Results for 'Jonathan D. Lepofsky'

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  1.  26
    Strange Exchange: Using a Complementary Currency to Rearticulate Ethics, Place and Community.Jonathan D. Lepofsky - 2009 - Ethics, Place and Environment 12 (1):131-142.
    This paper draws upon research on a complementary currency to explore the ethical dimensions of that community economic development work. In doing so, the paper argues that the figure of the stranger is increasingly important to understand in theorizing community, especially given increased attention to the discourse of the stranger in theories of ethics and identity in a globalizing world. As such, the paper lays out three modes of the strange—economic, geographic and ethical—which emerge out of this complementary currency project. (...)
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  2.  18
    Forgive Our Presumption: A Difficult Reading of Matthew 23:1-3.Jonathan D. Stuckert - 2018 - Perichoresis 16 (3):3-15.
    In Matthew 23:1-3, Jesus commands His disciples and the crowd to listen to the scribes and Pharisees even while not imitating their actions. Many modern interpreters have lessened the force of Matthew 23:1-3 by an assumption of irony on the part of Jesus. We presume that God could never ordain this for His people. However, this easier reading may not be the best reading. A more straightforward interpretation, but one that is difficult to hear, suggests that at times we may (...)
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  3.  7
    Do Bioethics Commissions Hijack Public Debate?Jonathan D. Moreno - 1996 - Hastings Center Report 26 (3):47-47.
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  4.  17
    Deciding Together: Bioethics and Moral Consensus.Jonathan D. Moreno - 1995 - Oxford University Press.
    Western society today is less unified by a set of core values than ever before. Undoubtedly, the concept of moral consensus is a difficult one in a liberal, democratic and pluralistic society. But it is imperative to avoid a rigid majoritarianism where sensitive personal values are at stake, as in bioethics. Bioethics has become an influential part of public and professional discussions of health care. It has helped frame issues of moral values and medicine as part of a more general (...)
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  5. Powerful Qualities, Not Pure Powers.Jonathan D. Jacobs - 2011 - The Monist 94 (1):81-102.
    I explore two accounts of properties within a dispositional essentialist (or causal powers) framework, the pure powers view and the powerful qualities view. I first attempt to clarify precisely what the pure powers view is, and then raise objections to it. I then present the powerful qualities view and, in order to avoid a common misconception, offer a restatement of it that I shall call the truthmaker view. I end by briefly defending the truthmaker view against objections.
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  6. A Powers Theory of Modality: Or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Reject Possible Worlds.Jonathan D. Jacobs - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 151 (2):227-248.
    Possible worlds, concrete or abstract as you like, are irrelevant to the truthmakers for modality—or so I shall argue in this paper. First, I present the neo-Humean picture of modality, and explain why those who accept it deny a common sense view of modality. Second, I present what I take to be the most pressing objection to the neo-Humean account, one that, I argue, applies equally well to any theory that grounds modality in possible worlds. Third, I present an alternative, (...)
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  7.  18
    On the Control of Automatic Processes: A Parallel Distributed Processing Account of the Stroop Effect.Jonathan D. Cohen, Kevin Dunbar & James L. McClelland - 1990 - Psychological Review 97 (3):332-361.
  8.  73
    How to Identify Negative Actions with Positive Events.Jonathan D. Payton - 2018 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 96 (1):87-101.
    It is often assumed that, while ordinary actions are events, ‘negative actions’ are absences of events. I claim that a negative action is an ordinary, ‘positive’ event that plays a certain role. I argue that my approach can answer standard objections to the identity of negative actions and positive events.
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  9.  32
    Context, Cortex, and Dopamine: A Connectionist Approach to Behavior and Biology in Schizophrenia.Jonathan D. Cohen & David Servan-Schreiber - 1992 - Psychological Review 99 (1):45-77.
  10.  9
    Finding Useful Questions: On Bayesian Diagnosticity, Probability, Impact, and Information Gain.Jonathan D. Nelson - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (4):979-999.
  11.  81
    How to Identify Wholes with Their Parts.Jonathan D. Payton - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 18):4571-4593.
    I claim that a whole is identical to its parts. Many find this claim incredible: it seems that a whole and its parts must be distinct, for the whole is one thing while its parts are many things. Byeong-uk Yi has developed a version of this argument which exploits the resources of plural logic. Yi provides logical analyses of the predicates ‘one’ and ‘many’ which seem to show that nothing can satisfy them both. But there are two senses of the (...)
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  12. Is There a Well-Founded Solution to the Generality Problem?Jonathan D. Matheson - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (2):459-468.
