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Jennifer Saul [36]Jennifer M. Saul [13]Jennifer Mather Saul [8]
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Jennifer Saul
University of Waterloo
  1. Lying, misleading, and what is said: an exploration in philosophy of language and in ethics.Jennifer Mather Saul - 2012 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  2. Dogwhistles, Political Manipulation, and Philosophy of Language.Jennifer Saul - 2018 - In Daniel Fogal, Harris Daniel & Moss Matt (eds.), New Work on Speech Acts. Oxford University Press. pp. 360–383.
    This essay explores the speech act of dogwhistling (sometimes referred to as ‘using coded language’). Dogwhistles may be overt or covert, and within each of these categories may be intentional or unintentional. Dogwhistles are a powerful form of political speech, allowing people to be manipulated in ways they would resist if the manipulation was carried outmore openly—often drawing on racist attitudes that are consciously rejected. If philosophers focus only on content expressed or otherwise consciously conveyed they may miss what is (...)
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  3. Philosophical analysis and social kinds.Sally Haslanger & Jennifer Saul - 2006 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 106 (1):89-118.
    [Sally Haslanger] In debates over the existence and nature of social kinds such as 'race' and 'gender', philosophers often rely heavily on our intuitions about the nature of the kind. Following this strategy, philosophers often reject social constructionist analyses, suggesting that they change rather than capture the meaning of the kind terms. However, given that social constructionists are often trying to debunk our ordinary (and ideology-ridden?) understandings of social kinds, it is not surprising that their analyses are counterintuitive. This article (...)
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  4. Scepticism and Implicit Bias.Jennifer Saul - 2013 - Disputatio 5 (37):243-263.
    Saul_Jennifer, Scepticism and Implicit Bias.
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  5.  25
    Are generics especially pernicious?Jennifer Saul - 2023 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 66 (9):1689-1706.
    1. The focus of my discussion will be mainly on the generics that Leslie dubs ‘Striking Property Generics’. However, some of the concerns raised will be relevant to other generics as well. Striking...
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  6. Racial Figleaves, the Shifting Boundaries of the Permissible, and the Rise of Donald Trump.Jennifer M. Saul - 2017 - Philosophical Topics 45 (2):97-116.
    The rise to power of Donald Trump has been shocking in many ways. One of these was that it disrupted the preexisting consensus that overt racism would be death to a national political campaign. In this paper, I argue that Trump made use of what I call “racial figleaves”—additional utterances that provide just enough cover to give reassurance to voters who are racially resentful but don’t wish to see themselves as racist. These figleaves also, I argue, play a key role (...)
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  7. Politically Significant Terms and Philosophy of Language.Jennifer Saul - 2012 - In Sharon Crasnow & Anita Superson (eds.), Out from the Shadows: Analytical Feminist Contributions to Traditional Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    Philosophers of language have tended to focus on examples that are not politically significant in any way. We spend a lot of time analyzing natural kind terms: We think hard about “water” and “pain” and “arthritis.” But we don’t think much about the far more politically significant kind terms (natural or social—it's a matter for dispute) like “race,” “sex,” “gender,” “woman,” “man,” “gay,” and “straight.” In this essay, I will try to show, using the example of “woman,” that it's worth (...)
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  8. Substitution and simple sentences.Jennifer M. Saul - 1997 - Analysis 57 (2):102–108.
  9. Gender and Race.Jennifer Saul - 2006 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 80 (1):119-143.
    Sally Haslanger’s ‘What Good Are Our Intuitions? Philosophical Analysis and Social Kinds’ is, among other things, a part of the theoretical underpinning for analyses of race and gender concepts that she discusses far more fully elsewhere. My reply focuses on these analyses of race and gender concepts, exploring the ways in which the theoretical work done in this paper and others can or cannot be used to defend these analyses against certain objections. I argue that the problems faced by Haslanger’s (...)
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  10. Speaker meaning, what is said, and what is implicated.Jennifer M. Saul - 2002 - Noûs 36 (2):228–248.
