyna, we must first understand his life, then his work, and finally the force of his ideas; especially those which establish him within the history of philosophical ideas. This paper presents a synthesis of the conversation that the author..
José Jorge Mendoza argues that the difficulty with resolving the issue of immigration is primarily a conflict over competing moral and political principles and is, at its core, a problem of philosophy. This book brings into dialogue various contemporary philosophical texts that deal with immigration to provide some normative guidance to immigration policy and reform.
Kant scholars have rarely addressed the centuries-old tradition of casuistry and the concept of conscience in Kant’s writings. This book offers a detailed exploration of the period from Pascal’s Provincial Letters to Kant’s critique of probabilism and discusses his proposal of a (new) casuistry as part of an moral education. / Trotz der Hinweise an wichtigen Stellen in Kants Schriften richtet die Kantforschung ihre Aufmerksamkeit nur selten auf die Jahrhunderte währende Tradition der Kasuistik und den Begriff des Gewissens, der in (...) ihrem Rahmen ausgearbeitet wird. Eingehend untersucht wird in diesem Buch insbesondere der Zeitabschnitt von Pascals »Briefen in die Provinz« bis zu Kants eigener Kritik des Probabilismus und seinem Entwurf einer (neuen) Kasuistik als Teil der ethischen Methodenlehre. (shrink)
Abortion is largely accepted even for reasons that do not have anything to do with the fetus' health. By showing that (1) both fetuses and newborns do not have the same moral status as actual persons, (2) the fact that both are potential persons is morally irrelevant and (3) adoption is not always in the best interest of actual people, the authors argue that what we call ‘after-birth abortion’ (killing a newborn) should be permissible in all the cases where abortion (...) is, including cases where the newborn is not disabled. (shrink)
We argue that individuals who have access to vaccines and for whom vaccination is not medically contraindicated have a moral obligation to contribute to the realisation of herd immunity by being vaccinated. Contrary to what some have claimed, we argue that this individual moral obligation exists in spite of the fact that each individual vaccination does not significantly affect vaccination coverage rates and therefore does not significantly contribute to herd immunity. Establishing the existence of a moral obligation to be vaccinated (...) despite the negligible contribution each vaccination can make to the realisation of herd immunity is important because such moral obligation would strengthen the justification for coercive vaccination policies. We show that two types of arguments—namely a utilitarian argument based on Parfit’s Principle of Group Beneficence and a contractualist argument—can ground an individual moral obligation to be vaccinated, in spite of the imperceptible contribution that any single vaccination makes to vaccine coverage rates. We add a further argument for a moral obligation to be vaccinated that does not require embracing problematic comprehensive moral theories such as utilitarianism or contractualism. The argument is based on a “duty of easy rescue” applied to collectives, which grounds a collective moral obligation to realise herd immunity, and on a principle of fairness in the distribution of the burdens that must be borne to realise herd immunity. (shrink)
Various sexist and racist beliefs ascribe certain negative qualities to people of a given sex or race. Epistemic allies are people who think that in normal circumstances rationality requires the rejection of such sexist and racist beliefs upon learning of many counter-instances, i.e. members of these groups who lack the target negative quality. Accordingly, epistemic allies think that those who give up their sexist or racist beliefs in such circumstances are rationally responding to their evidence, while those who do not (...) are irrational in failing to respond to their evidence by giving up their belief. This is a common view among philosophers and non-philosophers. But epistemic allies face three problems. First, sexist and racist beliefs often involve generic propositions. These sorts of propositions are notoriously resilient in the face of counter-instances since the truth of generic propositions is typically compatible with the existence of many counter-instances. Second, background beliefs can enable one to explain away counter-instances to one’s beliefs. So even when counter-instances might otherwise constitute strong evidence against the truth of the generic, the ability to explain the counter-instances away with relevant background beliefs can make it rational to retain one’s belief in the generic despite the existence of many counter-instances. The final problem is that the kinds of judgements epistemic allies want to make about the irrationality of sexist and racist beliefs upon encountering many counter-instances is at odds with the judgements that we are inclined to make in seemingly parallel cases about the rationality of non-sexist and non-racist generic beliefs. Thus epistemic allies may end up having to give up on plausible normative supervenience principles. All together, these problems pose a significant prima facie challenge to epistemic allies. In what follows I explain how a Bayesian approach to the relation between evidence and belief can neatly untie these knots. The basic story is one of defeat: Bayesianism explains when one is required to become increasingly confident in chance propositions, and confidence in chance propositions can make belief in corresponding generics irrational. (shrink)
In _Politics with Beauvoir_ Lori Jo Marso treats Simone de Beauvoir's feminist theory and practice as part of her political theory, arguing that freedom is Beauvoir's central concern and that this is best apprehended through Marso's notion of the encounter. Starting with Beauvoir's political encounters with several of her key contemporaries including Hannah Arendt, Robert Brasillach, Richard Wright, Frantz Fanon, and Violette Leduc, Marso also moves beyond historical context to stage encounters between Beauvoir and others such as Chantal Akerman, Lars (...) von Trier, Rahel Varnhagen, Alison Bechdel, the Marquis de Sade, and Margarethe von Trotta. From intimate to historical, always affective though often fraught and divisive, Beauvoir's encounters, Marso shows, exemplify freedom as a shared, relational, collective practice. _Politics with Beauvoir_ gives us a new Beauvoir and a new way of thinking about politics—as embodied and coalitional. (shrink)
The potential societal impacts of automation using intelligent control and communications technologies have emerged as topics in a number of recent writings and public policy initiatives. Many of these expressions have referenced the writings and research efforts of Herbert Simon (1961), Norbert Wiener (1948), and contemporaries from their early technological and social vantage points concerning the future of technology and society. Constructed entities labeled as “thinking machines” (such as IBM’s Watson as well as intelligent chatbot and robotic systems) have also (...) played significant roles in this discourse. This paper provides an historical sequencing then analyzes a selection of writings produced since the 1940s concerning the economic and social issues involving artificial intelligence (AI) research and applications. The paper explores how overstatements and hyperbolic themes and concepts, often stemming from AI’s early periods, are being employed in characterizations of current AI approaches in apparently opportunistic attempts to provide rhetorical support for various large-scale business and societal initiatives. It also addresses the relative neglect of the consideration of many of AI’s sociotechnical failures and discontinued approaches in recent examinations of automation and social welfare issues. The paper discusses the moral logic of AI researchers and developers providing reasonable and measured narratives in public discourse rather than hyperbole, efforts that can empower decision makers to make sounder judgments concerning the technology’s current and future applications as well as allocate the rewards of the technology more equitably. (shrink)