Graphical AbstractCellular internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) is important for cap-independent translational initiation during stress and pathology. In article number 1900180, Lei-Yun Wang et al. propose an idea to discover IRES based on the latest high-throughput technologies, hence facilitating the understanding of IRES in disease development and treatment.
The cellular internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) is one of the most important elements to mediate cap‐independent translational initiation, especially under conditions of stress and pathology. However, a high‐throughput method to discover IRESs in these conditions is still lacking. Here, a possible way IRES long‐read sequencing based on the latest high‐throughput technologies is proposed to solve this problem. Based on this design, diversity and integrity of the transcriptome from original samples can be kept. The micro‐environment that stimulates or inhibits IRES (...) activity can also be mimicked. By using long read‐length sequencing technology, additional experiments that are essential for ruling out the cryptic promoters or splicing events in routine IRES identification processes can be circumvented. It is hoped that this proposed methodology may be adopted for IRES element discovery, hence uncovering the full extent of the role of IRESs in disease, development, and stress. Also see the video abstract here https://youtu.be/JuWBbMzWXS8. (shrink)
Kindergarten teachers' engagement in work is influenced by many factors. Total rewards perceptions, as an individual's evaluation of the rewards provided by the organization, may promote work engagement when it can meet their intrinsic and extrinsic work demands. To explore the relationship between kindergarten teachers' total rewards perceptions and work engagement, and the mediating role of organizational identification, a survey was conducted among 1,014 kindergarten teachers applying the Chinese versions of the Total Rewards Perceptions Scale for Kindergarten Teacher, Kindergarten Teacher (...) Organizational Identification Scale, and Kindergarten Teacher Work Engagement Scale. The results showed that kindergarten teachers' total rewards perceptions and its four factors were positively correlated with organizational identification and work engagement. Organizational identification was positively related to work engagement. Organizational identification partially mediated the relationship between total rewards perception and work engagement among kindergarten teachers. We discussed the result of the relationship between total rewards perceptions, organizational identification, and work engagement among Chinese kindergarten teachers. (shrink)
Although accumulating evidence suggests the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with costs in mental health, the development of students' mental health, including the change from their previous levels of depression and anxiety and the factors associated with this change, has not been well-studied. The present study investigates changes in students' anxiety and depression from before the pandemic to during the lockdown and identifies factors that are associated with these changes. 14,769 university students participated in a longitudinal study with two time points (...) with a 6-month interval. Students completed the Anxiety and Depression subscales of the Symptom Checklist 90 before the COVID-19 outbreak, and the Self-rating Anxiety Scale and Self-rating Depression Scale during the pandemic. The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms were 1.44 and 1.46% at Time 1, and 4.06 and 22.09% at Time 2, respectively, showing a 181.94% increase in anxiety and a 1413.01% increase in depression. Furthermore, the increases in anxiety and depression from pre-pandemic levels were associated with students' gender and the severity of the pandemic in the province where they resided. This study contributes to the gap in knowledge regarding changes in students' mental health in response to the pandemic and the role of local factors in these changes. Implications for gender and the Typhoon Eye effect are discussed. (shrink)
Understanding the neural basis of schizophrenia (SZ) is important for shedding light on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this mental disorder. Structural and functional alterations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) have been implicated in the neurobiology of SZ. However, the effective connectivity among them in SZ remains unclear. The current study investigated how neuronal pathways involving these regions were affected in first-episode SZ using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Forty-nine patients (...) with a first-episode of psychosis and diagnosis of SZ—according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision—were studied. Fifty healthy controls (HCs) were included for comparison. All subjects underwent resting state fMRI. We used spectral dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to estimate directed connections among the bilateral ACC, DLPFC, hippocampus, and MPFC. We characterized the differences using Bayesian parameter averaging (BPA) in addition to classical inference (t-test). In addition to common effective connectivity in these two groups, HCs displayed widespread significant connections predominantly involved in ACC not detected in SZ patients, but SZ showed few connections. Based on BPA results, SZ patients exhibited anterior cingulate cortico-prefrontal-hippocampal hyperconnectivity, as well as ACC-related and hippocampal-dorsolateral prefrontal-medial prefrontal hypoconnectivity. In summary, spectral DCM revealed the pattern of effective connectivity involving ACC in patients with first-episode SZ. This study provides a potential link between SZ and dysfunction of ACC, creating an ideal situation to associate mechanisms behind SZ with aberrant connectivity among these cognition and emotion-related regions. (shrink)
