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Jonathan Kaplan
Oregon State University
  1. Prisoners of Abstraction? The Theory and Measure of Genetic Variation, and the Very Concept of 'Race'.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (1):401-412.
    It is illegitimate to read any ontology about "race" off of biological theory or data. Indeed, the technical meaning of "genetic variation" is fluid, and there is no single theoretical agreed-upon criterion for defining and distinguishing populations (or groups or clusters) given a particular set of genetic variation data. Thus, by analyzing three formal senses of "genetic variation"—diversity, differentiation, and heterozygosity—we argue that the use of biological theory for making epistemic claims about "race" can only seem plausible when it relies (...)
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  2. Realism, Antirealism, and Conventionalism About Race.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (5):1039-1052.
    This paper distinguishes three concepts of "race": bio-genomic cluster/race, biological race, and social race. We map out realism, antirealism, and conventionalism about each of these, in three important historical episodes: Frank Livingstone and Theodosius Dobzhansky in 1962, A.W.F. Edwards' 2003 response to Lewontin (1972), and contemporary discourse. Semantics is especially crucial to the first episode, while normativity is central to the second. Upon inspection, each episode also reveals a variety of commitments to the metaphysics of race. We conclude by interrogating (...)
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  3. Ontologies and Politics of Biogenomic 'Race'.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther & Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2013 - Theoria. A Journal of Social and Political Theory (South Africa) 60 (3):54-80.
    All eyes are turned towards genomic data and models as the source of knowledge about whether human races exist or not. Will genomic science make the final decision about whether racial realism (e.g., racial population naturalism) or anti-realism (e.g., racial skepticism) is correct? We think not. We believe that the results of even our best and most impressive genomic technologies underdetermine whether bio-genomic races exist, or not. First, different sub-disciplines of biology interested in population structure employ distinct concepts, aims, measures, (...)
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  4.  36
    Ontologies and Politics of Biogenomic 'Race'.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther & Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2013 - Theoria: A Journal of Social and Political Theory 60 (136):54-80.
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    When Socially Determined Categories Make Biological Realities: Understanding Black/White Health Disparities in the U.S.Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2010 - The Monist 93 (2):281-297.
  6.  73
    When Socially Determined Categories Make Biological Realities.Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2010 - The Monist 93 (2):283-299.
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  7.  79
    Race, IQ, and the Search for Statistical Signals Associated with so-Called “X”-Factors: Environments, Racism, and the “Hereditarian Hypothesis”.Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2015 - Biology and Philosophy 30 (1):1-17.
    Some authors defending the “hereditarian” hypothesis with respect to differences in average IQ scores between populations have argued that the sorts of environmental variation hypothesized by some researchers rejecting the hereditarian position should leave discoverable statistical traces, namely changes in the overall variance of scores or in variance–covariance matrices relating scores to other variables. In this paper, I argue that the claims regarding the discoverability of such statistical signals are broadly mistaken—there is no good reason to suspect that the hypothesized (...)
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  8. Genes `For' Phenotypes: A Modern History View.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Massimo Pigliucci - 2001 - Biology and Philosophy 16 (2):189--213.
    We attempt to improve the understanding of the notion of agene being `for a phenotypic trait or traits. Considering theimplicit functional ascription of one thing being `for another,we submit a more restrictive version of `gene for talk.Accordingly, genes are only to be thought of as being forphenotypic traits when good evidence is available that thepresence or prevalence of the gene in a population is the resultof natural selection on that particular trait, and that theassociation between that trait and the gene (...)
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  9.  29
    Reflecting on What Philosophy of Epidemiology is and Does, as the Field Comes Into its Own: Introduction to the Special Issue on Philosophy of Epidemiology.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Sean A. Valles - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 10):2383-2392.
    This article is an introduction to the Synthese Special Issue, Philosophy of Epidemiology. The overall goals of the issue are to revisit the state of philosophy of epidemiology and to provide a forum for new voices, approaches, and perspectives in the philosophy of epidemiology literature. The introduction begins by drawing on Geoffrey Rose’s work on how to conceptualize and design interventions for populations, rather than individuals. It then goes on to highlight some themes that emerged in the articles that make (...)
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  10.  14
    Galton's Quincunx: Probabilistic Causation in Developmental Behavior Genetics.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Eric Turkheimer - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 88:60-69.
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  11.  17
    Historical Evidence and Human Adaptations.Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (S3):S294-S304.
