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  1.  56
    Peers Versus National Culture: An Analysis of Antecedents to Ethical Decision-Making.James W. Westerman, Rafik I. Beekun, Yvonne Stedham & Jeanne Yamamura - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 75 (3):239-252.
    Given the recent ethics scandals in the United States, there has been a renewed focus on understanding the antecedents to ethical decision-making in the research literature. Since ethical norms and standards of behavior are not universally consistent, an individual’s choice of referent may exert a large influence on his/her ethical decision-making. This study used a social identity theory lens to empirically examine the relative influence of the macro- and micro-level variables of national culture and peers on an individual’s intention to (...)
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  2.  59
    Effects of Justice and Utilitarianism on Ethical Decision Making: A Cross-Cultural Examination of Gender Similarities and Differences.Rafik I. Beekun, Yvonne Stedham, James W. Westerman & Jeanne H. Yamamura - 2010 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 19 (4):309-325.
    This study investigates the relationship between intention to behave ethically and gender within the context of national culture. Using Reidenbach and Robin's measures of the ethical dimensions of justice and utilitarianism in a sample of business students from three different countries, we found that gender is significantly related to the respondents' intention to behave ethically. Women relied on both justice as well as utilitarianism when making moral decisions. By contrast, men relied only on justice, and did not rely on utilitarianism (...)
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  3.  17
    Empathy as an Antecedent of Social Justice Attitudes and Perceptions.Matthew Cartabuke, James W. Westerman, Jacqueline Z. Bergman, Brian G. Whitaker, Jennifer Westerman & Rafik I. Beekun - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 157 (3):605-615.
    At the same time that social justice concerns are on the rise on college campuses, empathy levels among US college students are falling. Social injustice resulting from organizational decisions and actions causes profound and unnecessary human suffering, and research to understand antecedents to these decisions and actions lacks attention. Empathy represents a potential tool and critical skill for organizational decision-makers, with empirical evidence linking empathy to moral recognition of ethical situations and greater breadth of understanding of stakeholder impact and improved (...)
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  4.  17
    Effects of Justice and Utilitarianism on Ethical Decision Making: A Cross-Cultural Examination of Gender Similarities and Differences.Rafik I. Beekun, Yvonne Stedham, James W. Westerman & Jeanne H. Yamamura - 2010 - Business Ethics: A European Review 19 (4):309-325.
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  5.  53
    Spirituality and National Culture as Antecedents to Ethical Decision-Making: A Comparison Between the United States and Norway. [REVIEW]Rafik I. Beekun & James W. Westerman - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 110 (1):33-44.
    We investigate the cross-cultural relationships between spirituality and ethical decision-making in Norway and the U.S. Data were collected from business students ( n = 149) at state universities in Norway and the U.S. Results indicate that intention to behave ethically was significantly related to spirituality, national culture, and the influence of peers. Americans were significantly less ethical than Norwegians based on the three dimensions of ethics, yet more spiritual overall. Interestingly, the more spiritual were Norwegians, the more ethical was their (...)
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  6.  21
    Gauging the Ethicality of Students in Turkish Institutions of Higher Education.Rafik I. Beekun, Nihat Alayoğlu, Ali Osman Öztürk, Mehmet Babacan & James W. Westerman - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 142 (1):185-197.
    We investigated the ethical behavior of Turkish university students to compare the difference in ethical behavior between business students and non-business students, examine the impact of key contingency variables on how they make decisions when confronted with an ethical dilemma, and investigate the process underlying the ethical behavior of Turkish students. Data were collected from business students at a major private university in Western Turkey. The results indicate that a Turkish student’s peers, marital status, and education level exert a significant (...)
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  7.  3
    When Sustainability Managers' Greenwash: SDG Fit and Effects on Job Performance and Attitudes.James W. Westerman, Yalcin Acikgoz, Lubna Nafees & Jennifer Westerman - 2022 - Business and Society Review 127 (2):371-393.
    Business and Society Review, Volume 127, Issue 2, Page 371-393, Summer 2022.
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  8.  5
    The Sustainable Development Goals and Business Students’ Preferences: An Exploratory Study.James W. Westerman, Yalcin Acikgoz, Lubna Nafees, Emmeline dePillis & Jennifer Westerman - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics Education 17:99-114.
    To effectively teach the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals to enhance corporate social responsibility, we need to understand the predictors of business student predispositions towards the SDGs. We examine whether location, authoritarianism, religiosity, and individualism influence university business student SDG preferences. Results indicate authoritarian and religious business students emphasize SDGs with an orientation towards the health and economic well-being of their local communities. The results also indicate the most significant factor in predicting SDG preference was university location. Southeastern U.S. students (...)
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