15 found
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  1. The Ethics of Accident-Algorithms for Self-Driving Cars: an Applied Trolley Problem?Sven Nyholm & Jilles Smids - 2016 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (5):1275-1289.
    Self-driving cars hold out the promise of being safer than manually driven cars. Yet they cannot be a 100 % safe. Collisions are sometimes unavoidable. So self-driving cars need to be programmed for how they should respond to scenarios where collisions are highly likely or unavoidable. The accident-scenarios self-driving cars might face have recently been likened to the key examples and dilemmas associated with the trolley problem. In this article, we critically examine this tempting analogy. We identify three important ways (...)
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  2. Robots in the Workplace: a Threat to—or Opportunity for—Meaningful Work?Jilles Smids, Sven Nyholm & Hannah Berkers - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (3):503-522.
    The concept of meaningful work has recently received increased attention in philosophy and other disciplines. However, the impact of the increasing robotization of the workplace on meaningful work has received very little attention so far. Doing work that is meaningful leads to higher job satisfaction and increased worker well-being, and some argue for a right to access to meaningful work. In this paper, we therefore address the impact of robotization on meaningful work. We do so by identifying five key aspects (...)
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  3. Automated cars meet human drivers: responsible human-robot coordination and the ethics of mixed traffic.Sven Nyholm & Jilles Smids - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (4):335-344.
    In this paper, we discuss the ethics of automated driving. More specifically, we discuss responsible human-robot coordination within mixed traffic: i.e. traffic involving both automated cars and conventional human-driven cars. We do three main things. First, we explain key differences in robotic and human agency and expectation-forming mechanisms that are likely to give rise to compatibility-problems in mixed traffic, which may lead to crashes and accidents. Second, we identify three possible solution-strategies for achieving better human-robot coordination within mixed traffic. Third, (...)
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  4. Can a Robot Be a Good Colleague?Sven Nyholm & Jilles Smids - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2169-2188.
    This paper discusses the robotization of the workplace, and particularly the question of whether robots can be good colleagues. This might appear to be a strange question at first glance, but it is worth asking for two reasons. Firstly, some people already treat robots they work alongside as if the robots are valuable colleagues. It is worth reflecting on whether such people are making a mistake. Secondly, having good colleagues is widely regarded as a key aspect of what can make (...)
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  5.  22
    Access to effective but expensive treatments: An analysis of the solidarity argument in discussions on funding of medical treatments.Sietske A. L. Till, Jilles Smids & Eline M. Bunnik - 2022 - Bioethics 37 (2):111-119.
    The development of new effective but expensive medical treatments leads to discussions about whether and how such treatments should be funded in solidarity-based healthcare systems. Solidarity is often seen as an elusive concept; it appears to be used to refer to different sets of concerns, and its interrelations with the concept of justice are not well understood. This paper provides a conceptual analysis of the concept of solidarity as it is used in discussions on the allocation of healthcare resources and (...)
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  6.  19
    Access to effective but expensive treatments: An analysis of the solidarity argument in discussions on funding of medical treatments.Sietske A. L. van Till, Jilles Smids & Eline M. Bunnik - 2022 - Bioethics 37 (2):111-119.
    The development of new effective but expensive medical treatments leads to discussions about whether and how such treatments should be funded in solidarity-based healthcare systems. Solidarity is often seen as an elusive concept; it appears to be used to refer to different sets of concerns, and its interrelations with the concept of justice are not well understood. This paper provides a conceptual analysis of the concept of solidarity as it is used in discussions on the allocation of healthcare resources and (...)
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  7.  48
    Danaher’s Ethical Behaviourism: An Adequate Guide to Assessing the Moral Status of a Robot?Jilles Smids - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (5):2849-2866.
    This paper critically assesses John Danaher’s ‘ethical behaviourism’, a theory on how the moral status of robots should be determined. The basic idea of this theory is that a robot’s moral status is determined decisively on the basis of its observable behaviour. If it behaves sufficiently similar to some entity that has moral status, such as a human or an animal, then we should ascribe the same moral status to the robot as we do to this human or animal. The (...)
