<I>Off Beat: Pluralizing Rhythm </I>draws attention to rhythm as a tool for analyzing various cultural objects. In fields as diverse as music, culture, nature, and economy, rhythm can be seen as a phenomenon that both connects and divides. It suggests a certain measure with which people, practices, and cultures may comply. Yet, for this very reason rhythm can also function as a field of exclusion, contestation, and debate. In that respect, rhythm possesses an underestimated meaning-creating potential. Whereas its connecting force (...) is often accentuated in the aesthetic, political, and commercial usage of the term, the divisive aspect of rhythm is at least as important. This volume wants to rid rhythm of its harmless, nearly esoteric, reputation as a cosmic unifier by understanding it in the light of the contemporary medial turn. In the present collection of essays, we have encouraged approaches that combine political, aesthetic, musical, and theoretical dimensions of rhythm. (shrink)
Many philosophers are convinced that rationality dictates that one’s overall set of intentions be consistent. The starting point and inspiration for our study is Bratman’s planning theory of intentions. According to this theory, one needs to appeal to the fulfilment of characteristic planning roles to justify norms that apply to our intentions. Our main objective is to demonstrate that one can be rational despite having mutually inconsistent intentions. Conversely, it is also shown that one can be irrational despite having a (...) consistent overall set of intentions. To overcome this paradox, we argue that it is essential for a successful planning system that one’s intentions are practically consistent rather than being consistent or applying an aggregation procedure. Our arguments suggest that a new type of norm is needed: whereas the consistency requirement focuses on rendering the contents of one’s intentions consistent, our new practical consistency requirement demands that one’s intentions be able to simultaneously and unconditionally guide one’s action. We observe that for intentions that conform to the ‘own-action condition’, the practical consistency requirement is equivalent to the traditional consistency requirement. This implies that the consistency requirement only needs to be amended in scenarios of choice under uncertainty. (shrink)
This paper explores the analysis of ability, where ability is to be understood in the epistemic sense—in contrast to what might be called a causal sense. There are plenty of cases where an agent is able to perform an action that guarantees a given result even though she does not know which of her actions guarantees that result. Such an agent possesses the causal ability but lacks the epistemic ability. The standard analysis of such epistemic abilities relies on the notion (...) of action types—as opposed to action tokens—and then posits that an agent has the epistemic ability to do something if and only if there is an action type available to her that she knows guarantees it. We show that these action types are not needed: we present a formalism without action types that can simulate analyzes of epistemic ability that rely on action types. Our formalism is a standard epistemic extension of the theory of “seeing to it that”, which arose from a modal tradition in the logic of action. (shrink)
Was heißt es, einen literarischen Text zu interpretieren? Wie können Interpretationen begründet werden? Können wir mit Interpretationen Anspruch auf Erkenntnis erheben? Können Interpretationen wahr sein? In welcher Weise fließt das Wissen von Interpreten in ihre Interpretationen ein? Aus der Perspektive verschiedener Disziplinen suchen die Beiträge dieses Bandes Antworten auf diese und andere fundamentale Fragen, die sich mit der Interpretation von Literatur verbinden. Der einleitende Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über wichtige Themen und Probleme, die gegenwärtig im Hinblick auf die Theorie und (...) Praxis der Literaturinterpretation diskutiert werden. Die in den folgenden vier Sektionen versammelten Studien widmen sich unter anderem Fragen nach dem Interpretationsbegriff, der Geltung und der methodisch geleiteten Begründung von Interpretationen, den kognitiven Operationen beim Verstehen und Interpretieren von Literatur sowie den Problemen, die sich in der Praxis der Literaturinterpretation angesichts der spezifischen Beschaffenheit literarischer Texte ergeben. Vertreten sind die Fachgebiete der deutschsprachigen Literaturwissenschaft, Philosophie, Linguistik, Mediävistik, Anglistik und Computerphilologie. [What does it mean to interpret a work of literature? How can interpretations be justified? Can interpretations serve as a source of knowledge? Is it possible for interpretations to be true? How does the knowledge of interpreters contribute to their interpretations? The essays comprised in this volume look for answers to these and other fundamental questions regarding the interpretation of literature. The introduction provides an overview of the main issues and problems in contemporary debates on the theory and practice of interpretation. The articles are grouped into four sections and cover topics like the concept of interpretation, the validity of interpretations, the methods for justifying interpretations, the cognitive processes that are involved in understanding and interpreting literature, and address problems that arise in the practice of interpretation and in light of the specific characteristics of literary texts. The contributors to this volume come from a variety of disciplines such as literary studies, philosophy, linguistics, and the digital humanities.]. (shrink)