    [First Paragraph] Unlike so many other distinctions in philosophy, H P Grice's distinction between what is said and what is implicated has an immediate appeal: undergraduate students readily grasp that one who says 'someone shot my parents' has merely implicated rather than said that he was not the shooter [2]. It seems to capture things that we all really pay attention to in everyday conversation'this is why there are so many people whose entire sense of humour consists of deliberately ignoring (...)
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  11.  49
    Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 1: Metaphysics and Epistemology.Michael S. Brownstein & Jennifer Mather Saul (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
    At the University of Sheffield during 2011 and 2012, a leading group of philosophers, psychologists, and others gathered to explore the nature and significance of implicit bias. The two volumes of Implicit Bias and Philosophy emerge from these workshops. Each volume philosophically examines core areas of psychological research on implicit bias as well as the ramifications of implicit bias for core areas of philosophy. Volume I: Metaphysics and Epistemology is comprised of two parts: “The Nature of Implicit Attitudes, Implicit Bias, (...)
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  12.  89
    (How) Should We Tell Implicit Bias Stories?Jennifer Saul - 2018 - Disputatio 10 (50):217-244.
    As the phenomenon of implicit bias has become increasingly widely known and accepted, a variety of criticisms have similarly gained in prominence. This paper focuses on one particular set of criticisms, generally made from the political left, of what Sally Haslanger calls “implicit bias stories”—a broad term encompassing a wide range of discourses from media discussions to academic papers to implicit bias training. According to this line of thought, implicit bias stories are counterproductive because they serve to distract from the (...)
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  13. Pornography, speech acts and context.Jennifer Saul - 2006 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 106 (2):227–246.
    Catharine MacKinnon has claimed that pornography is the subordination of women. Rae Langton has defended the plausibility and coherence of this claim by drawing on speech act theory. I argue that considering the role of context in speech acts poses serious problems for Langton's defence of MacKinnon. Langton's account can be altered in order to accommodate the role of context. Once this is done, however, her defence of MacKinnon no longer looks so plausible. Finally, I argue that the speech act (...)
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  14. What is Happening to Our Norms Against Racist Speech?Jennifer Saul - 2019 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 93 (1):1-23.
    Until recently, the accepted wisdom in the US was that overt racism would doom a national political campaign. This led to the use of covert messaging strategies like dogwhistles. Recent political events have called this wisdom into question. In this paper, I explore what has happened in recent years to our norms against racist speech, and to the ways that they are applied. I describe several mechanisms that seem to have contributed to the changes that I outline.
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  15. Just go ahead and lie.Jennifer Saul - 2012 - Analysis 72 (1):3-9.
    The view that lying is morally worse than merely misleading is a very natural one, which has had many prominent defenders. Nonetheless, here I will argue that it is misguided: holding all else fixed, acts of mere misleading are not morally preferable to acts of lying, and successful lying is not morally worse than merely deliberately misleading. In fact, except in certain very special contexts, I will suggest that – when faced with a felt need to deceive – we might (...)
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  16. Ranking Exercises in Philosophy and Implicit Bias.Jennifer Saul - 2012 - Journal of Social Philosophy 43 (3):256-273.
  17.  23
    Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volumes 2: Moral Responsibility, Structural Injustice, and Ethics.Michael S. Brownstein & Jennifer Mather Saul (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    At the University of Sheffield between 2011 and 2012, a leading group of philosophers, psychologists, and others gathered to explore the nature and significance of implicit bias. The two volumes of Implicit Bias and Philosophy emerge from these workshops. Each volume philosophically examines core areas of psychological research on implicit bias as well as the ramifications of implicit bias for core areas of philosophy. Volume II: Moral Responsibility, Structural Injustice, and Ethics is comprised of three parts. “Moral Responsibility for Implicit (...)
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  18. Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 2: Moral Responsibility, Structural Injustice, and Ethics.Michael Brownstein & Jennifer Saul (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press UK.
