This paper reports research on the influence of corporate and individual characteristics on managers'' social orientation in Germany. The results indicate that mid-level managers expressed a significantly lower social orientation than low-level managers, and that job activity did not impact social orientation. Female respondents expressed a higher social orientation than male respondents. No impact of the political system origin (former East Germany versus former West Germany) on social orientation was shown. Overall, corporate position had a significantly higher impact on social (...) orientation than did the characteristics of the individuals surveyed. (shrink)
In order to test a mathematical model of G1/S-phase transition, the proliferative response of the murine myeloid interleukin 3 (IL-3) dependent cell line NFS-78 to graded reduction of IL-3 levels was measured. Exponentially growing cells were exposed to bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR), which replaces thymidine (TdR) in the DNA double strands during DNA synthesis. After incubation periods ranging from 3 to 36 h the cells were fixed and stained with a fluorescence dye mixture of Hoechst 33258 and ethidium bromide (EB) and subsequently (...) analyzed in a two-parametrical flow cytometer. The BUdR-quenched TdR-specific Hoechst 33258 fluorescence of each cell provides information on the cell cycle location at the start of incubation and on whether or not a cell has divided. The DNA-specific EB fluorescence provides information on the actual cell cycle location at the end of the incubation period. From the 2-dimensional fluorescence distributions the efflux from G1-phase was calculated. Upon IL-3 reduction the cells showed accumulation in the Gl-phase along with a reduction in the progression rate through the other phases of the cell cycle. By staining with the vital dye Hoechst 33342 as well as with propidium iodide (PI) it was further possible to show that cell death after IL-3 withdrawal occurred in all phases of the cell cycle. (shrink)
We assume the existence of a specific G1 protein which is an initiator of DNA replication. This initiator is supposed to be synthesized according to Michaelis-Menten kinetics. In order to start DNA replication, it is assumed that this G1 specific protein must be produced in a required amount. Intra-cellular growth inhibitors and extra-cellular growth factors control the production of the initiator. This model allows to calculate the average G1 phase time as a function of the various chemical concentrations of nutrients, (...) enzymes, growth inhibitors and growth factors. This model is compared to cell kinetics experiments on a leukemic cell line responding to Interleukin 3 deprivation. The curves giving the experimental average G1 phase times with respect to Interleukin-3 concentrations are fitted by the mathematical model with a quite good agreement. (shrink)
The issue of COVID-19 vaccine allocation is still highly controversial on the international as well as on the national level, and policy-makers worldwide struggle in striking a fair balance between different ethical principles of vaccine allocation, in particular maximum benefit, reciprocity, social justice and equal respect. Any political decision that implements these principles comes at a cost in terms of loss of lives and of loss of life years that could potentially have been prevented by a different vaccination strategy. This (...) article illustrates these trade-offs using quantitative analysis and shows how this approach can contribute to providing a rational and transparent grounding of political decisions on COVID-19 vaccine allocation. (shrink)
The Covid-19 pandemic has led to a health crisis of a scale unprecedented in post-war Europe. In response, a large amount of healthcare resources have been redirected to Covid-19 preventive measures, for instance population-wide vaccination campaigns, large-scale SARS-CoV-2 testing, and the large-scale distribution of protective equipment to high-risk groups and hospitals and nursing homes. Despite the importance of these measures in epidemiological and economic terms, health economists and medical ethicists have been relatively silent about the ethical rationales underlying the large-scale (...) allocation of healthcare resources to these measures. The present paper seeks to encourage this debate by demonstrating how the resource allocation to Covid-19 preventive measures can be understood through the paradigm of the Rule of Rescue, without claiming that the Rule of Rescue is the sole rationale of resource allocation in the Covid-19 pandemic. (shrink)
Societal and ethical implications of nanotechnology have become a hot topic of public debates in many countries because both revolutionary changes and strong public concerns are expected from its development. Because nanotechnology is, at this point, mostly articulated in visionary and futuristic terms, it is difficult to apply standard methods of technology assessment and even more difficult to consider it in engineering ethics courses. In this article, the authors suggest using selected science fiction stories in the engineering ethics classroom to (...) provide students with ethical skills and cultural knowledge required for engaging in public debates and for responsible decision making. Against the background of general debates on teaching engineering ethics, they do so by discussing the advantages and possible drawbacks of this approach and by presenting two examples of nano-science fiction classics. (shrink)
English title: Józef Tischner’s Phenomenology of Boundary Experience. Author of the paper distinguishes four paradigms of phenomenological analysis one can indicate in Tischner’s philosophical writing. Each of these paradigms captures the issue of the genuine source of phenomenological experience. This genuine source can be provided with: transcendental ‘I’, axiological ‘I’, Dasein, or the relationship to another man. By developing the latter, i.e. the paradigm based on the experience of meeting (dialogue), Tischner makes the foundations for his Philosophy of Drama (in (...) Polish: Filozofia dramatu) which should be interpreted, as Piecuch argues, in terms of the possible ways to conduct phenomenological analysis. The peculiarity of this way is that it aims at grasping various aspects of the border experience in which a man experiences the limits of one’s own thinking, activity and sensing. (shrink)
Joachim Schulte’s introduction provides a distinctive and masterful account of the full range of Wittgenstein’s thought. It is concise but not compressed, substantive but not overloaded with developmental or technical detail, informed by the latest scholarship but not pedantic. Beginners will find it accessible and seasoned students of Wittgenstein will appreciate it for the illuminating overview it provides.
The Historical Dictionary of Philosophy, the _Historisches Wörterbuch der _Philosophie, is distinguished by its particular presentation of philosophical terms, ideas and concepts. Rather than providing mere defintions or descriptive and analytical explanantions the _HWPh_ strictly applies the critical method of history of concepts developed by the eminent German scholar and philosopher Joachim Ritter. By means of precise and detailed references it documents the origin, first occurrence, the historical evolution and the changes of meaning of each concept, from Ancient Greek (...) to contemporary philosophy. For the reader this presentation is of unique value: it makes traceable the importance of terms and concepts at certain periods or for a particular philosopher, as well as its changes and development of meaning. (shrink)
Das Verhältnis zwischen Kirche und säkularer Kultur steht einmal mehr in Frage. Gehören die Kunstwerke der christlichen Tradition als lebendige Quelle noch in unsere Gegenwart, oder nicht vielmehr einer Vergangenheit an, die höchstens noch von musealem Interesse ist? Ist eine intellektuelle Durchdringung des Glaubens, eine christliche, katholische/protestantische Intellektualität sinnvoll, notwendig, überhaupt möglich?