With an inside view from an expert in the field and a clear and engaging writing style, Asian Philosophies, Seventh Edition invites students and professors to think along with the great minds of the Asian traditions. Eminent scholar and teacher John M. Koller has devoted his life to understanding and explaining Asian thought and practice. He wrote this text to give students access to the rich philosophical and religious ideas of both South and East Asia. New to this seventh edition: (...) Added material on Confucianism, including focused coverage of (1) the Analects and society and (2) ren and nature; Additional information on Theravada Buddhism, Vajrayana Buddhism, and Zen Buddhism as well as new in-depth coverage of ecological attitudes in Buddhism; Expanded coverage of ecological attitudes in all of the Asian traditions; Brief excerpts from primary sources to help better explain the key concepts; Added timelines for essential texts in each tradition; Improved Glossary and Pronunciation Guide; Additional text boxes, to help students quickly understand key ideas, texts, and concepts; Updated Further Reading sections. (shrink)
An analysis of the Jain metaphysics of non-absolutism (anekāntavāda) shows how the epistemological theory of points of view (nayavāda) and the sevenfold schema of predication (saptabhaṅgī) provide a foundation for the central Jain principle of nonviolence (ahiṃsā).
How does the Indian philosophical tradition view the relationship between human beings and nature? Is human existence an integral, though highly evolved, part of nature? Or is human existence radically different from natural existence? This question is fundamental and important, for its answer determines basic cultural values and life practices, including the primary aims of life (puruṣārthas) and the norms of life‐stages and social classes (varṇāśramadharma). As might be expected, tradition does not provide us with a single, univocal answer to (...) this question. Because the Indian tradition is made up of many sub‐traditions, each with its own answer, and because these traditions are continuously changing, the answer varies across time, as well as across traditions. Nonetheless, allowing for necessary qualifications, these different answers share the view that both questions are to be answered in the affirmative. That is, the tradition's shared core of understanding across sub‐traditions and time is that human existence is both an integral part of nature and that it is radically different. How is the apparent conflict between these two views resolved within the tradition? Is the attempted resolution successful? It is these two questions that form the problematic of this essay. (shrink)
Mao has responded to the challenge of adapting Marxism to traditional Chinese thought through his two creative developments of Marxism: the ideological definition of class and the concept of permanent revolution, based on intra-personal class-struggle.
Mao has responded to the challenge of adapting Marxism to traditional Chinese thought through his two 'creative developments' of Marxism: the ideological definition of class and the concept of permanent revolution, based on intra-personal class-struggle.
The purpose of the article is to examine the development of skepticism in indian philosophical thought. A number of important vedic passages are analyzed in order to show that although the authors were concerned with questions about the origins and guarantees of knowledge claims, There was no developed philosophical skepticism in the vedic age. The skepticism of purandara is examined to illustrate the carvaka position. Jayarasi bhatta's thorough-Going skepticism is examined to show that complete skepticism is self-Contradictory--It involves claiming to (...) know that the criteria for valid knowledge "cannot" be met. It is suggested that recognition of the skeptic's inconsistency in holding that it is "known" that no knowledge is possible may have been one of the reasons why skepticism failed to take hold in india, Despite great emphasis on epistemological issues. (shrink)