Der Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über zentrale Fragen und Probleme, die sich mit der Interpretation von Literatur verbinden. Zunächst (1.) werden interpretationskritische Positionen zum Anlass genommen, auf die Komplexität und Vielgestaltigkeit des in Rede stehenden Phänomens hinzuweisen und in diesem Zuge einige Parameter einzuführen, die für interpretationstheoretische Überlegungen relevant sind (Interpretations- und Bedeutungskonzeption). Anschließend (2.) werden Ansätze zur Bestimmung des Interpretationsbegriffs diskutiert und die Vielfalt verschiedener Interpretationstypen und -ziele hervorgehoben. Die folgenden Abschnitte führen in zentrale Themen der gegenwärtigen Interpretationstheorie ein. (...) Sie widmen sich den Fragen, (3.) ob es nur eine oder viele verschiedene legitime Interpretationen eines literarischen Textes geben kann, (4.) wodurch die Bedeutung literarischer Texte konstituiert wird, (5.) welchen Geltungsstatus Interpretationen besitzen und wie sie geprüft werden können, sowie (6.) an welchen Kriterien die Güte von Interpretationen bemessen werden kann. Abschließend (7.) wird anhand gegenwärtiger Publikationen und Forschungsprojekte ein Blick auf das Verhältnis von Interpretationstheorie und Interpretationspraxis geworfen. (shrink)
This is an excerpt from the contentThe Khmer Rouge Tribunal is charged with prosecuting senior leaders and those most responsible for mass crimes committed in Cambodia during the 1970s. It has a unique structure as a court formally embedded in the Cambodian domestic system but with international participation by the UN. Under the agreement between Cambodia and the UN, the Tribunal has been composed of both local and international judges. On July 19, 2007, the prosecutors submitted a list of five (...) persons to the Tribunal’s co-investigating judges and requested that they be indicted and brought to trial.The current volume III of a series of volumes in this collection provides for the final trial evidence submitted by the co-lawyers for civil parties and the final closing statements by the co-prosecutors as of 2009 in the trial of Kaing Guek Eav , chairman of Tuol Sleng prison, Security Center 21 where at least 12,272 ‘enemies of the revolution’ were sent to be “smashed” . T. (shrink)
Presented here is the German translation of Jan Patočka’s fragment Nitro a svět which was written in the 1940s and belongs to the so called „Strahov Papers“. The fragment reflects Patočka’s early attempts towards a thinking of subjectivity and the world. Thereby Patočka’s approach is phenomenological, but also integrates motives of German Idealism. The critical impact of the fragment lies in its orientation against the scientific biologism of its times.
We reproduce here forty previously unpublished letters sent by Jan Patočka to the Polish philosopher Krzysztof Michalski between 1973 and 1976. The letters to Michalski reveal his key role in motivating Patočka to formulate his ideas concerning the philosophy of history and present them first in a series of underground lectures in Prague and finally on paper in his last samizdat book, the Heretical Essays on the Philosophy of History.
To get distracted, to enclose and to give oneself. The Gesture of Transcendence in Jan Patočka The problem of transcendence can be traced throughout the whole work of Jan Patočka. The appeal to transcend our bonds to mere objectivity is a constant issue of his thought. It finds a new substantiation in the 1960s in his studies focusing on the meaning of the other as human being. The relation to the other person offers a special "occasion" or "place" of transcendence (...) and poses the challenge to transcend one's own particular setting. While in the mid-1960s Patočka maintains his earlier dramatic vocabulary to describe the process of transcendence, in the late 1960s his idiom becomes less vehement. Yet, it is precisely within this more "sober" framework that he symbolizes the process of transcendence with an emphatic turn to a "myth of the divine man" and its key metaphor of resurrection. To transcend means, for Patočka, always to liberate oneself from a state of self-distraction between things. However, in his late lectures, he briefly refers to a deeper layer, suggesting that this self-distraction has its "roots" in a self-enclosure or self-isolation, in the exclusive concentration on our own interests and in the illusion of our self-sufficiency. Transcendence, then, means to overcome this self-enclosure by means of a self-forgetting love. Are these rarely mentioned "roots" perhaps implicitly present in all Patočka's accounts of transcendence? (shrink)
Jan Łukasiewicz a élaboré un programme de recherche portant sur l’histoire de la logique. À son avis, la logique mathématique contemporaine (modern) est en continuité directe avec la logique formelle du passé. En conséquence, une interprétation correcte et fidèle des idées anciennes exige une application des outils logiques contemporains. Autrement dit, de bonnes études historiques sur la logique doivent consister à examiner la logique d’autrefois à travers les lunettes logiques contemporaine...
This paper describes the work of the Polish logician Jan Kalicki (1922?1953). After a biographical introduction, his work on logical matrices and equational logic is appraised. A bibliography of his papers and reviews is also included.
A unifying framework of probabilistic reasoning Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 1-4 DOI 10.1007/s11016-011-9573-x Authors Jan Sprenger, Tilburg Center for Logic and Philosophy of Science, Tilburg University, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, The Netherlands Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
The article focuses on the report of the International Workshop on “17th Century Polish Jesuits in China: Michal Boym, Jan Mikolaj Smogulecki, and Andrzej Rudomina” held at the University School of Philosophy and Education in Poland organized by the Monumenta Serica Institute. The author focuses on the Chinese philosophy lecture by Professor Shi Yunli about the influence of Smogulecki on Xue Fengzou, Chinese culture and science and their work on astrology and astronomy.