The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) simulates uncertain gains and losses in real life situations and thus is a good measure of uncertain decision making. The role of working memory (WM) in IGT performance still remains unclear. The present study aimed to examine the effect of WM on IGT performance. Three groups of participants matched on gender ratio were randomly assigned to no WM load, low WM load, and high WM load conditions. Initially the three groups did not show significant difference (...) in WM capacity. They finished a modified version of IGT and then their implicit learning effect and explicit cognition on IGT were assessed. Results indicated a linear increasing trend of IGT performance among high WM load, low WM load and no WM load groups; participants in the no WM load and low WM load groups revealed implicit learning effect, while participants in the high WM load group did not; all participants showed explicit cognition on IGT to the same level. These results suggested that participants in the high WM load group showed good explicit cognition to IGT but showed poor performance. This pattern is similar to frontal patients. Further studies should be conducted to explore this issue. (shrink)
Recently, teacher emotions have become the focus of research in teacher education. Teacher emotions not only affect teachers themselves but also have an impact on their students. However, pre-service teachers’ emotions have been neglected. This study is based on a qualitative analysis of online emotional diaries related to emotional experience expression by 120 Chinese pre-service teachers before, during, and after teaching practice. The results in this study show three characteristics of pre-service teachers’ emotional experiences: the overall positive emotions are higher (...) than negative emotions; “caring” and “nervous” are the most typical emotions and variability in emotional experience across gender and internship schools. Then, it is surprising that pre-service teachers’ emotional trajectories are complex and dynamic, positive emotions are decreasing, and negative emotions increase as time goes by. Finally, from the perspective of emotional experience sources, organizational factors affect the emotional experience, personal factors, and background factors. (shrink)
Background and aimThe postpartum depression literacy of perinatal women is closely related to the occurrence, recognition, and treatment of postpartum depression, therefore valid instruments for evaluating the level of PoDLi are of great significance for both research and clinical practice. This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt the postpartum depression literacy scale into Chinese and to test its psychometric properties among Chinese perinatal women.Materials and methodsA cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2022 in a tertiary hospital in Hangzhou, Zhejiang (...) Province, China. 619 out of the 650 perinatal women that were approached via a convenience sampling method completed the Chinese version of the PoDLiS. Content validity [the content validity index of items and scale-level content validity index ] was evaluated by an expert panel. Psychometric properties, including item analysis, structure validity, convergent and discriminant validity, reliability, criterion validity, and floor/ceiling effect were examined.ResultsThe final version of C-PoDLiS is a six-factor structure consisting of 27 items, which explained 61.00% of the total variance. Adequate content validity was ensured by the expert panel. The modified confirmatory factor analysis model revealed that the 6-factor model fitted the data well. The total Cronbach’s α was 0.862, the total McDonald’s ω was 0.869, and the test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.856. Results of convergent validity and discriminant validity provided good or acceptable psychometric support. Significant correlations between scores of the C-PoDLiS and Mental health literacy scale and Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help short form scale supported good concurrent and predictive validity, respectively. No floor/ceiling effect was found.ConclusionThe C-PoDLiS was demonstrated to be a sound instrument with good reliability and validity for evaluating Chinese perinatal women’s PoDLi levels. Its use in the future can facilitate data aggregation and outcome comparisons across different studies on this topic. (shrink)