    The generality problem is perhaps the most notorious problem for process reliabilism. Several recent responses to the generality problem have claimed that the problem has been unfairly leveled against reliabilists. In particular, these responses have claimed that the generality problem is either (i) just as much of a problem for evidentialists, or (ii) if it is not, then a parallel solution is available to reliabilists. Along these lines, Juan Comesaña has recently proposed solution to the generality problem—well-founded reliabilism. According to (...)
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  13.  49
    Deciding for Others: The Ethics of Surrogate Decision Making.Jonathan D. Moreno - 1992 - Ethics 103 (1):172-175.
  14.  16
    Causal Powers.Jonathan D. Jacobs (ed.) - 2017 - Oxford University Press.
    We use concepts of causal powers and their relatives-dispositions, capacities, and abilities-to describe the world around us, both in everyday life and in scientific practice. This volume presents new work on the nature of causal powers, and their connections with other phenomena within metaphysics, philosophy of science, and philosophy of mind.
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  15.  38
    An Integrative Theory of Prefrontal Cortex Function.Earl K. Miller & Jonathan D. Cohen - 2001 - Annual Review of Neuroscience 24 (1):167-202.
    The prefrontal cortex has long been suspected to play an important role in cognitive control, in the ability to orchestrate thought and action in accordance with internal goals. Its neural basis, however, has remained a mystery. Here, we propose that cognitive control stems from the active maintenance of patterns of activity in the prefrontal cortex that represent goals and the means to achieve them. They provide bias signals to other brain structures whose net effect is to guide the flow of (...)
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  16.  13
    What Is a Clinical Ethicist?Jonathan D. Moreno - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (4):4-5.
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  17.  46
    Ethics Consultation as Moral Engagement.Jonathan D. Moreno - 1991 - Bioethics 5 (1):44–56.
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  18. The Ineffable, Inconceivable, and Incomprehensible God: Fundamentality and Apophatic Theology.Jonathan D. Jacobs - 2015 - Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion 6:158-176.
     
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  19.  58
    Ethics by Committee: The Moral Authority of Consensus.Jonathan D. Moreno - 1988 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 13 (4):411-432.
    Consensus is commonly identified as the goal of ethics committee deliberation, but it is not clear what is morally authoritative about consensus. Various problems with the concept of an ethics committee in a health care institution are identified. The problem of consensus is placed in the context of the debate about realism in moral epistemology, and this is shown to be of interest for ethics committees. But further difficulties, such as the fact that consensus at one level of discourse need (...)
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  20.  35
    Attempts.Jonathan D. Payton - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 179 (2):363-382.
    It’s generally assumed that, if an agent x acts by ϕ-ing, then there occurs an event which is x’s ϕ-ing. But what about when an agent tries to do something? Are there such things as attempts? The standard answer is ‘Yes’. But in a series of articles, and now a book, David-Hillel Ruben has argued that the answer is ‘No’: what happens when x tries to ϕ isn’t that an attempt occurs; rather, what happens is simply that a certain subjunctive (...)
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  21.  21
    Mind Wars: Brain Science and the Military.Jonathan D. Moreno - 2013 - Monash Bioethics Review 31 (2):83-99.
    This article is based on a public lecture hosted by the Monash University Centre for Human Bioethics in Melbourne, Australia on 11 April 2013. The lecture recording was transcribed by Vicky Ryan; and, the original transcript has been edited — for clarity and brevity — by Vicky Ryan, Michael Selgelid and Jonathan Moreno.
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  22.  23
    Counting Composites.Jonathan D. Payton - forthcoming - Australasian Journal of Philosophy.
    I defend the thesis that Composition Entails Identity (CEI): that is, a whole is identical to all of its parts, taken together. CEI seems to be inconsistent, since it seems to require that the parts of a whole possess incompatible number properties (for instance, being one thing and being many things). I show that these number properties are, in fact, compatible.
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  23.  27
    Composition as Identity, Now with All the Pluralities You Could Want.Jonathan D. Payton - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):8047-8068.
    According to ‘composition as identity’, a composite object is identical to all its parts taken together. Thus, a plurality of composite objects is identical to the plurality of those objects’ parts. This has the consequence that, e.g., the bricks which compose a brick wall are identical to the atoms which compose those bricks, and hence that the plurality of bricks must include each of those atoms. This consequence of CAI is in direct conflict with the standard analysis of plural definite (...)
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  24. Should I Stay or Should I Go? How the Human Brain Manages the Trade-Off Between Exploitation and Exploration.Jonathan D. Cohen, Samuel M. McClure & Yu & J. Angela - 2008 - In Jon Driver, Patrick Haggard & Tim Shallice (eds.), Mental Processes in the Human Brain. Oxford University Press.