    There is abundant evidence that most people, often in spite of their conscious beliefs, values and attitudes, have implicit biases. 'Implicit bias' is a term of art referring to evaluations of social groups that are largely outside conscious awareness or control. These evaluations are typically thought to involve associations between social groups and concepts or roles like 'violent,' 'lazy,' 'nurturing,' 'assertive,' 'scientist,' and so on. Such associations result at least in part from common stereotypes found in contemporary liberal societies about (...)
     
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  19.  92
    Simple sentences, substitution, and intuitions.Jennifer Mather Saul - 2007 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    Substitution and simple sentences -- Simple sentences and semantics -- Simple sentences and implicatures -- The enlightenment problem and a common assumption -- Abandoning (EOI) -- Beyond matching propositions -- App. A : extending the account -- App. B : belief reporting.
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  20.  91
    Simple sentences, substitution, and intuitions * by Jennifer Saul.Jennifer Saul - 2009 - Analysis 69 (1):174-176.
    Philosophers of language have long recognized that in opaque contexts, such as those involving propositional attitude reports, substitution of co-referring names may not preserve truth value. For example, the name ‘Clark Kent’ cannot be substituted for ‘Superman’ in a context like:1. Lois believes that Superman can flywithout a change in truth value. In an earlier paper, Jennifer Saul demonstrated that substitution failure could also occur in ‘simple sentences’ where none of the ordinary opacity-producing conditions existed, such as:2. Superman leaps more (...)
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  21. What is said and psychological reality; Grice's project and relevance theorists' criticisms.Jennifer M. Saul - 2002 - Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (3):347-372.
  22. The pragmatics of attitude ascription.Jennifer M. Saul - 1998 - Philosophical Studies 92 (3):363-389.
  23. Simple Sentences, Substitutions, and Mistaken Evaluations.David Braun & Jennifer Saul - 2002 - Philosophical Studies 111 (1):1 - 41.
    Many competent speakers initially judge that (i) is true and (ii) isfalse, though they know that (iii) is true. (i) Superman leaps more tallbuildings than Clark Kent. (ii) Superman leaps more tall buildings thanSuperman. (iii) Superman is identical with Clark Kent. Semanticexplanations of these intuitions say that (i) and (ii) really can differin truth-value. Pragmatic explanations deny this, and say that theintuitions are due to misleading implicatures. This paper argues thatboth explanations are incorrect. (i) and (ii) cannot differ intruth-value, yet (...)
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  24. Bald-faced bullshit and authoritarian political speech: Making sense of Johnson and Trump.Tim Kenyon & Jennifer Saul - 2022 - In Laurence Horn (ed.), From Lying to Perjury: Linguistic and Legal Perspectives on Lies and Other Falsehoods. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 165-194.
    Donald Trump and Boris Johnson are notoriously uninterested in truthtelling. They also often appear uninterested even in constructing plausible falsehoods. What stands out above all is the brazenness and frequency with which they repeat known falsehoods. In spite of this, they are not always greeted with incredulity. Indeed, Republicans continue to express trust in Donald Trump in remarkable numbers. The only way to properly make sense of what Trump and Johnson are doing, we argue, is to give a greater role (...)
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  25. Women in philosophy.Jennifer Saul - 2012 - The Philosophers' Magazine 59 (59):38-43.
  26.  25
    Language Signaling High Proportions and Generics Lead to Generalizing, but Not Essentializing, for Novel Social Kinds.Elena Hoicka, Jennifer Saul, Eloise Prouten, Laura Whitehead & Rachel Sterken - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (11):e13051.
    Cognitive Science, Volume 45, Issue 11, November 2021.
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  27. Feminism: Issues and Arguments.Jennifer Mather Saul - 2003 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    A stimulating and accessible introduction to feminist philosophy. The chapters are organised around key issues of practical significance. Clear arguments are provided for a variety of feminist positions, drawing upon up-to-date empirical research. No background in feminism or philosophy is needed, and the clarity of the narrative ensures that Feminism: Issues and Arguments will appeal to a wide audience.
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  28. Substitution, simple sentences, and sex scandals.Jennifer M. Saul - 1999 - Analysis 59 (2):106-112.