    Phylogenetic information is often necessary to distinguish between evolutionary scenarios. Recently, some prominent proponents of evolutionary psychology have acknowledged this, and have claimed that such evidence has in fact been brought to bear on adaptive hypotheses involving complex human psychological traits. Were this possible, it would be a valuable source of evidence regarding hypothesized adaptive traits in humans. However, the structure of the Hominidae family makes this difficult or impossible. For many traits of interest, the closest extant relatives to the (...)
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  12.  45
    “Relevant Similarity” and the Causes of Biological Evolution: Selection, Fitness, and Statistically Abstractive Explanations.Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (3):405-421.
    Matthen (Philos Sci 76(4):464–487, 2009) argues that explanations of evolutionary change that appeal to natural selection are statistically abstractive explanations, explanations that ignore some possible explanatory partitions that in fact impact the outcome. This recognition highlights a difficulty with making selective analyses fully rigorous. Natural selection is not about the details of what happens to any particular organism, nor, by extension, to the details of what happens in any particular population. Since selective accounts focus on tendencies, those factors that impact (...)
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  13.  63
    The Paradox of Stasis and the Nature of Explanations in Evolutionary Biology.Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (5):797-808.
    Recently, Estes and Arnold claimed to have “solved” the paradox of evolutionary stasis; they claim that stabilizing selection, and only stabilizing selection, can explain the patterns of evolutionary divergence observed over “all timescales.” While Estes and Arnold clearly think that they have identified the processes that produce evolutionary stasis, they have not. Instead, Estes and Arnold identify a particular evolutionary pattern but not the processes that produce that pattern. This mistake is important; the slippage between pattern and process is common (...)
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  14.  20
    Gould on Morton, Redux: What Can the Debate Reveal About the Limits of Data?Jonathan Michael Kaplan, Massimo Pigliucci & Joshua Alexander Banta - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 52:22-31.
    Lewis et al. (2011) attempted to restore the reputation of Samuel George Morton, a 19th century physician who reported on the skull sizes of different folk-races. Whereas Gould (1978) claimed that Morton's conclusions were invalid because they reflected unconscious bias, Lewis et al. alleged that Morton's findings were, in fact, supported, and Gould's analysis biased. We take strong exception to Lewis et al.’s thesis that Morton was “right.” We maintain that Gould was right to reject Morton's analysis as inappropriate and (...)
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  15.  29
    Race, Genomics, and Philosophy of Science.Jonathan Michael Kaplan, Ludovica Lorusso & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2014 - Critical Philosophy of Race 2 (2):160-223.
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    Review of Samir Okasha, Evolution and the Levels of Selection[REVIEW]Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2007 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2007 (4).
  17.  27
    Adaptive Landscapes: Concepts, Tools and Metaphors , The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology). [REVIEW]Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):613-616.
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    Ockham's Razors: A User's Manual.Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2017 - Philosophical Review 126 (4):547-551.
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    Adaptive Landscapes: Concepts, Tools and Metaphors. [REVIEW]Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4a):613-616.
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  20. Networks of Support: Politics and Genes in Contemporary Society.Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 1996 - Dissertation, Stanford University
    The dissertation explores the way that large-scale research projects in human genetics influence and are influenced by various social and political issues in contemporary U.S. society. In short, the dissertation argues that the same cultural assumptions which make research projects like the Human Genome Project and human behavioral genetics research seem like promising and worthwhile endeavors simultaneously lead to the results of these projects getting used to define the terms that various social issues are discussed in. In cases where the (...)
     
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  21.  23
    Beyond Cloning: Religion and the Remaking of Humanity (Review).Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2001 - American Journal of Bioethics 1 (3):68-69.
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  22.  23
    More Misuses of Evolutionary Psychology.Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2006 - Metascience 15 (1):177-181.
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  23.  19
    Tying One's Hands: Weakness of Will as a Justification for Trade Restrictions.Jonathan Michael Kaplan - forthcoming - Public Affairs Quarterly.
  24.  18
    Accidental Germ-Line Modifications Through Somatic Cell Gene Therapies: Some Ethical Considerations.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Ina Roy - 2000 - American Journal of Bioethics: Ajob 1 (4):W13 - W13.
  25.  18
    Review of Lenny Moss, What Genes Can't Do[REVIEW]Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2003 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2003 (8).
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  26.  14
    Review of Gordon Graham, Genes: A Philosophical Inquiry[REVIEW]Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2003 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2003 (5).
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