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  8.  19
    Employers have a Duty of Beneficence to Design for Meaningful Work: A General Argument and Logistics Warehouses as a Case Study.Jilles Smids, Hannah Berkers, Pascale Le Blanc, Sonja Rispens & Sven Nyholm - forthcoming - The Journal of Ethics:1-28.
    Artificial intelligence-driven technology increasingly shapes work practices and, accordingly, employees’ opportunities for meaningful work (MW). In our paper, we identify five dimensions of MW: pursuing a purpose, social relationships, exercising skills and self-development, autonomy, self-esteem and recognition. Because MW is an important good, lacking opportunities for MW is a serious disadvantage. Therefore, we need to know to what extent employers have a duty to provide this good to their employees. We hold that employers have a duty of beneficence to design (...)
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  9.  39
    The Moral Case for Intelligent Speed Adaptation.Jilles Smids - 2015 - Journal of Applied Philosophy.
    Speeding is a major problem in road safety. Intelligent Speed Adaptation is a potential solution, but the moral acceptability of ISA has been called into question both in the popular media and in academic discussions. In this article, a moral case is made for making warning and limiting versions of ISA obligatory in all cars. The practice of car driving involves frequent speeding, which imposes unacceptable risks of harm on other road users. In this article, I argue that ISA can (...)
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  10.  38
    Is Being “Paid to Endure” Compatible With Autonomy? Paid Research Participation and Five (Rather Than Four) Goods of Work.Sven Nyholm & Jilles Smids - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (9):41-43.
    Volume 19, Issue 9, September 2019, Page 41-43.
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  11.  13
    Why Exceptional Public Investment in the Development of Vaccines Is Justified for COVID-19, But Not for Other Unmet Medical Needs.Eline M. Bunnik & Jilles Smids - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):22-25.
    In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, states have funneled exceptional amounts of public funding into research and development of diagnostics, treatments and vaccines to help fight the virus. In th...
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  12.  22
    Access to Non‐reimbursed Expensive Cancer Treatments: A Justice Perspective.Jilles Smids & Eline M. Bunnik - forthcoming - Journal of Applied Philosophy.
    When the cost-effectiveness of newly approved cancer treatments is insufficient or unclear, they may not (immediately) be eligible for reimbursement through basic health insurance in publicly funded healthcare systems. Patients may seek access to non-reimbursed treatment through other channels, including individual funding requests made to hospitals, health insurers, or pharmaceutical companies. Alternatively, they may try to pay out of pocket for non-reimbursed treatments. While currently little is known of these practices, they run counter to a deeply held egalitarian ethos that (...)
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  13.  11
    ‘Empathy counterbalancing’ to mitigate the ‘identified victim effect’? Ethical reflections on cognitive debiasing strategies to increase support for healthcare priority setting.Jilles Smids, Charlotte H. C. Bomhof & Eline Maria Bunnik - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Priority setting is inevitable to control expenditure on expensive medicines, but citizen support is often hampered by the workings of the ‘identified victim effect’, that is, the greater willingness to spend resources helping identified victims than helping statistical victims. In this paper we explore a possible cognitive debiasing strategy that is being employed in discussions on healthcare priority setting, which we call ‘empathy counterbalancing’ (EC). EC is the strategy of directing attention to, and eliciting empathy for, those who might be (...)
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  14.  21
    How Can Large Language Models Support the Acquisition of Ethical Competencies in Healthcare?Jilles Smids & Maartje Schermer - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (10):68-70.
    Rahimzadeh et al. (2023) provide an interesting and timely discussion of the role of large language models (LLMs) in ethics education. While mentioning broader educational goals, the paper’s main f...
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  15.  26
    Can Voluntary Health Insurance for Non-reimbursed Expensive New Treatments Be Just?Jilles Smids & Eline M. Bunnik - 2023 - Public Health Ethics 16 (2):191-201.
    Public healthcare systems are increasingly refusing (temporarily) to reimburse newly approved medical treatments of insufficient or uncertain cost-effectiveness. As both patient demand for these treatments and their list prices increase, a market might arise for voluntary additional health insurance (VHI) that covers effective but (very) expensive medical treatments. In this paper, we evaluate such potential future practices of VHI in public healthcare systems from a justice perspective. We find that direct (telic) egalitarian objections to unequal access to expensive treatments based (...)
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