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  25.  14
    Children’s Sequential Information Search is Sensitive to Environmental Probabilities.Jonathan D. Nelson, Bojana Divjak, Gudny Gudmundsdottir, Laura F. Martignon & Björn Meder - 2014 - Cognition 130 (1):74-80.
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  26.  9
    Probing the Invariant Structure of Spatial Knowledge: Support for the Cognitive Graph Hypothesis.Jonathan D. Ericson & William H. Warren - 2020 - Cognition 200:104276.
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  27. The End of the Great Bioethics Compromise.Jonathan D. Moreno - 2005 - Hastings Center Report 35 (1):14-15.
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  28.  33
    Bioethics is a Naturalism.Jonathan D. Moreno - 1999 - Pragmatic Bioethics 2:3-16.
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  29. Conflict Monitoring and Anterior Cingulate Cortex: An Update.Matthew M. Botvinick, Jonathan D. Cohen & Cameron S. Carter - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (12):539-546.
    One hypothesis concerning the human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is that it functions, in part, to signal the occurrence of conflicts in information processing, thereby triggering compensatory adjustments in cognitive control. Since this idea was first proposed, a great deal of relevant empirical evidence has accrued. This evidence has largely corroborated the conflict-monitoring hypothesis, and some very recent work has provided striking new support for the theory. At the same time, other findings have posed specific challenges, especially concerning the (...)
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  30. Agent Causation in a Neo-Aristotelian Metaphysics.Jonathan D. Jacobs & Timothy O'Connor - 2013 - In Sophie C. Gibb & Rögnvaldur Ingthorsson (eds.), Mental Causation and Ontology. Oxford University Press.
    Freedom and moral responsibility have one foot in the practical realm of human affairs and the other in the esoteric realm of fundamental metaphysics—or so we believe. This has been denied, especially in the metaphysics-bashing era occupying the first two-thirds or so of the twentieth century, traces of which linger in the present day. But the reasons for this denial seem to us quite implausible. Certainly, the argument for the general bankruptcy of metaphysics has been soundly discredited. Arguments from Strawson (...)
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  31.  27
    Developing Concepts of the Mind, Body, and Afterlife: Exploring the Roles of Narrative Context and Culture.Jonathan D. Lane, Liqi Zhu, E. Margaret Evans & Henry M. Wellman - 2016 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 16 (1-2):50-82.
    Children and adults from theus and China heard about people who died in two types of narrative contexts – medical and religious – and judged whether their psychological and biological capacities cease or persist after death. Most 5- to 6-year-olds reported that all capacities would cease. In theus, but not China, there was an increase in persistence judgments at 7–8 years, which decreased thereafter.uschildren’s persistence judgments were influenced by narrative context – occurring more often for religious narratives – and such (...)
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  32.  8
    Children’s Imagination and Belief: Prone to Flights of Fancy or Grounded in Reality?Jonathan D. Lane, Samuel Ronfard, Stéphane P. Francioli & Paul L. Harris - 2016 - Cognition 152:127-140.
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  33.  11
    In the Wake of Terror: Medicine and Morality in a Time of Crisis.Jonathan D. Moreno (ed.) - 2003 - MIT Press.
    Timely and provocative essays on bioethical questions brought to the forefront by the bioterrorist threat.
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  34.  62
    The Logical Form of Negative Action Sentences.Jonathan D. Payton - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (6):855-876.
    It is typically assumed that actions are events, but there is a growing consensus that negative actions, like omissions and refrainments, are not events, but absences thereof. If so, then we must either deny the obvious, that we can exercise our agency by omitting and refrainment, or give up on event-based theories of agency. I trace the consensus to the assumption that negative action sentences are negative-existentials, and argue that this is false. The best analysis of negative action sentences treats (...)
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  35.  80
    Epistemological Considerations Concerning Skeptical Theism: A Response To Dougherty.Jonathan D. Matheson - 2011 - Faith and Philosophy 28 (3):323-331.
    Recently Trent Dougherty has claimed that there is a tension between skeptical theism and common sense epistemology—that the more plausible one of these views is, the less plausible the other is. In this paper I explain Dougherty’s argument and develop an account of defeaters which removes the alleged tension between skeptical theism and common sense epistemology.
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  36.  23
    Biotechnology and the New Right: Neoconservatism's Red Menace.Jonathan D. Moreno & Sam Berger - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (10):7 – 13.
    Although the neoconservative movement has come to dominate American conservatism, this movement has its origins in the old Marxist Left. Communists in their younger days, as the founders of neoconservatism, inverted Marxist doctrine by arguing that moral values and not economic forces were the primary movers of history. Yet the neoconservative critique of biotechnology still borrows heavily from Karl Marx and owes more to the German philosopher Martin Heidegger than to the Scottish philosopher and political economist Adam Smith. Loath to (...)