  29. On Treating Things as People: Objectifi cation, Pornography, and the History of the Vibrator.Jennifer Mather Saul - 2006 - Hypatia 21 (2):45-61.
    This article discusses recent feminist arguments for the possible existence of an interesting link between treating things as people and treating people as things. It argues, by way of a historical case study, that the connection is more complicated than these arguments have supposed. In addition, the essay suggests some possible general links between treatment of things and treatment of people.
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  30. Feminist philosophy of language.Jennifer Saul - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Much of feminist philosophy of language so far can be described as critical—critical either of language itself or of philosophy of language, and calling for change on the basis of these criticisms. Those making these criticisms suggest that the changes are needed for the sake of feminist goals — either to better allow for feminist work to be done or, more frequently, to bring an end to certain key ways that women are disadvantaged. In this entry, I examine these criticisms. (...)
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  31. Implicit Bias and Reform Efforts in Philosophy: a Defence.Jules Holroyd & Jennifer Saul - 2018 - Philosophical Topics 46 (2):71-102.
    This paper takes as its focus efforts to address particular aspects of sexist oppression and its intersections, in a particular field: it discusses reform efforts in philosophy. In recent years, there has been a growing international movement to change the way that our profession functions and is structured, in order to make it more welcoming for members of marginalized groups. One especially prominent and successful form of justification for these reform efforts has drawn on empirical data regarding implicit biases and (...)
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  32. Still an attitude problem.Jennifer M. Saul - 1993 - Linguistics and Philosophy 16 (4):423 - 435.
  33. Stop Thinking So Much About ‘Sexual Harassment’.Jennifer Saul - 2014 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 31 (3):307-321.
    This article explores two related widespread mistakes in thinking about sexual harassment. One is a mistake made by philosophers doing philosophical work on the topic of sexual harassment: an excessive focus on attempting to define the term ‘sexual harassment’. This is a perfectly legitimate topic for discussion and indeed a necessary one, but its dominance of the literature has tended to prevent philosophers from adequately exploring other topics that are of at least equal importance, particularly that of bystanders' responsibilities. The (...)
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  34. Reply to Forbes.Jennifer M. Saul - 1997 - Analysis 57 (2):114–118.
  35. Implicit Bias and Reform Efforts in Philosophy.Jules Holroyd & Jennifer Saul - 2018 - Philosophical Topics 46 (2):71-102.
    This paper takes as its focus efforts to address particular aspects of sexist oppression and its intersections, in a particular field: it discusses reform efforts in philosophy. In recent years, there has been a growing international movement to change the way that our profession functions and is structured, in order to make it more welcoming for members of marginalized groups. One especially prominent and successful form of justification for these reform efforts has drawn on empirical data regarding implicit biases and (...)
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  36. The Problem with Attitudes.Jennifer Mather Saul - 1996 - Dissertation, Princeton University
    In this dissertation, I argue that no account of propositional attitude reporting which does not include a significant degree of context-sensitivity can succeed in accommodating our intuitions about the truth conditions of such reports. Next, I argue that there are two general problems to be faced by any context-sensitive theory of attitude ascription, whether semantic or pragmatic. First, any theory which preserves our intuitions about which inference schemas are valid will violate our intuitions about truth conditions of particular attitude reports. (...)
     
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  37.  27
    Intensionality.Graeme Forbes & Jennifer Saul - 2002 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 76:75-119.
    [Graeme Forbes] In I, I summarize the semantics for the relational/notional distinction for intensional transitives developed in Forbes. In II-V I pursue issues about logical consequence which were either unsatisfactorily dealt with in that paper or, more often, not raised at all. I argue that weakening inferences, such as 'Perseus seeks a mortal gorgon, therefore Perseus seeks a gorgon', are valid, but that disjunction inferences, such as 'Perseus seeks a mortal gorgon, therefore Perseus seeks a mortal gorgon or an immortal (...)
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  38. The Best of Intentions: Ignorance, Idiosyncrasy, and Belief Reporting.Jennifer Saul - 1999 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 29 (1):29 - 47.
