cuted actions. It has been applied to several challenge problems in the theory of commonsense knowledge. We study the relationship between this formalism and other work on nonmonotonic reasoning and knowl-.
The work described in this report is motivated by the desire to test the expressive possibilities of action language C+. The Causal Calculator (CCalc) is a system that answers queries about action domains described in a fragment of that language. The Zoo World and the Traffic World have been proposed by Erik Sandewall in his Logic Modelling Workshop—an environment for communicating axiomatizations of action domains of nontrivial size. -/- The Zoo World consists of several cages and the exterior, gates between (...) them, and animals of several species, including humans. Actions in this domain include moving within and between cages, opening and closing gates, and mounting and riding animals. The Traffic World includes vehicles moving continuously between road crossings subject to a number of restrictions, such as speed limits and keeping a fixed safety distance away from other vehicles on the road. We show how to represent the two domains in the input language of CCalc, and how to use CCalc to test these representations. (shrink)
Graphical AbstractThe SRY gene, which is located on the Y chromosome and directs male development, may promote aggression and other traditionally male behavioural traits, resulting in the fight-or-flight reaction to stress.
This note shows how to formalize a small set of general facts about buying and selling. We begin with summarizing properties of buying/selling informally in English, and give examples of consequences of these assumptions. Then we formalize our assumptions in action language C+ with additive ﬂuents and actions and test the adequacy of the proposed formalization using the Causal Calculator.
Safe ﬁrst-order formulas generalize the concept of a safe rule, which plays an important role in the design of answer set solvers. We show that any safe sentence is equivalent, in a certain sense, to the result of its grounding—to the variable-free sentence obtained from it by replacing all quantiﬁers with multiple conjunctions and disjunctions. It follows that a safe sentence and the result of its grounding have the same stable models, and that stable models of a safe sentence can (...) be characterized by a formula of a simple syntactic form. (shrink)