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  37. Armstrong on Probabilistic Laws of Nature.Jonathan D. Jacobs & Robert J. Hartman - 2017 - Philosophical Papers 46 (3):373-387.
    D. M. Armstrong famously claims that deterministic laws of nature are contingent relations between universals and that his account can also be straightforwardly extended to irreducibly probabilistic laws of nature. For the most part, philosophers have neglected to scrutinize Armstrong’s account of probabilistic laws. This is surprising precisely because his own claims about probabilistic laws make it unclear just what he takes them to be. We offer three interpretations of what Armstrong-style probabilistic laws are, and argue that all three interpretations (...)
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  38.  13
    An Assessment of the Human Subjects Protection Review Process for Exempt Research.Jonathan D. Loe, D. Alex Winkelman & Christopher T. Robertson - 2016 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 44 (3):481-491.
    Medical and public health research includes surveys, interviews, and biospecimens — techniques that do not present substantial risks to subjects. Consequently, this research is exempt from regulation under the Federal Common Rule. Nevertheless, at many institutions, exempt research is frequently subject to the same regulatory process that is required for non-exempt research, requiring the consumption of time and resources for review by Institutional Review Board members or staff. The federal government has indicated an intention to reform and centralize this system, (...)
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  39.  8
    Goodbye to All That The End of Moderate Protectionism in Human Subjects Research.Jonathan D. Moreno - 2001 - Hastings Center Report 31 (3):9-17.
  40.  17
    Can Mind-Wandering Be Timeless? Atemporal Focus and Aging in Mind-Wandering Paradigms.Jonathan D. Jackson, Yana Weinstein & David A. Balota - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
  41.  16
    Bioethics After the Terror.Jonathan D. Moreno - 2002 - American Journal of Bioethics 2 (1):60-64.
    Bioethics as a field has been fortunate that its values and concerns have mirrored the values and concerns of society. In light of the September 11th attacks, it is possible that we are witnessing the beginning of a transition in American culture, one fraught with implications for bioethics. The emphasis on autonomy and individual rights may come to be tempered by greater concern over the collective good. Increased emphasis on solidarity over autonomy could greatly alter public response to research abuses (...)
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  42.  18
    In the Wake of Katrina: Has “Bioethics” Failed?Jonathan D. Moreno - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (5):W18-W19.
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  43. Emergent Individuals and the Resurrection.Jonathan D. Jacobs & Timothy O'Connor - 2010 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 2 (2):69 - 88.
    We present an original emergent individuals view of human persons, on which persons are substantial biological unities that exemplify metaphysically emergent mental states. We argue that this view allows for a coherent model of identity-preserving resurrection from the dead consistent with orthodox Christian doctrine, one that improves upon alternatives accounts recently proposed by a number of authors. Our model is a variant of the “falling elevator” model advanced by Dean Zimmerman that, unlike Zimmerman’s, does not require a closest continuer account (...)
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  44. Introduction.Jonathan D. Moreno & Sam Berger - 2010 - In Jonathan D. Moreno & Sam Berger (eds.), Progress in Bioethics: Science, Policy, and Politics. MIT Press.
     
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  45. The Body Politic: The Battle Over Science in America.Jonathan D. Moreno - 2011 - Bellevue Literary Press.
    Who owns science? -- Science in America -- Thepolitics of heredity -- Dangerous ideas -- The stem Cell debate -- Valuing humanity -- Crossing lines -- In defense of "progress".
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  46.  15
    From Frankenstein to Hawking: Which is the Real Face of Science?Jonathan D. Moreno - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (5):5-5.
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  47.  1
    Ruben's Account of Traditions and True Successors: Two Modifications and an Extension.Jonathan D. Payton - 2013 - Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 2 (11):40-46.
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  48.  3
    Beecher Reconsidered.Jonathan D. Moreno - 2019 - Hastings Center Report 49 (3):3-3.
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  49.  2
    Progress in Bioethics: Science, Policy, and Politics.Jonathan D. Moreno & Sam Berger (eds.) - 2010 - MIT Press.
    Leading scholars debate politically progressive perspectives on bioethics and the implications for society, politics, and science in the twenty-first century.
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  50. Emergent Individuals.Timothy O'Connor & Jonathan D. Jacobs - 2003 - Philosophical Quarterly 53 (213):540-555.
    We explain the thesis that human mental states are ontologically emergent aspects of a fundamentally biological organism. We then explore the consequences of this thesis for the identity of a human person over time. As these consequences are not obviously independent of one's general ontology of objects and their properties, we consider four such accounts: transcendent universals, kind-Aristotelianism, immanent universals, and tropes. We suggest there are reasons for emergentists to favor the latter two accounts. We then argue that within such (...)
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