    Context plays a crucial role in our propositional attitude reporting practices. A belief-reporting sentence which seems true in one context may seem false in another, as Kripke showed us in ‘A Puzzle About Belief.’ To put it a bit sloppily, may seem true when we are discussing Peter's beliefs regarding Paderewski-the-pianist and false when we are discussing his beliefs regarding Paderewski-the-statesman. Peter believes that Paderewski is a fine musician.A number of recent theorists have taken this contextual variation very seriously, and (...)
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  39. The road to hell: Intentions and propositional attitude ascription.Jennifer M. Saul - 1999 - Mind and Language 14 (3):356–375.
    Accounts of propositional attitude reporting which invoke contextual variation in semantic content have become increasingly popular, with good reason: our intuitions about the truth conditions of such reports vary with context. This paper poses a problem for such accounts, arguing that any reasonable candidate source for this contextual variation will yield very counterintuitive results. The accounts, then, cannot achieve their goal of accommodating our truth conditional intuitions. This leaves us with a serious puzzle. Theorists must either give up on the (...)
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  40.  4
    Only Natural: Gender, Knowledge, and Humankind, by Louise Antony.Jennifer Saul - forthcoming - Mind.
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  41.  19
    Language, Feminism, and Racism.Cecilia Becker & Jennifer Saul - 2023 - Stance 16 (1):98-117.
    Jennifer Saul is Waterloo Chair in Social and Political Philosophy of Language at the University of Waterloo. Originally American, she spent twenty-four years at the University of Sheffield in the United Kingdom. Her current focus is manipulative political language, which she explores in Dogwhistles and Figleaves: Linguistics Tricks for Racist and Conspiracist Discourse (forthcoming, Oxford, 2024). She has also written books and articles on feminism, lying and misleading, and implicit bias. She founded the blogs What is it Like to be (...)
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  42.  73
    II—Jennifer Saul: What are Intensional Transitives?Jennifer M. Saul - 2002 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 76 (1):101-119.
  43.  81
    Intensionality: What are intensional transitives?Jennifer M. Saul - 2002 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 76 (1):101–119.
    [Graeme Forbes] In I, I summarize the semantics for the relational/notional distinction for intensional transitives developed in Forbes. In II-V I pursue issues about logical consequence which were either unsatisfactorily dealt with in that paper or, more often, not raised at all. I argue that weakening inferences, such as 'Perseus seeks a mortal gorgon, therefore Perseus seeks a gorgon', are valid, but that disjunction inferences, such as 'Perseus seeks a mortal gorgon, therefore Perseus seeks a mortal gorgon or an immortal (...)
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  44. Conversations Online.Patrick Connolly, Sanford C. Goldberg & Jennifer Saul (eds.) - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
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  45. Conversations Online.Patrick Connolly, Sandy Goldberg & Jennifer Saul (eds.) - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
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  46. Bald-faced bullshit and authoritarian political speech : making sense of Johnson and Trump.Tim Kenyon & Jennifer Saul - 2022 - In Laurence R. Horn (ed.), From lying to perjury: linguistic and legal perspective on lies and other falsehoods. De Gruyter Mouton.
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  47.  63
    Deniability and Fig Leaves.Jennifer Saul - 2016 - The Philosophers' Magazine 75:16-19.
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  48.  17
    Dogwhistles and Figleaves: How Manipulative Language Spreads Racism and Falsehood.Jennifer Saul - 2024 - Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press.
    It is widely accepted that political discourse in recent years has become more openly racist and more filled with wildly implausible conspiracy theories. Dogwhistles and Figleaves explores certain ways in which such changes—both of which defied previously settled norms of political speech—have been brought about. Jennifer Saul shows that two linguistic devices, dogwhistles and figleaves, have played a crucial role. Some dogwhistles (such as “88,” used by Nazis online to mean “Heil Hitler”) serve to disguise messages that would otherwise be (...)
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  49. Enlightened? As if!Jennifer Saul - 2010 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 18 (4):547-549.
  50.  43
    How Hate is Normalised.Jennifer Saul - 2017 - The Philosophers' Magazine 76:16-17.
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